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Full text of "Moralia, in fifteen volumes, with an English translation by Frank Cole Babbitt"

THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
t T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

t E. CAPPS, ph.d., ll.d. t W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, l.h.d. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soc. 



PLUTARCH'S 
MORALIA 

VII 



PLUTARCH'S 

MORALIA 

IN FIFTEEN VOLUMES 

VII 
523 c— 612 B 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
PHILLIP H. DE LACY 

WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY 

AND 

BENEDICT EINARSON 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLIX 



© The President and Fellows of Harvard College 1959 










/ 



1153689 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VII 

PAGE 

Preface vii 

The Traditional Order of the Books of the 

Moralia xiii 

On Love of Wealth — 

Introduction 2 

Text and Translation 6 

On Compliancy — 

Introduction 42 

Text and Translation 46 

On Envy and Hate — 

Introduction 92 

Text and Translation 94> 

On praising oneself inoffensively — 

Introduction 110 

Text and Translation 114 

On the Delays of the divine Vengeance — 

Introduction 170 

Text and Translation 180 

On Fate — 

Introduction 303 

Text and Translation 310 

v 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

On the Sign of Socrates — 

Introduction 362 

Text and Translation 372 

On Exile — 

Introduction 513 

Text and Translation 518 

Consolation to his Wife — 

Introduction 575 

Text and Translation 580 

Index 607 



VI 






PREFACE 

The text rests on a collation from photostats of all 
mss. known to us. a With Bernardakis we silently cor- 
rect such forms as axooxoAos and d/SekTrjpos. We have 
departed from all the mss. in aspirating Tr/x^i/os and 
related words (cf. the note on 606 f). The best and 
oldest mss. write avjot, ^XP 1 ) ^ptv^s, and e//7rAe(o 
(accusative singular masculine and feminine). We 
have therefore eliminated &xpi<s, /xeyjHS, ip&vvvs, 
€/x7rAecoi/, and the like from the text. Before conso- 
nants we retain the movable v wherever the mss. 
allow us to do so, and we follow their nearly unani- 
mous usage in the treatment of elision and the 
accentuation of kwrt. 

Several superior figures and letters are used in the 
textual notes : 1 indicates the reading of the first 
hand, 2 of the second, and so forth b ; c a correction 
by the first hand, ac the reading before such correc- 
tion ; ras a reading produced by erasure, aras the 
reading before erasure ; t a reading in the text, ss a 

° See our papers " The Manuscript Tradition of Plutarch, 
Moralia, 548 a — 612 b," Classical Philology, vol. xlvi (1951), 
pp. 93-110; and "The Manuscript Tradition of Plutarch, 
Moralia, 523 c— 547 f," ibid. vol. liii (1958), pp. 217-233. 

6 The superior letters vet and e indicate each an early- 
hand whose relation to the rest we have not ventured to 
determine. X d is the diorthotes of X. 

vii 



PREFACE 

superscribed reading, mg a reading in the margin ; 
and s a reading taken from a part of the ms. supplied 
by a later hand. A list of mss. cited follows ; the 
dating is that of the catalogues and later literature. 

A 1671 in the national library at Paris ; a.d. 1296. 
B 1675 in the national library at Paris ; 15th 

century. 
C 1955 in the national library at Paris ; llth-12th 

century. 
D 1956 in the national library at Paris ; llth-12th 

century. 
E 1672 in the national library at Paris ; written 

shortly after a.d. 1302. 
F 1957 in the national library at Paris ; end of the 

11th century. 
G 182 in the Barberini collection at the Vatican ; 

11th century. 
H 283 in the Palatine collection at Heidelberg 

University ; llth-12th century. 
I Excerpts in ms. 11360-63 in the royal library at 

Brussels ; 14th-15th century. 
J C 195 inf. (881) in the Ambrosian library ; 13th 

century. 
K 1309 in the Vatican library ; 14th-15th century. 
L 69? 13 in the Laurentian library ; 10th century. 
M Formerly 501 in the library of the Synod at 

Moscow ; 12th century. 
N Formerly 502 in the library of the Synod at 

Moscow ; 12th century. 
R 4458 in the Mazarin library at Paris ; 14th 

century. 
S 264 in the Vatican library ; 14th century. 
U 97 in the Urbino collection at the Vatican ; 10th- 

11th century. 



PREFACE 

V 427 in the library of St. Mark ; 14th century. 
W 129 in the collection of Greek philosophy in the 

national library at Vienna ; llth-12th century. 
W R 45 in the Riccardi library. It is cited for the 

missing pages of its original, W. 
X 250 in the library of St. Mark 5 11th and 14th 

century. The De fato is contained in the later 

portion. 

Y 249 in the library of St. Mark; llth-12th 
century. 

Z 511 in the library of St. Mark ; 14th century. 
3 Excerpts from the De se ipsum citra invidiam 

laudando in Johannes Diaconus' commentary on 

Hermogenes irepl /jlzOoSov Seivor^Tos in MS. 2228 

at the Vatican (14th century), 
a Q 89 sup. (689) in the Ambrosian library ; 15th 

century, 
b 18967 in the royal library at Brussels ; 15th 

century, 
e 199 in the Vatican library ; 14th century, 
f 26 in the collection of the Conventi soppressi at 

the Laurentian library ; 14th century, 
h 5612 of the Harleian collection in the British 

Museum ; 15th century, 
i 56, 4 in the Laurentian library ; 15th century, 
k 80, 28 in the Laurentian library ; 15th century. 

The De cupiditate divitiarum is found in MS. 80, 

29, also designated k, of the Laurentian. Both 

were once parts of the same ms. 
1 56, 5 in the Laurentian library ; 14th century, 
m E 10 sup. (271) in the Ambrosian library ; 16th 

century, 
n S50 III E 28 in the national library at Naples ; 

15th century. 

ix 



PREFACE 

p 178 in the Palatine collection at the Vatican ; 

15th century, 
q 1010 in the Vatican library : 14th century. 
r 41 in the Rehdiger collection at Wroclaw Univer- 
sity ; 16th century, 
s 1012 in the Vatican library : 1 1th century. 
v 46 in the collection of Greek philosophy in the 

national library at Vienna ; 15th century. 
w 36 in the collection of Greek philosophy in the 

national library at Vienna : 15th century. 
y 1009 in the Vatican library ; 14th century. 
a C 126 inf. (859) in the Ambrosian library : a.d. 

1294-95. 
/3 1013 in the Vatican library ; 14th century. 
y 1 39 in the Vatican library ; written shortly after A. 
€ 4690 in the national library at Madrid ; 14th 

century. 
£ Excerpts in ms. X I 13 of the Escorial ; 14th 

century. 
fj. 80, 21 in the Laurentian library : 15th century. 
77 80, 22 in the Laurentian library : written v except 

for folios 12 r -13 r ) by Filelfo. 
if 248 in the library of St. Mark ; a.d. 1455. 
s Excerpts in ms. <£ III 11 of the Escorial ; 16th 

century. 
v 98 in the Urbino collection at the Vatican ; 14th 

century. 
c/> 145 in the Este library at Modena ; 15th century. 

Aid.' 2 indicates conjectures found in the margins of 
certain copies of the Aldine. A copy in the Angelica 
^SS. 6. 17^ and one in the Vatican* I. 23 ascribe many 
of these to Leonicus, Donatus Polus. and Victorius. 
Our own conjectures are indicated by '» nos." 

To the translations of the entire Moralia listed in 



PREFACE 

vol. i (pp. xxviii-xxxi) may be added that of Victor 
Betolaud. a The essays in the present volume have 
all been rendered into Italian by various hands. 5 
Six have been rendered into English by A. R. 
Shilleto, c four into Spanish by Diego Gracian, d three 
into Dutch by J. H. Glazemaker,* two each into 
Dutch by J. J. Hartman / and A. J. Roster/ and 

a (Euvres completes de Plutarque: (Euvres morales et 
ceuvres diver ses. 5 vols. (Paris, 1870). 

b Alcuni Opusculetti de le cose morali del Divino Plutarco 
(Venice, 1543). Tarcagnotta translated the De cupiditate 
divitiarum, Massa the De vitioso pudore. In the Seconda 
Parte (Venice, 1548) of a later edition Tarchagnota translated 
the De invidia et odio, the De sera numinis vindicta, and the 
De exilio. 

Opuscoli Morali, di Plutarco (Venice, 1598). Marc' An- 
tonio Gandini translated the De sera numinis vindicta, De 
se ipsum citra invidiam laudando, De exilio, and De genio 
Socratis ; G. M. Gratij the Consolatio ad uxor em. 

Opuscoli morali di Plutarco, volgarizzati da Marcello 
Adriani il giovane. 6 vols. (Florence, 1819-1820). In the 
edition we possess (Milan, 1825-1829) the De genio Socratis 
is by Gandini, the De fato by F. Ambrosoli. 

c Plutarch's Morals : Ethical Essays (London, 1898). 
Not included are the De cupiditate divitiarum, De fato, and 
De genio Socratis. 

d Morales de Plutarco (Alcala de Henares, 1542). In- 
cluded are the De invidia et odio, De cupiditate divitiarum, 
De vitioso pudore, and De exilio. 

e Verscheide Zedige Werken van Plutarchus (Amsterdam, 
1661). Included are the De vitioso pudore, De invidia et 
odio, and De cupiditate divitiarum. For other early Dutch 
translations of the Moralia (many, like this, from Amyot), see 
M. Boas in Het Boek, vol. v (1915), pp. 1-10, 85-95, 229-240. 

f De Avondzon des Heidendoms (Zutphen, 1910-1912). 
The De vitioso pudore and De sera numinis vindicta are 
translated entire. 

9 Plutarchus : Bloemlezing uit de Moralia (Amsterdam, 
1954). Included are the Consolatio ad uxor em and the De 
sera numinis vindicta. 

xi 



PREFACE 

two each into German by O. Apelt a and K. Zieg- 
ler. b 

Our thanks are due to the University of Chicago 
and the trustees of the Loeb Classical Library for 
defraying expenses, to Professor M. Pohlenz and 
Dr. J. Mau for the loan of photostats, and to F. J. 
Whitfield, W. C. Helmbold, A. D. Nock, D. A. 
Russell, R. T. Bruere, and Hans Petersen for friendly 
help in various forms. Our greatest obligation we 
are debarred from expressing. 

Phillip H. De Lacy Benedict Einarson 

Washington University The University of Chicago 

a Plutarch, Moralische Schriften, Zweites Bandchen 
(Leipzig, 1926). Included are the Consolatio ad uxor em 
and De fato. 

b Plutarch Tiber Oott und Vorsehung, Damonen und 
Weissagung (Zurich, 1952). Included are the De sera numinis 
vindicta and the De genio Socratis. 



xn 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER of the Books of 
the Moralia as they appear since the edition of 
Stephanus (1572), and their division into volumes 
in this edition. 



PAGE 

I. De liberis educandis (Uepl natScov dycoyrjs) . 1a 

Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat 

(TLo)S Set tov viov noirjuaTajv olkovgiv) . . 17d 

De recta ratione audiendi (He pi tov d/cov'etv) . 37b 
Quomodo adulator ab amico internoscatur 

(IIcUS dv TVS 8LCLKpLV€l€ TOV KoAaKCl TOV </>lXov) . 48E 

Quomodo quis suos in virtute sentiat profectus 
(IIcS? dv tls cuadoiTO iavrov npoKonTOvros in* 
dp€T7j) ....... 75a 

II. De capienda ex inimicis utilitate (Ucjs dv tls 

V7T* ixQp&V 0)<f>€XoiTo) . . . . 86 B 

De amicorum multitudine (Hepl noXvfaXtas) . 93a 
De fortuna (Ilepl tvxIs) • • • • 97c 

De virtute et vitio (Ilcpt dpeTrjs koX /ca/a'as) . 100b 
Consolatio ad Apollonium (HapafjLvdrjTLKos npos 

* AnoXXcoviov) . . . . . 101f 

De tuenda sanitate praecepta ('Yyiavd nap- 

ayyeXfiaTa) . . . . . . 122b 

Coniugalia praecepta (TafiiKa napayyiXpiara) . 138a 
Septem sapientium convivium (Tcov inTa ao<j>wv 

avfxnoaLov) . . . . . .146b 

De superstitione (Ile/n SetatSat/xovtas) . 164e 

III. Regum et imperatorum apophthegmata ('Atto- 

<j>d£yp.aTa fiaoiXdcuv /cat OTpaTTjyojv) . . 172a 

Apophthegmata Laconica (' Ano^diypuaTa Aa- 

kcovlko) . . . . . . 208a 

Instituta Laconica (Td naXaia ran> AaKebaiftovicov 

int,T7]b€VfjiaTa) ...... 236f 

xiii 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



Lacaenarum apophthegmata (Aa/catvcDv diro- 

<j>0£ypLara) ...... 240c 

Mulierum virtu tes (TvvaiKaJv aperat) . . 242e 

IV. Quaestiones Romanae (Atrta 'PaytatVa) . . 263d 

Quaestiones Graecae (Atrta 'EXXrjvLKa) . . 29 Id 

Parallela Graeca et Romana (Lwaywyrj loro- 

pidv 7rapaX\ijXcov 'JZXXtjvikojv /cat 'Po>/Ltat/ca>v) . 305a 
De fortuna Romanorum (Ilept rrjs 'Po>/*atW 

rvxys) ....... 316b 

De Alexandri magni fortuna aut virtute, li- 
bri ii (He pi rrjs 'AAe^dVSpou rvx^js r) dperrjs, 

Xoyoifl') 326d 

Bellone an pace clariores fuerint Athenienses 
(Horcpov 'AOrjvaloi Kara 7roAep,oi> rj Kara oo<f>iav 
eVSofdrepot) ...... 345c 

V. De Iside et Osiride (Ilept "loiSos Kal 'Ocrt'ptSos) 351c 
De E apud Delphos (He pi rod EI rod eV AeXfots) 384c 
De Pythiae oraculis (He pi rod pui] xpaV ^pupierpa 

v\)\> rrjv UvOtav) ..... 394d 

De defectu oraculorum (Ilept rcov eVAeAot7roTo>i> 

XprjoTTjpicov) ...... 409e 

VI. An virtus doceri possit (Et StSa/CTov r) aperr?) . 439a 
De virtute morali (Ilept rrjs tjOlktjs dperrjs) . 440d 
De cohibenda ira (Ilept dopyrjotas) . . 452e 

De tranquillitate animi (Ilept €v9vp.ias) . . 464e 

De fraterno amore (Ilept <f>iXaoeX^ias) . . 478a 

De amore prolis (Ilept rrjs ets rd eKyova c/>iXo- 

OTopyias) ...... 493a 

An vitiositas ad infelicitatem sufficiat (Et 

avrdpKrjs r) KaKia irpos KaKohaipioviav) . . 498a 

Animine an corporis affectiones sint peiores 
(IIoTepov rd rrjs fax^S rj rd rod oa> pharos Trddrj 
X^ipova) . . . . . . . 500 b 

De garrulitate (Ilept aSoAecrxt'as-) . . . 502b 

De curiositate (Ilept 7roXv7rpaypLoovvr)s) . . 515b 

VII. De cupiditate divitiarum (Ilept <j>iXoirXovrLas) -. 523c 
De vitioso pudore (Ilept hvaaynlas) . . 528c 

De invidia et odio (Ilept cf>96vov Kal p.Loovs) . 536e 
De se ipsum citra invidiam laudando (Ilept rod 

iavrov iiraivelv dv€7ri<f>06va)s) . • • 539a 

De sera numinis vindicta (Ilept rwv vrro rod 

Oclov f$pao€a)S np,a)povpL€va)v) . . . 548a 

xiv 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 






PAOE 



De fato (Ilept elfiapfievrjs) . . . .568b 

De genio Socratis (tie pi rod HcoKparovs Saifiovtov) 575a 
De exilio (Uepl (/>vyrjs) . .... 599a 

Consolatio ad uxorem (HapapLvdrjTiKos irpos ttjv 

yvvaiKa) . . . . . . . 608a 

VIII. Quaestionum convivalium libri vi (Hu/ujrocna- 

KU)V TTpoPXrjfJLOLTCOV jStjSAta 5"') . . . 612c 

I, 612c ; II, 629b ; III, 644e ; IV, 659e ; V, 

672d; VI, 686a 
IX. Quaestionum convivalium libri iii (Eu/>t7ro<7ta- 

kGsv TTpo$kr\iLCLTUiv jStjSAta y') . . . 697c 

VII, 697c ; VIII, 716d ; IX, 736c 
Amatorius ('Epam/co?) . . . 748e 

X. Amatoriae narrationes ('Eporrt/cat Sirjyrjoeis) . 77 1e 
Maxime cum principibus philosopho esse dis- 

serendum (He pi rod on pidXtara rols rjyepLoaL 

Set rov <f>iX6cro^)ov StaAe'yeaflat) . . .776a 

Ad principem ineruditum (IIpos iJye/icW 

aiTaihevTOv) . . . . . . 779c 

An seni respublica gerenda sit (Et TrpeofSvripw 

7T0\lT€VT€0v) . . . . . . 7 83 A 

Praecepta gerendae reipublicae (IIoAtTt/cd 

7Tapayy4XfjLara) . . . . . 798a 

De unius in republica dominatione, populari 
statu, et paucorum imperio (Ilept piovapxias 
koX SrjpLOKpaTias /cat oXiyapxlas) . . . 826a 

De vitando aere alieno (Ilept rod firj Setv Savet- 

?ea0at) . . , . . . . 827d 

Vitae decern oratorum (Ilept rwv Se'/ca prjro- 

pu>v) . . . . . . . 832b 

Comparationis Aristophanis et Menandri com- 
pendium (HvyKpiaecos ' Apioro</>dvovs /cat M.ev- 
dvhpov €7nrofjL')j) ..... 853a 

XL De Herodoti malignitate (Ilept rrjs 'HpoSoVou 

KaKorjOetas) ...... 854e 

De placitis philosophorum, libri v (Ilept rcov 

apeoKovrcov rots <j)iXooo<f)ois , jStjSAta e') . . 874d 

Quaestiones naturales (Atrta 0i»crt/ca) . . 911c 

XII. De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet (Ilept tov 
€pL<f>aivop,€vov irpoooiiTov rep kvkXo) rrjs oeA^- 
vqs) t . . . \ / . . 920a 

De primo frigido (Ilept rod Trpoircos i/fvxpod) . 945e 

XV 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



XIII 



XIV. 



XV. 



PAGE 

Aquane an ignis sit utilior (Ile/n tov noTtpoV 

vhayp tj nvp xP r } m i jLC * )T€ P ov ) • » • • 955 D 

Terrestriane an aquatilia animalia sint callidi- 

ora (UoT€pa to>i> £a)cov (f>povi(AcoT€pa ra x^poata 

rj ra €vv8pa) ...... 959a 

Bruta animalia ratione uti, sive Gryllus (Ilepi 

rod ra dXoya Xoyw xPV ^ aL ) • • • 985d 

De esu carnium orationes ii (Ucpl oapKo<f>ayias 

AdyoijS') . . . . . . 993a 

Platonicae quaestiones (HXaTcoviKa ^Tjrrjfiara) . 999c 
De animae procreatione in Timaeo (TLcpl rrjs eV 

Tt/xata> ipvxoyovias) . . . . .1012a 

Compendium libri de animae procreatione in 

Timaeo ('Em-TO/Lt^ rov ncpl ttjs ev tw Tifxala) 

i/jvxoyovias) ...... 1030d 

De Stoicorum repugnantiis (Ile/n STan/caiv ivav- 

TLWfidrcov) ...... 1033a 

Compendium argumenti Stoicos absurdiora 

poetis dicere (Hvvoipis rod on irapaho^orepa ol 

HitojlkoI Tu>v TTon)TG)v Xiyovoi) . . . 1057c 

De communibus notitiis adversus Stoicos (Uepl 

ra>v kolvwv ivvoidv ixpos rovs ^tcoikovs) . 1058e 

Non posse suaviter vivi secundum Epicurum 

("Otl ovS* rjbecos £,f)v Zotl /car* 'Ei7TiKovpov) . 1086c 
Adversus Colotem (Ilpos KcoXwttjv) . . 1107d 

An recte dictum sit latenter esse vivendum (d 

koAcos €ipr)Tai to Xdde fiia>oas) . . . 1128a 

De musica (Hcpl ^ovglktjs) .... 1131a 
Fragments and Index 



XVI 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH 

(DE CUPIDITATE DIVITIARUM) 



VOL. VII 



INTRODUCTION 

The governing ideas of the essay On Love of Wealth 
are Aristotelian, though the source is ultimately Plato. 
Thus Plutarch quotes fragments of Aristotle (527 a) ° 
and of Theophrastus (527 b). In the Politics (i. 8-9, 
1256 b 26 — 1257 a 14) Aristotle distinguishes natural 
wealth, which consists of what is necessary to life or 
useful for the society of a city or household, 5 from 
non-natural wealth, which consists of money and is 
unlimited. It is on this distinction between the use- 
ful or necessary on the one hand and the superfluous 

a The fragment (no. 56 Rose) is based on the Euthydemus 
(280 b 5 — 281 e 5), where the distinction between not using 
wealth and using it, and between using it well and ill is drawn. 

6 This distinction between what is necessary to life and 
what is useful for the good life is probably implied in Plutarch's 
" necessary " and " useful." Plutarch does not dwell on the 
distinction, as this might have diminished the effect of his 
denunciation of unnecessary and superfluous wealth. In the 
Politics (vii. 5. 1, 1326 b 32-39) Aristotle points out that the 
standard for " utility " of possessions can be so restricted as 
to lead to meanness and so expanded as to lead to luxury. 

c Of. Plato, Republic, ii. 373 d 9 f., ix. 591 d 6-e 5 and 
[Andronicus] wept iradwv (p. 19 Kreuttner ; von Arnim, Stoi- 
corum Vet. Frag. iii. 397, p. 97. 18) : <j>i\oxpr}paria Se imOvpia 
axprjGTos rj (Wachsmuth wrongly excises axprjoros rj : cf. 524 f, 
525 b, f) afjL€Tpos xp-r\\xaro)v. Both Aristotle (1256 b 33 f.) and 
Plutarch (524 e) quote in this connexion the same verse of 
Solon. The variant in Plutarch (dvOpdjiroiaiv for dvhpdoi /cen-cu) 
is ancient (cf. Wilamowitz, Sappho und Simonides, pp. 270 f.) ; 
Plutarch is no doubt quoting from memory. 

2 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH 

on the other that Plutarch builds his arguments He 
has been influenced by several points in the discussion 
of liberality in the Nicomachean Ethics (iv. 1-3, 1119 b 
21 — 1122 a 17), whether directly or through the 
medium of some lost Peripatetic writing. Thus Aris- 
totle makes the prodigal better than the illiberal man 
(1121 a 18-b 14 ; 1122 a 13-16) ; compare Plutarch, 
525 f — 526 a. 6 In Aristotle illiberal men are of many 
kinds, some abstaining from the property of others, 
some not (1121 b 17—1122 a 13) c ; Plutarch dis- 
tinguishes the avarice of the ant from that of the 
beast of prey (525 e-f). We may further note that 
Aristotle (1121 b 12) calls illiberality incurable d ; 
Plutarch explains the case, but prescribes no regimen 
(524 d). Natural wealth is spoken of in the Eudemian 

° He does not ignore such uses of wealth as benefiting 
friends or munificence to one's country (525 c-d) ; these uses 
are however not stressed, but made incidental to the descrip- 
tion of the miser's life. 

b Contrast Plato, Republic, viii. 550 c — 562 a, where prodi- 
gality, as producing the democratic man, is implied to be 
worse than love of wealth, which produces the oligarchic 
man, and Laws, v. 743 b 4. Aristotle's limiting of the mean- 
ing of " prodigal " (1119 b 30 — 1120 a 4) and his rating of 
the prodigal above the illiberal man are doubtless corrections 
of Plato. In 527 a Plutarch says that the misuse of money is 
more injurious and shameful than the failure to use it. The 
idea is that of the Euthydemus (280 d 7, e 5-6), and doubtless 
came from the same lost work of Aristotle as the fragment. 
Here Aristotle and Plutarch had the prodigal sensualist in 
mind. 

c Cf. Plato, Laws, v. 743 b 5-8. 

d Aspasius (In Ethica Nicomachea Quae Super sunt Comm., 
p. 102. 3 f. Heylbut) on the passage interprets " hard to 
cure." The idea is found in Plato, Laws, v. 743 o ; see also 
Cicero, Tusc. Disput. iv. 9 (24). Galen (De Affectuum Di- 
gnotione, chap. x. 5) makes the insatiable desire for money 
incurable after forty or at the utmost fifty. 

3 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Ethics (iii. 4. 3-5, 1231 b 38—1232 a 10) ; here we also 
find the word airofioXiq as the opposite of acquisition 
(1231 b 29 f., 38 ; cf. dirofiakkovTas in Plutarch, 524 a), 
and the point that tKe prodigal falls short of necessi- 
ties (1232 a 9 ; cf Plutarch, 524 a).° 

Plutarch does not of course confine himself to the 
Platonic and Aristotelian remarks on the subject, but 
also avails himself of points made by Cynics and other 
philosophers ; reference to these will be found in the 
notes on the essay. 

The plan is simple. After an introduction in which 
Plutarch says that wealth cannot purchase happiness 
he passes to ordinary misers and prodigals and shows 
the disadvantages of their condition : in both the 
desire for goods and money is insatiable, while in 
misers it is in conflict with its satisfaction. From these 
he passes to rapacious misers and prodigals, and pro- 
nounces the latter less offensive. The excuse that 
misers save their money for their children is shown to 
be absurd. Another excuse for the rich, that some 
(unlike misers) make lavish use of their wealth, is re- 
futed by examining what is meant by " use." If the 
use is merely to obtain sufficiency, the rich are no 
better off than men of moderate means. If " use " is 
spending wealth on luxuries, wealth is a mere show 
and spectacle. The essay closes with a comparison of 
this theatrical wealth to the goods of philosophy. 

° Cf. Plato, Laws, v. 743 b 8. Unlike Aristotle (1119 b 30 
— 1120 a 4), Plutarch does not restrict the meaning of the 
word " prodigal." Aristotle here is criticizing Plato's use in 
Republic, viii. 560 e 2, 5. The source of many of Aristotle's 
remarks is Plato, Laws, v. 742 a ff. We note that Aristotle 
(1121 b 33 TTopvofSooKol) clears up the interpretation of poaKrj- 
fidrcjv aloxp&v (743 d 4), an expression that perplexed all 
commentators before Wilamowitz (Platon, ii, 1919, p. 399). 

4 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH 

The theme is discussed by Plutarch in the fragments 
On Wealth (Bern, vii, pp. 123 f.) ; he no doubt treated 
it also in the Protreptic to a Wealthy Young Man (No. 
207 in the catalogue of Lamprias), of which no identi- 
fied fragments survive. 

A certain exuberance and fancifulness in the diction 
would incline one to date the essay early in Plutarch's 
career. A Latin translation by Erasmus appeared at 
Basle in 1514, another by Richard Pace at Venice in 
1522. There is also a German translation by W. Ax. a 
Two French translations we have not seen. b The essay 
is No. 211 in the catalogue of Lamprias. 

The text is based on LC G Xv I W DZ</>ab y hki 
N M vw Ylq. Other mss., J asee, are cited for an 
occasional conjecture. 

° Plutarch Moralia, Leipzig, 1942, pp. 114-128. 

& Nouvelle Traduction de divers morceaux choisis des 
(Euvres morales de Plutarque, par M. l'abbe Lambert . . . 
Paris, 1763. 

Traduction de differents traites de morale de Plutarque, 
par M.***, Paris, 1777. Barbier attributes this version to the 
abbe Jacques Gaudin. 



(523) HEPI OIAOnAOYTIAS 

c 

1. 'iTTTTOfJLOLXOS 6 dXei7TTrjS €7TCUVOVVTO>V TWCOV dv~ 

D Opcorrov evfjbrJKT] Kal i±aKpas eypvra yelpas a>? 
ttvktikov, " eirrep," 1 ec^rj, l< KaOeXew eoet, rov are- 
cfxivov Kpefjudfjievov." 2 tovt eorw threw TTpos rovs 
rot KaXa ycopia Kal ras pbeydXas oiKias Kal to ttoXv 
apyvpiov* V7T€p€K7T€7T\r)yiL<EVovs Kal pLaKapi^ovras' 
el ye eoet 7ra)XovjJL€vrjv TrpiaaOai rrjv evoaifjio- 
viav!'\ [Kahoi noXXovs dv eiiroi* tls on pcaXXov 7 
ideXovoi 8 rrXovrecv koll KaKoSaLfiovovvres 9 ^ /xa/ca- 
pLot yeveodai Sovres 10 apyvpiov.) dXX ovk eon ye 
XP^f^drojv QJVLOV dXvrrLa pbeyaXocfrpoovvr) evardOeia 
OappaXeorrjs avrdpKeia. 

To 11 rrXovrelv ovk eon 11 to ttXovtov Kara^povelv 

E ovSe to 11 rd 12 Trepirrd KeKrrjadai to firj Setodat rcov 

TTepiTTCOV. (2.) TWOS OVV a77aAA(XTT€t TCOV dXXoJV 

1 €L7T€p C J 2 DZ<£ab M 2 vw q : /cat ye G ; aWe/). 

2 Kpefidfievov (rov Kp. ab)] rjojprjfjLevov C. 

3 ttoXv apyvpiov (and SO G 4 )] rroXvdpyvpov G 1 . 

4 Trpiaodai (and so G 4 ; irpiaoBai X N 1 ; TTpidaOai D N 2 ; 
opaoQai G 1 ) Tiyv €vb.] ttjv evo. irp. C. 

5 /cairoi] /cat W. 6 €177-01] t8ot C J 2 w 2 q. 

7 ort fji. D hkM : /x. ot J 1 ; ot /x. y Z<£(?} /x. a)bM 2 vw ; ix. 

8 ideXovoi (and so I)] eOeXovras C G q. 

9 KaKooaifiovovvres Xu I W y M 2 vw : KaKobaifiovelv C G 
DZ<£ab hki M 1 q ; KaKooaifiovelv ow N Yl. 

10 xta/caotot y. So^res] fiaKapiovs y. SoVras 1 C G I y q ; /xa/ca- 
otot? y. SoVres Xi>. 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH 

1. When some persons praised a tall fellow with a 
long reach as having the makings of a fine boxer, the 
trainer Hippomachus a remarked : " Yes, if the crown 
were hung up and to be got by reaching.' ' So too we 
can say to those who are dazzled by fine estates, great 
houses, and large sums of money and regard them as 
the greatest of blessings : " Yes, if happiness were 
for sale and to be got by purchase." (Nevertheless 
many cases could be cited of men who would rather 
be rich though miserable than become happy by 
paying money to be so.) But money cannot buy peace 
of mind, greatness of spirit, serenity, confidence, and 
self-sufficiency. 6 

Having wealth is not the same as being superior to 
it, nor is possessing luxuries the same as feeling no 
need of them. (2.) From what other ills then does 

a Mentioned in the Life of Dion , chap. i. 4 (958 c). He 
appears to have lived in the second part of the fourth century : 
cf. Athenaeus, xiii. 584 c. 

b Cf Horace, Epist. ii. 2. 155-157 : 

4 * at si divitiae prudentem reddere possent, 
si cupidum timidumque minus te : nempe ruberes 
viveret in terris te siquis avarior uno." 

11 to . . . eo-ri . . . to (vw omit the second to) : ra> . . . 

€V€OTL . . . TOJ DZ</>ab. 

12 to] C hkM omit. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(523) kolkcov 6 ttXovtos el jjl7]$€ ^lXottXovt ias ; dAAd 
ttotov 1 fiev eafieaev 2 rrjv ttotov ope^LV /cat rpo^rf 
rrjv* Tpocf>r)s emdvpbiav rjKeaaro 5 ' kolk€lvos 6 Xeyojv 

86s ^Aatvav *\7T7T(x)vaKTiy /copra yap ptycx) 

TrXeiovojv eTTL^epofJLevoJv 6 Svaavaaxerei /cat Sta>0et- 
rat' (f)iXapyvpLav §e ov ofievvvoiv apyvpiov ov$e 
Xpvalov, ov8e TrXeove^ia Traverai KTCopuevrj to TrXeov, 
dAA' eoriv timely irpos rov ttXovtov d)S TTpos' tarpov 
dAa£ova- 

to (f)dpfiaKov aov rr)v vooov /zet£a) notel* 

F dprov $€OfJL€Vovs /cat olkov 8 /cat OKeirrjs puerpias 
/cat rod rvxovros oi/jov TrapaXafStbv ifji7T€7TXrjK€v em- 
OvpLLas xpvcrov /cat dpyvpov /cat iXec/xxvros /cat Gfia- 

pdySojv /cat kvvcov /cat lttttojv, els ^aAe7ra 9 /cat 

/ * s ' 10 t >' Z) ^ » 

Giravia /cat ovoTropiora /cat axp^jcrra fierauets e/c 

tcoi> dvayKalcDV rrjv ope£iv. eirel tcjv ye dpKovvrojv 

ovSels Trevrjs iarlv, ovSe SeodVctorrat TTCJTTore dv- 

9pco7Tos apyvpiov tVa dX(f)Lra npiiyrai rj rvpov 11 r) 

dprov rj eXalas, dAAd rov puev ot/cta TToXvreXrjs 

524 xp€a>^€tAer7]v 7T677ot^/cev/ 2 to> Se opuopovv eAatd- 

1 7roTov hki and Antonii Melissa (PG 136 896 a) : Tro-ros G ; 

7TOTO>. 

2 'tafeatv D ac (-ere G hkM) : Zafeaav. 

3 rpo<^ C 1 G y hki N Y ras : rpo^rjv q ; Tpo^g (and so I). 

4 r^y] r^v rrjs C w. 

5 rjKeaaTO (17- X x u q ; -qKaaaro N)] r\Kiaavro I DZ<£ab M 2 vw l 2 . 

6 7rA. eVt^. is put after StajfleircH in C. 

7 a)? 7rpos C : cbairep. 

8 ot/cou] otvou I W. 

9 xaA€7rd] ^aA€7ro6rara LC. 

8 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 523-524> 

wealth deliver us, if it does not even deliver us from 
the craving for it ? a Nay, drink allays the desire of 
drink, and food is a remedy for hunger ; and one who 
says 

A cloak I beg : Hipponax is acold 6 

is annoyed when several are brought and rejects them ; 
but neither silver nor gold allays the craving for 
money, nor does the greed of gain ever cease from 
acquiring new gains. No ; one can say to wealth as 
to a pretentious physician : 

Your physic but increases the disease. c 

Finding us in want of a loaf, a house, a modest pro- 
tection from the weather, and whatever comes to 
hand to supplement our loaf, wealth infects us with 
the desire for gold and silver and ivory and emeralds 
and hounds and horses, diverting our appetite from 
the necessities of life to what is difficult, rare, hard to 
procure, and useless. Indeed in what suffices no one 
is poor d ; and no one has ever borrowed money to 
buy barley meal, a cheese, a loaf, or olives. Rather 
one man has run into debt for a splendid house, 
another for an adjoining olive plantation, another for 

a Cf. Teles, p. 35. 9-36. 1 (ed. Hense 2 ). 

b Hipponax, frag. 17 (ed. Bergk), 24 b (ed. Diehl) ; quoted 
also in Mor. 1058 d, 1068 b. 

c Kock, Com. Att. Frag, iii, p. 494, Adespota, no. 455. 

d Cf. Teles, p. 7. 4 (ed. Hense 2 ), Seneca, Ep. xxv. 4 (Epi- 
curus, Frag. 602 Usener), Favorinus, On Exile, col. 17. 1-2, 
Clement, Paed. ii. 14. 5 (p. 164 Stahlin 2 ), and P. Wendland, 
" Philo und die kynisch-stoische Diatribe " (in Beitrdge zur 
Gesch. d. griech. Philosophic und Religion, Berlin, 1895), pp. 
9-15. 

10 hv<J7TOpiOTa\ bvG€Vp€TOL KOLL hvOTTOplOTCL LC. 

11 TVp6v) TTVpOV LC 1 . 

12 7T€7TOLT)K€V W k N Yl (-*€ the Test) : CTTofycTC LC. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(524) (frvrov, rov Se acrtoves, 1 dpLTTtX&ves , dXXov rjfjLLovoi 
TaAaTLKal, dXXov Ittttoi t,vyo<f)6poi 

/cetV o^ea Kporeovres 

ZvoeoeLKaaiv els fidpaOpa 2 avpLJ3oXala)v /cat tokcov 
/cat VTTodrfKcov elra tbcrnep ol rrlvovres puerd ro purj 
hafjrjv rj iaOiovres fierd ro /jltj 7T€lvtjv /cat ocra 
Suftatvres t) rreivcbvTes eXafiov rrpooe^epLovoiv , ovrojs 
ol ro)v d^pr\OTOJV icfriefievoc /cat Treptrrcov ov8e rd)v 
dvayKaiojv Kparovoiv. ovroi p,ev ovv rotourot. 

3. Tovs Se fJbrjSev dnofiaXXovras 3 e^ovras Se ttoX- 
Xd nXeiovajv Se act 4 Seofxevovs en fiaXXov davpid- 
creiev dv 5 tis rov * ApioriTnrov jLte/xv^/xeVo?. e/cetvos" 
B yap elojOei Aeyetv on " 7roAAa /xeV rt? eadiojv 
7roAAa Se ttlvojv rrXrjpovpLevos Se ju/^SeVoTe rrpos 
tovs larpovs j8aSt£et /cat irvvdaverai tl* to 7rd6os 
/cat Tt9 17 Siddeais /cat 770)? aV aTraAAayet'r} • et Se 

Tt9 €^0)V 7T€VT€ /cAtVa? Se'/Ca ^T€t, /Cat K€KT7]p(,€VOS 7 

Se'/ca rpaire^as irepas avvojvelrai roaavras, /cat 
Xcjplcov ttoXXcov TTapovrwv /cat dpyvpiov ov ytVerat 
peoros dXXd €7?' aAAa avvrirarai /cat aypuTryet /cat 
a7rA')]/oa>Tds' iarrw iravrcov, ovros ovk otWat 8 Setaflat 
rou OeparrevoovTos 9 /cat $€l£ovtos u</>' 10 779 air las 

1 cnTa^es" (and SO G 4 ) : oirooiropov G 1 . 

2 fidpaOpa] fidpaOpov D aki ; fidOpov Z<£ab. 

3 d7ro/3aAAoj>Tas- (-dAo- b ; -es v)] 8taj8aAAovras > Xu y hki N Yl. 

4 77A. 8c del (7rA€toves del (£)] /cat 77Aeiova)y act L ; 7rAeioi>a)v del 
C 1 ; 7rAeiova>i> Se hki. 

5 dv] LC omit. 

6 Tt'MvwYl: the rest omit. 

10 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 524 

fields and vineyards ; and there are still others that 
Galatian a mules or a set of horses 

Rattling an empty chariot behind b 

have driven into a morass of bonds, usury, and mort- 
gages. And then, as those who drink when no longer 
thirsty, or eat when no longer hungry, vomit up with 
the surfeit the rest as well that was taken to satisfy 
hunger or thirst, so those who seek the useless and 
superfluous do not even retain the necessary. Such 
then is the condition of one sort of lover of wealth. 

3. Those on the other hand who part with nothing, 
though they have great possessions, but always want 
greater, would strike one who remembered what 
Aristippus said as even more absurd. " If a man eats 
and drinks a great deal," he used to say, " but is 
never filled, he sees a physician, inquires what ails 
him, what is wrong with his system, and how to rid 
himself of the disorder ; but if the owner of five 
couches goes looking for ten, and the owner of ten 
tables buys up as many again, and though he has 
lands and money in plenty is not satisfied but bent on 
more, losing sleep and never sated by any amount, 
does he imagine that he does not need someone who 
will prescribe for him and point out the cause of his 

° Or possibly Gallic. 

b Homer, II. xv. 453. " Empty " also means " vain." 

c C/. Xenophon, Symp. iv. 37. The comparison of misers 

to sufferers from dropsy — who though full of fluid desire 

drink — was first made by Diogenes : cf. Stobaeus, Anth. iii. 

10. 45 (p. 419 Hense with the note), and Teles, p. 39. 3 (ed. 

Hense 2 ). 

7 KoX (G 1 Omits) K€KT7)(JL€VOs] Kai T€KTT)vdfJL€VOS LC. 

8 ovtos ovk oterai] ovk oterat ovros LC. 

9 d€pGL7T€VGOVTOs] 6epaTT€VOVTOS LC. 

10 vf (and so LC)] df DZ^ab. 

11 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

(524) TOVTO 7T€7TOV0€V; " KOLLTOL TtOV SufjtOVTCOV 1 TOV jJL€V 2 
C OV 7T€7TtOKOTOL 7Tpoa8oKrjcr€L€V (XV TLS a7TaA\ayr)G€- 

odai ttlovtol tov Safjrjv, tov 8e ttlvovtol avvex&S /cat 
Lirj TTavofJievov ov TrXrjptooetos dXXd KaOdpaetos oto- 
ueda SelaOai /cat KeXevopuev ipbetv tbs z oi>x ^77' 
ivSelas oxXovpuevov dXXd tlvos SpLuvTrjTos rj Oep- 
fjborrjros olvtoj rrapd $voiv ivovcqs*- ovkovv kcu Ttov 

TTOpL^OVTtOV 6 fJL€V €v8e7JS KOI aTTOpOS TTtlVOCILT aV 

locos ovcriav 6 KrrjadjjLevos rj drjaavpov evptov rj <f>iXov 
PorjOtfoavTOS eKTiaas /cat dnaXXayels rov Savecarov, 
rov Se TtX^LOJ TtOV ikolvlov e^ovra kcu rrXeLovtov 
dpeyofjuevov ov 7 x? voiov ^gtIv ov8e dpyvpiov to 

depa7T€VGOV 8 Ol)S' L7T7TOL KOLL 7Tp6ftoLTOL KOLL j3o€S , dXX* 

D €K^oXr\s Setrat kcu Kadapuov. rrevla yap ovk 
€gtlv aAA' dTrXrjOTLa to irddos olvtov /cat </>lXo- 
ttXovtlci Sta KploLV <f)avXr)v /cat dXoyLOTov ivovoav 9 * 
rjv dv urj tls i^eXrjTOLL ttjs tfwxVS coarrep eX/JLLyya 

TrXoLTelOLV , 10 OV TTOLVOOVTOLL SeOfieVOL TtOV 7T€pLTTtOV, 
TOVT€CTTLV €7Tl6vjJLOVVT€S tOV OV StOVTat. 

4. "Orar loLTpos elaeXOtov rrpos avd pcoirov 11 ippLU- 
\xivov iv Tto 12 kXlvl6lco /cat crrevovra /cat urj jSouAo- 

1 tcov (G 1 omits) So/jojvtcov (-ov- N 1 )] tcuv Sli/jtjXcjv G 4 W. 

2 TOV fJL€v] fJL€V TOV LC 1 . 

3 ojs DZ^ab : the rest omit. 

4 ivovcrqs Z^abM vw : C 1 omits ; evoxXovarjs J 2 V p ; ixovcrrjs. 

5 TravoaiT av G (navocuTO y) : iraverat W w (navcTat 8e v) ; 

7TaVG€T0Lt. 

6 ovalav nos : eoriav. 7 ov] ou^t C vw q. 

8 9€pa.7T€vaov s (as Vasis had conjectured) : depanevov (-tvcov 
N 1 ; -€v6fX€vov v). 

9 ivovoav (ovaav C 1 )] ivovoa Dab hki M ras . 

10 eXfiLvOa (ZXpuyya Bern.) 7rXar€iav Haupt : eXiypua (£-) irXdyiov 
(and so G c m e ; G ac omits). 

11 claeXdojv (£X9a)v G 1 ) irpos av$.] TTpos avO. elceXdajv DZ^ab 
hki. 12 r$\ C omits. 

12 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 524 

distress ? " a Certainly in the case of sufferers from 
thirst you would expect the one who had had nothing 
to drink to find his thirst relieved after drinking, while 
we assume that the one who drinks on and on without 
stopping needs to relieve, not stuff, himself, and we 
tell him to vomit, taking his trouble to be caused not 
by any shortage in anything but by the presence in 
him of some unnatural pungency or heat. So too 
with money-getters : he who is in want and destitute 
would perhaps call a halt once he got an estate or 
discovered a hidden treasure or was helped by a 
friend to pay his debt and get free from his creditor ; 
whereas he who has more than enough and yet 
hungers for still more will find no remedy in gold or 
silver or horses and sheep and cattle, but in casting 
out the source of mischief and being purged. For his 
ailment is not poverty, but insatiability b and avarice, 
arising from the presence in him of a false and un- 
reflecting judgement c ; and unless someone removes 
this, like a tapeworm, from his mind, he will never 
cease to need superfluities — that is, to want what he 
does not need. 

4. When a physician visits a patient lying limp in 
bed, moaning, and refusing food, and on examining 

a Cf. Horace, Epist. ii. 2. 146-148 : 

" si tibi nulla sitim finiret copia lymphae, 
narrares medicis : quod quanto plura parasti 
tanto plura cupis, nulline faterier audes ? " 
6 Cf. the fragment On Wealth, xxi. 2 (vol. vii, p. 123 Bern.). 
For the idea that we can have enough of everything but 
wealth, cf. Aristophanes, Plutus, 188-197. The word " in- 
satiable " is frequently applied in Plato to wealth and the 
desire for it : cf. Republic, iv. 442 a 6-7, viii. 562 b 6, ix. 578 
a 1 ; Laws, viii. 831 d 4, 832 a 10, ix. 870 a 4-5, xi. 918 d 6. 
c Cf. Diels and Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 6 , ii, p. 190, 
Democritus, b 223. 

13 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(524) [Jievov rpocfrrjv XafieZv aifjrjrat koll dvaKpivrj teal evprj 
firj TTvpirrovra, " i/jvx^Krj vocros," 1 €<f>r] kclI aTrfjXdev 

OVKOVV KOLL TjfJL€LS OTOLV i8cOpi€V CLvSpCL Tip TTOpLOflCp 

E TTpoareTrjKora Kal tols dvaXoopLaoLV eTTLorevovra 
koX jjLrjSevos 2 €69 xP r }! Jiari(T l JL ° v vvvreXovvros alaxpov 
/Z77S' 3 aviapov (fyeihopCevov, olklols Se eypvra koX 
Xcbpas koll ayeXas koll avSpdiroSa ovv IpLarioLS, tl 

(j)rjGOpL€V elvOLl TOV OLvOpWTTOV TO 7Ta9oS* Tj 7T€VLCLV 
ifjV^KrjV ; €7T€L TTjV y€ Xprj/JLOLTLKTIV, CO? (f>7]0rLV 6* 

MeVavSpos*, els av cf)iXos drraXXd^eLev evepyerrjaas, 
rrjv Se ifjvxLKrjv €K€Lvrjv ovk av epLTrXijoeLav OLTTOLVTeS 
ovre L^cjvres ovre aTrodavovres. o9ev ev 77/009 rov- 

TOVS XeXeKTOLL VTTO TOV* HoXcOVOS 

ttXovtov 8' ovSev repfxa Tre^aafievov dv9pa)7TOLOiv 7 * 
F eVei tols ye vovv expvoLV 6 rfjs (frvaecos ttXovtos 

CUpLOTOLL KOLL TO T€pfJLOL 7Tap€GTL, Tjj XP e ^ a% Kaddnep 

Kevrpa) koll SiaoTr^xart. 7T€pLypacj)6[jLevov. 

'AAAa kolI tovto T7)s (pLXapyvplos lSlov eiTLdvpLLa 
yap €otl fxaxofxevrj irpos rrjv avrrjs ttXtjpojglv 9 ' at 
Se a'AAai Kal avvepyovoLV ovhels yovv 10 dnex^raL 
Xprfcreajs 11 oiftov Sta </>iAo*/aav ouSe olvov Si' olvo<f)Xv- 
yiaVy <hs xP r ]l JL( ^ TC0V drrexovraL 8lol ^tAo^p^/xariar. 

1 vooos (ion vooos C vet )] rj vooos DZ^ab. 

2 firjSevos DZ<£ab y M 2 vw q : firjoev. 3 /x^S'] Kal C. 

4 ctvai (C vet? adds to) tov dv6. (Pohlenz adds to) ndOos C : 
to (ti G ac ) irdQos clvai tov dvd. 

5 o] C omits. 6 tov] D 1? ab omit. 

7 dvOpcoTroLOLv (and so Theognis, 227) : dvopdoi k€ltoli Solon 
(and so Aristotle). 8 ttj xP € ^ a Z<£ab : tt}s xp € ^> 

9 irXrjpoooiv] €K7T\rjpa>oiv LC G 4 . 
10 yovv] ovv D. n xPV a€a)S Meziriacus : xP r ) <TT ^' 

Citharistes, Frag. 2 (vol. i, p. 108 Korte). 
6 The dead friend might leave a legacy. 

14 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 524 

and questioning him finds no fever, he pronounces the 
disorder mental and departs. We too, then, seeing 
a man absorbed in money-getting, moaning over his 
expenditures, and sticking at nothing base or painful 
that brings him money, though he has houses, land, 
herds, and slaves together with a supply of clothing, 
what are we to call his trouble but mental poverty ? 
For poverty in money is a thing from which a single 
friend, as Menander a says, could deliver a man by 
his bounty. But that other poverty of the mind 
could never be replenished by all his friends together, 
whether in life or death. 5 It is to such as these, then, 
that Solon's c words are well applied : 

No bourne of wealth is manifest to men, 

since for men of sense natural wealth does have a 
limit d and a bourne, which is drawn around it by 
utility as by a compass. e 

Another peculiarity t of the love of money is this : 
it is a desire that opposes its own satisfaction. 9 ' The 
rest actually aid their satisfaction : no one refuses 
good food because he has a weakness for it, or wine 
because he is fond of the bottle, as men abstain from 
using money because they love it. Yet how can it 

c Frag. 1. 71 (Anth. Lyr. Gr. z fasc. 1 Diehl) ; quoted by 
Aristotle, Politics, i. 3. 9 (1256 b 33) in the same connexion. 

d Cf. Epicurus, Sent. Sel. 15, Frag. 471 (ed. Usener) ; 
Philo, De Vita Cont. 17 (p. 48 Conybeare, with his note) ; and 
Seneca, Ep. xvi. 8-9 : " exiguum natura desiderat, opinio im- 
mensum . . . naturalia desideria finita sunt ; ex falsa opi- 
nione nascentia ubi desinant non habent." 

e A favourite expression : see Mor. 513 c and note. 

1 Insatiability was the first (524 d). These are peculiar to 
the love of money as contrasted to the desires for necessities, 
that is, for natural wealth. 

' Cf. Teles, p. 38. 3 f. (ed. Hense 2 ), and Mor. 519 c-d. 

15 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(524) kclLtoi ttojs ov iiaviKov ovSe oiKTpov to irddos ei tls 
IfjLarLCp fjurj 1 xpfj rai 8«z T ° ptyovv /JLrjSe dprco Std to 

7T€LV7]V fJL7]8e TrXoVT OJ Sid TO (f)iXoTrXoVT€LV, CtAA' €V 
TO IS QpCLOOJVlSoV KOLKols €OTW 
real » > \ / » >/ £ 2 **? £ /3 

525 rrap ejioi yap eoTiv evoov, efecrnv be lloi, 
/cat j3ovAop,aL tovO* ojs av ifjufiaveoTaTa 

epOJV TIS, OV* 7TOLW Se* 

— KaTaKAeLoas 7rdvTa 5 Kal KaTao^payccrdfjievos Kal 
irapapid iLiqoas* TOKiGTaZs Kal TTpayfxaTevTals aAAa 
ovvdyo) Kal Slojkoj, Kal ^uyo/xa^cD 7rpos tovs olk4- 
Tas 7rpos tovs yeajpyovs Trpos tovs xP ec ^ aTas — 

"A770AA0V, dvOpWTTOJV TIV 1 dOXlOJTepOV* 

iopaKas; 9 ap no epcovTa SvoTTOTfiMTepov ; n 

5. f Ho(f)OKXrjs ipoJTrjdels el SvvaTac yvvaiKi 
ttXtjct career, " ev^fJiet, dvdpojTre," etrrev " eXevdepos 
yeyova XvTTcovTas Kal dyplovs heoiroTas Sid to 
yrjpas drro<f)vyojv. )y ydp iev 7^p 12 ( *l Jia ra ^ rjoovals 
B gvv€kX€L7T€lv 1z Tas eiriOvLiias, as pffyre rjvpev [Lev 
(/>7]olv 'AA/caio? 14 LL-fjTe yvvaiKa. tovto Se ovk eoTiv 

1 t/xartaj fjur)] fj,rj t/xartco LC e N 2 ; ifiarla) C 1 N 1 . 

2 yap ioriv cvhov G 3 DZ^ab M vw : cVSov G 1 ; yap loriv evhov 
evSov. 3 €^€gtlv Se Reiske : If cart (evhov lort Wilamowitz). 

4 ov (followed in G by an erasure of 2 letters)] tovto LC c . 

5 7rayTa LC ac vw : Se iravTa. 

6 ftapapid^rjoas (and so G 4 )] aTTapidjArjoas C e G 1 Z<£abM 
vw 1. 

7 rtv' Meineke : tiv y ; tlvol G Z<£ab q ; tlvol (riva C) dAAoi> 
C 3 D hki; riva. 

8 ddXicoTcpov LC DZ^ab y hki : d0Aia>raToi\ 

9 d#A. icjpaKas (eopa/cas" Porson) : ecop. d#A. D hki. 

10 dp' ce (dpa W 1 ; dpa) : i) C e DZ^ab hkH. 

11 SvoTTOT/AtoTepov y (-drepor G 3 and the rest ; hvcnroTtpov v 
[Sua and a lacuna of 4 letters w]) : BvavofjLCJT€pov G 1 . 

16 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 524,-525 

be called anything but madness and misery when a 
man refuses to put on a cloak because he is cold, to 
eat a loaf because he is hungry, or to use a wealth 
because he loves it, and is instead in Thrasonides' 
plight : 

My love is in my house, no law forbids ; 
And never lover in the wildest passion 
Had better will to do it, but I don't b — 

I've put away everything under lock and seal or laid 
it out with money-lenders and agents and yet I go on 
amassing and pursuing new wealth, and I wrangle 
with my servants, my farmers, my debtors — 

Merciful Heaven ! Have you ever seen 

A man more wretched or more crossed in love ? c 

5. Asked if he was able to enjoy a woman Sopho- 
cles d replied : " Hush, fellow, I am now a free man, 
delivered by old age from a set of mad and cruel mas- 
ters." For it is a happy thing that when pleasures fail 
desires should fail as well, which Alcaeus e says . . . 

° Cf. Teles, pp. 33. 4-34. 5 (ed. Hense 2 ) ; Horace, Sat. 
ii. 3. 104-110. 

& Menander, The Rejected Lover, frag. 5 (vol. i, p. 127 
Korte). 

c Menander, The Rejected Lover, frag. 6 (vol. i, p. 128 
Korte). 

d Cf. Plato, Republic, i. 329 b-c, quoted also in Mor. 788 e ; 
cf. further the allusion in Mor. 1094 e. 

e Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec* iii, p. 183, frag. 108. 

12 yap C 4? DZ^ab hki : the rest omit. 

13 OVV€k\€LTT€IV G 1 M VW Z OVV€KXt7T€LV (6kXl7T€LV y). 

i* rjtpev (so G 1 W [ V v- N] Yl; rjSpe LPC 1 M ; etptXv v q) 
fiiv (f>. (variously accented ; fiev <j>. 6 LC 1 ) aXKaios] appeva (/>. 
olXkolos y ; evpoifii <j>. aXKaios w ; avbpa <j>. olXkolos $ia<f>vy€iv G 3 
DZ^ab hki ; dvhpa hua^vyelv <f>. 6 aXKaios C 3 ; evpeiv (or evprjv) 
<l>. 'AXKaios Post. 

17 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(525) €77t rrjs (friXoTrXovrias , aAA' djOTrep 1 /Japeta /cat 
TTLKpa hioTToiva Kraadai fiev aVay/ca^et, yprjoOai Se 
KcoXvet, /cat rrjv /xev eVt#Lyztai> eyetpet, rrjv Se rjoo- 
vrjv acfxupeiTdL. tovs jiev ovv 'PoStous" 6 Hrparo- 

VLKOS €7T€GKC07TT€V €IS TToXvTeXeLCLV , Ot/CoSoUetV fJL€V 

cos aOavdrovs Xeycov / oipcovelv Se ojs oXiyoxpovtovs' 
oi Se (fnXdpyvpoi ktcovtoli puev ws TroXvreXets, y^pGiv- 
rai Se cos* dveXevOepoi, /cat tovs /xev rrovovs vtto- 
fjLevovcL, ra? Se rjoovas ovk k'xovaiv. 6 yovv 2 
C ArjfidSrjs €7Tiords dpiorcovTi ttot€ Z Qcokicovi /cat 
deaodfxevos avrov rrjv rpdire^av avarrjpdv /cat 

XlT^V, " OaVfld^W (J€, c3 t&OJKLCOV," €L7T€V, ' OTl 

ovtojs dpiGT&v Swdfievos 7ToXiT€vrj." clvtos yap et? 
rrjv yaarepa iSrjfjLaycbyeL, /cat rds 'A^vas* piiKpov 
rjyovjjLevos rrjs daojrias i(f)6$LOV e/c rrjs Ma/ceSovt'as 

€7T€atTt ^€TO . (/Cat Sta* TOVTO ^AvTlTTCLTpOS €L7T€ 0€a- 

odfjievos avrov yepovra KaQdirep Upeiov Sta77e77pa- 
yfjLevov 6 fjbTjSev ert Xolttov t) r^v yAcoaaav etVat 6 /cat 
r^v KoiXiav) ere Se ou/c aV rts*, a> /ca/coSat/xov, 
Oavpidaeiev, et owdfjievos ovra) ^rjv dveXevdepcos 7 
/cat diravOpooTrcos /cat a^eraSoraJS* /cat Txpos </>t- 
D Xovs dnrjvws /cat 7rpcW 77oAtv d(f)iXoTijJLOJs /ca/co7ra- 
0et9 /cat aypfwet? /cat epyoXafiels /cat /cA^povo/xets 
/cat V7totti7tt€iSj TTjXiKovTOV e^cov rrjs aTrpaypLO- 
ovvrjs e<f)6oiov, rrjv dveXevdeptav ; Bv^dvriov tlvol 
Xeyovoiv errl ovopLopcfra) yvvaiKi /xot^ov evpovra 

1 aWco] cjs LC ; to? yap I (beginning an excerpt). 

2 o youy] o /Lt€V ow ? G 1 . 

3 7tot€ (or 7roTe)] G 1 omits. 

4 Std (or ota and so G 4 )] G 1 W omit. 

5 bi,aTT€TTpayfjL€vov] 8ia7T€TrpafjL€vov G ac ' hi. 

6 rj , . . etvat] €ti>at 77 rqy yAtoTrav LC. 

7 £i}v dveX.] £,rjv /cat aveA. Z<£ ; dv'eA. J-^i; G. 

18 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 525 

nor woman.® But it is otherwise with avarice : like 
an oppressive and vexatious mistress it compels us to 
make money but forbids the use of it, and arouses the 
desire but cheats us of the pleasure. Stratonicus in- 
deed rallied the Rhodians for lavish spending, saying 
that they built as immortals and furnished their tables 
as if soon to die. & But while lovers of money acquire 
it as lavish spenders, they use it as churls, and endure 
the pains, but do not get the pleasures. Thus Dema- 
des once found Phocion at luncheon, and remarked, 
observing the austerity and plainness of his table : " I 
am astonished, Phocion, that when you can stomach 
such food you engage in politics." For Demades 
himself played the demagogue to fill his belly, and 
regarding Athens as no adequate provision for his 
prodigality laid in supplies from Macedon as well. 
(Hence Antipater, d seeing him in his old age, said 
that like a carcass when the butchers had finished, 
nothing remained but the tongue and the gut.) As 
for you, unhappy wretch, is one not to be astonished 
that living as you do — a miser, unsocial, selfish, heed- 
less of friends, indifferent to country — you neverthe- 
less suffer hardships, lose sleep, engage in traffic, 
chase after legacies, and truckle to others despite this 
abundant provision for a life of ease, your meanness ? 
We hear that a certain Byzantine said on finding an 
adulterer with his ill-favoured wife, " Poor fellow ! 

The Greek is corrupt. 

6 Said of the Argentines by Empedocles in Diogenes 
Laert. viii. 63, by Plato in Aelian, Var. Hist. xii. 29 ; of the 
Megarians by Diogenes in Tertullian, Apol. 39, and without 
mention of the author in Jerome, Epist. 123. 15. Cf. Aris- 
totle in Diogenes Laert. v. 20. 

c He was in Macedonian pay. 

d Cf. Life of Phocion, chap. i. 3 (741 f) ; Mot. 183 f. 

19 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(525) €L7T€lv, " co raXairrcope / ris dvdyKa; 2 oaTTpa yap a 

Tpv£." 3 dye GV KVKqS V(f)d7TT€lS,* CO 7Tovrjp€, TOVS 

PaacXeZs ea Tropi^eoOou, 5 tovs emTporrovs rcov jSa- 
ocXecov, tovs iv rats TroXeoiv Trpcoreveiv /cat dp^ziv 
iOeXovras* €K€lvols dvdyKrj Sid rrjv </>tAortjU,tav /cat 
rrjv 6 aAa£ovetav kclI rrjv Kevrjv oo£av iorricocnv x a ~ 
pL^ofievois oopvcfropovcjiv 7 Scopa tt€[17tovolv Grparev- 
/xara rpecpovouv fiovofiaxovs covovjievois* gv oe 
togclvtcl Trpdypbara avyxeis 8 /cat rapdrreis 9 /cat orpo- 
jSets oeavrov 10 /co^Atou jSt'ov £cov Sta rrjv puKpoXo- 
yiav, 11 /cat ra $VG)(€prj rravra vrropLeveis ovoev ev 
iraGyoyv, coorrep ovos fiaXavecos £vXa /cat cf>pvyava 
KaraKOfiLC^cov, del kolttvov /cat recfrpas aVa77t/Z7rAa/x€- 
vos, Xovrpov oe jJLT] fxerexcov fjL7]oe dXJas firjSe /ca- 
OapeiorrjTOS. 

6. Kat ravra ere 12 irpos ttjv dvcoSrj /cat fJivp- 

jxrjKcohri Xeyerai Tavrrjv 1 * cfriXoirXovTiav erepa Se 

ioTW rj 1 * 6r)picbhr)s, ovKocfravrovoa /cat KXrjpovojJiovoa 

F /cat TTapaXoyic^ofJievr] /cat TToXyrrpayfiovovaa 15 /cat 

1 a> TaAatVcope] LPC 1 omit. 

2 dvay/ca Nauck from ilfor. 235 e : dvdyKrj (dvdyKTj dvdyKTj 

Mac), 

3 aa7Tpd yap a rpv£ Nauck : oanpayopa (-d>pa y ; npayopa v ; 
oanpd J 2 ce) Trpotf (-npoi^ or 7rpoif G ac y hki N Z^abM 2 w q). 

4 dye (dye X ; a ye v DZ^ab y hki) gv kvkqs (avKas G 1 ; gv 
KVKas W Y ac ; gv kolkws y ; gvkvkvk&s M ac ; ovyKvfids w) 
v(f>d7TTets (-r)S D ac ; e^ameis X ac [?] ; u<£' diTTrjs N) : a yc ctvs 
kvkq, e<f>dTTTei gv; Post. 

5 ea iTop. Reiske : nop. oei DZ^ab ; iropit.eGOai. 

6 tt)v LC G W : the rest omit. 

7 OOpV<j)OpOVGlV W ("CTt C vet G 3 DZ^ab VW) t OVG<f>OpOVGL 
LC 1 ; hojpO(j)OpOVGL (-glv N Y). 

8 C7t>yx € fr D : Gwex€is (defended by Post). 

9 Kai rapdrreis] LC omit. 

10 Geavrov Gk Xu y Z^abM 2 : eavrov, 

20 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 525 

What drives you to it ? The dregs are foul ! " a . . . b 
unhappy man ! Let kings and royal stewards and 
those who would be foremost in their cities and hold 
office engage in money-getting. These are driven to 
it, their ambition and pretension and vainglory compel 
them, engaged as they are in giving banquets, be- 
stowing favours, paying court, sending presents, sup- 
porting armies, buying gladiators. But you stir up 
this vast turmoil of affairs and harass and distract 
yourself when for meanness you live the life of a 
snail, and you put up with every discomfort and get 
no good of it, like a bathhouse keeper's ass c that 
carries faggots and kindling, always foul with smoke 
and ashes, but getting no bath or warmth or cleanli- 
ness. 

6. We have been speaking of this avarice of the 
ass or ant. d But there is another, the avarice of 
the beast of prey ; it runs to legal blackmail, to the 
pursuit of legacies, to cheating and intrigue and 

a Cf. Mor. 235 e and the proverb : " You must drain the 
dregs with the wine " (Aristophanes, Plutus, 1085, and 
Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroem. Gr. ii, p. 212), 

b The Greek is corrupt. 

c In a somewhat similar connexion Aristotle speaks of 
a richly caparisoned horse (Protrepticus, frag. 37 Rose, 3 
Walzer). Aristo of Chios (cf. Gnom. Vat. no. 120, ed. Stern- 
bach) compares the rich and miserly to asses loaded with gold 
and silver but eating fodder. Cf. also P. Wendland, Anaxi- 
menes von Lampsakos, p. 94, note 1. 

d Cf. Crates, frag. 10. 7 (Diels, Poet. Philos. Frag. p. 220). 

11 t,0)V 8td TT)V fJ,.] Sid TTJV fl. £<Sl> LC. 

12 ravra ert G : ravra (ravra fi€v Wilamowitz). 

13 Acycrcu tolvttjv LC 1 w : Acycrat G ; Xdyer {XiyoiT* J 2?ss ) dv 
rr)v W ; Xiye ravrrjv Xu D y hkM N Mv Yl (ravrrjv Xcye q) ; 
Aeyco Tavrr^v Z^aba 2 (Aey€ ravra a 1 ). 

14 i}] DZ<£ab omit. 

15 /cat Trap, /cat iroXynpayiAovovaa] D N omit. 

21 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(525) (frpovTi^ovaa Kal dpidpLovaa tcov cf>LXcov en ttogoi 
I^coolv, elra Trpos fir]8ev diToXavovaa tcov Tiavraxd- 
6ev TTpocnropL^ofievcov. coarrep ovv e^iSva? Kal kclv- 
dapioas Kal cfraXdyyia [xaXXov TTpofiaXXopieOa /cat 
Sua^epatVo/xev dpKTCOv koX XeovTCov, otl KTelvei Kal 
airoXXvoiv dvOpcoTrovs 1 firjSev 2 ^pai/xeva toZs clttoX- 

XvpUEVOlS VTT* aVTCOv', OVTCO 8eZ [JL&XXoV 8vGX^pClLV€LV 

tcov Si 5 docoTiav tovs 81a paKpoXoyiav Kal dveXev- 
deptav* Trovrjpovs' dcfxupovvrai yap aXXcov ols avrol 
526 XPV G ^ aL Wk SwjDtvrai fJbrjSe TrecpvKaoiv. odev 
€K€lvol fxev e^ce^ei/nav ayovoiv ev dcpdovots yevo- 
jjbevoi kol x°P r \y' iav ex ovr€ s [cooTrep 6 ArnjLoaOevrjs 
eXeyev* Trpos tovs vo/jli^ovtols ttjs Trovqpias tov 5 
ArjfjidSrjv 7T€7ravo9ai, 6 " vvv yap/' ecfirj, " fxeoTOV 
Spare Kaddirep tovs Xeovras "). rols 8e els fJLrjSev 
rj8v fJLTjSe 7 xP 7 ] <JL l Jiov TToXtrevofievois ovk eoriv dva- 
kojx'T] rod rrXeoveKrelv ovSe da^oAia KevoZs ovoiv 
del Kal Trpooheojxevois dirdvrojv. 

7 . " 'AAAa vrj Aia/' <f>rjoeL tls ore " iraLcrlv ovroi 
Kal kXtjpovojjlols (frvXarrovoi Kal diqoavpi^ovoiv / 
B ols 8 ^cbvres ov8ev 2 pLeraSiSoaoriv, aAA' covirep tcov 
fjivcov tcov ev toZs pueTaXXois ttjv xP va ^ Tlv eoQiovTCOv 
ovk eoTai tov xP vu ' lov /-teraAajSetv el /jltj veKpcov 
yevopuevcov 10 Kal dvaT\ir\devTCov ; naiol oe. Kal kXtj- 
povofjiois 8ta tl 11 fiovXovTai TToXXa xPW- ara KaL 
/jLeydXrjv 12 ovoiav aTroXmeZv ; 13 Iva SvjXovotl Kal 

1 aV0p<x)7TOVs] TOVS dvdpd)7TOVS C. 

2 fjLTjdev] fjL7]de G 1 . 3 Kal dveXevOcptav] C 1 omits. 

4 eXeyev y N aras ? Y (-ye) : C omits. 

5 tov] Trpos rov W N Yl ; C 1 omits. 

6 SrjfjLdSrjv (so G v 1 W D 2 y hki vw; Brjfidbr)) ttztt.] TTt-navodai 
hir) fx6.hr) C. 

7 r)ov firjhk (and SO G 4 )] r)8v /cat G 1 ; rj Y ac . 

22 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 525-526 

scheming, it counts the number of friends still alive, 
and after all this puts the ill-gotten wealth to no use. 
Thus as vipers, blister-beetles, and venomous spiders 
offend and disgust us more than bears and lions, be- 
cause they kill and destroy men without using what 
they destroy, so too should men whose rapacity 
springs from meanness and illiberality disgust us 
more than those in whom it springs from prodigality, 
since the miserly take from others what they have no 
power or capacity to use themselves. Hence prodi- 
gals call a truce once they are affluent and well pro- 
vided for (as Demosthenes said to those who imagined 
that Demades had ceased to be a scoundrel : "At 
present you see him like the lions, glutted ") a ; where- 
as in those who follow no policy of pleasure or utility 
there is no suspension of greed or distraction from it 
by more pressing claims, as they are forever empty 
and still want the whole world. 

7. Someone will say, " But they preserve and lay 
up their goods for children and heirs.' ' When in their 
lifetime they give them nothing ? Nay, as with the 
mice that eat the gold ore in the mines, b the gold 
cannot be had until they are dead and laid open. 
And why do they desire to leave children and heirs 
an accumulation of money and a great estate ? Plainly 

° The phrase recurs in the Life of Alexander, chap. xiii. 
12 (671 b), and Life of Demosthenes, chap, xxiii. 6 (856 f). 

6 Cf Theophrastus, frag. 174. 8 (ed. Wimmer) ; Pliny, 
N.H. viii. 57 (222). 

8 ots] ttcjs' ols DZ<£ ; 7Ttos, ot ab. 

9 ovSc^] ov$€vo$ G 4ss DZ^ab ; ovSevl G 4 . 

10 yevofidvcov] yivoixivcov D 1 vw. 

11 rl (and so G 4 )] tovto G 1 . 

12 fieydX-qv (and so G 4 )] G 1 omits. 

13 a7roAirr€iv] airoXzLiTeiv G 1 . 

23 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(526) ovtol <j)V Xolttcoglv irepois kolk€lvol ttoXiv* a)G7T€p 
ol K€pafJL€OL acoXrjves ovSev dvaXapLpdvovres ei? iav- 
tovs aAA' €Ka<JTOs €ts erepov ef eavrov fjuedtels d\pi 
dv tis e^coOev *J) GVKotfidvrrjs rj rvpavvos eKKOifjas 2 
tov (f)vXdrrovTa Kal Kard£as 3 aAAa^ocre 7Taparp€ifjr] 
kolI Trapo^erevorj tov ttXovtov, rj, Kaddnep Ae- 
C yovGiv, els o 4 7Tov7]p6raros iv rep yevei yevofxevos 
Kara(/)dyr) ra 7rdvTO)V ov yap fiovov Kara tov 
1 Evpi7Ti8r]v 

aKoXaur a/xeAia 5 yiverai 8ovXa>v reKva 

dXXd Kal 6 pLLKpoXoyajv, cos 1 ttov /cat 7 Aioyevrjs kni- 
OKCjoipev 8 elncbv Meyapecos dv 9 dvSpos jSeArtov etvac 
Kpiov fj vlov yeveoOac. Kal yap ots Sokovgl irai- 
SeveLV drroXXvovoL Kal TrpoaSiaarpe^ovaLV 10 ifjL(f)VT€v- 
ovres rrjv 11 avrwv faXapyvpiav Kal puKpoXoy lav, 12 

OJG7T€p T6 13 (f>pOVpiOV TTJS KXr]pOVO[JLLaS €VOlKo8o~ 

[jLovvres rots KXrjpovopLOLS. ravra yap Igtiv a 
rrapaivovaL Kal SiodoKovcriv " KepSauve Kal cf)€t8ov, 
Kal togovtov vofJLi^e Geavrov 1 * dtjiov ooov dv €^9." 
tovto 8e ovk €gtl Trai8ev€LV dXXd GVGreXXetv Kal 
D aTToppdrrreiv djGirep (iaXXavriov tva Greyeiv /cat 15 

1 irdXiv Emperius : iraiolv (and so G 4 ; iraciv mG 1 ). 

2 iKKoipas] -iftas by G 4 in an erasure. 

3 Kardtjas (and so G 4 )] KaraKoipas G 1 ; Karard^as X y 
KCLT€d£as I D ; Kardy£as Z<^ab. 

4 o] DZ^ab omit. 

5 aKoXaor dfjueAlq nos (aKoXaor ct/zeAeiat G 1 )] aKoXaaO* ojiiXziv 
Diog. Laert. iv. 35 ; aKoXaora D hki vw ; d/co'Aaara nkv (and 
so G 4 m &). 

6 dXXd Kal €e : /cat. 

7 cos 7tov Kal (ottov Kal v)] tbo7T€p Kal W (a)GTT€p 6 i) ; cos Kal D. 

8 €7T€(JKa>lp€v] a7T€GKC0l/j€V C. 

9 av (and so G 4 )] G 1 W omit ; yap v. 
24 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 526 

that these may preserve it for others, and these for 
still others, like earthen pipes, taking nothing for 
themselves but each conveying to another what it re- 
ceives, until some outsider, an informer or tyrant, cuts 
off and shatters the keeper of the wealth, thus inter- 
cepting and drawing off the flow of riches, or (as the 
saying goes) the one member of the family who turns 
out worst consumes the property of all. For not only 

The sons of slaves are wanton from neglect, 

as Euripides a says, the sons of misers are so as well, 
as Diogenes doubtless implied in his taunt : " Better 
to be a Megarian's ram than his son." b For by the 
very means whereby they suppose that they are 
training their children, misers ruin them instead and 
warp their characters all the more, implanting in 
them their own avarice and meanness, as though 
constructing in their heirs a fort to guard the inheri- 
tance. For their admonition and instruction comes 
to this : " Get profit and be sparing, and count your- 
self as worth exactly what you have." c This is not 
to educate a son, but to compress him and sew him 
shut, like a money bag, d that he may hold tight and 

* Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Eur. 976, p. 675. 

6 Cf. Aelian, Var. Hist. xii. 56 and Diogenes Laert. vi. 41. 

c Cf Horace, Sat. i. 1. 62 with Heinze's note. 

d The money bag is worth no more than what it contains : 
cf. Stobaeus, Anth. iv. 31. 33 (p. 744. 9-12 Hense), and Seneca, 
Ep. lxxxvii. 18 with Teles, p. lxxxiii (ed. Hense 2 ). 

10 7TpoGhiaarp4^)ovoLV (and so G 4 )] hiaorp£<j>ovoiv G 1 D. 

11 tt)v (and so G 3 )] G 1 omits. 

12 fXiKpoXoyuav] ty]v jjl. DZ<£. 

13 rt ee : ovv ti (ovv to [?] G 1 ; dv ti Vasis) ; D omits. 

14 oeavrov] aavrov DZ^ab hki. 

15 /cat] T€ Kai C G. 

25 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(526) (f)vXdrT€iv to ela^Xrjdev Svvqrai. kclltoi to fiev 
fiaXXdvriov ifjL^Xrjdevros 1 rov dpyvpiov yiverai pv- 
rrapov kolI SvcrtoSes, ol Se tcov <f)iXapyvpcov TralSes 
rrplv rj rrapaXapL^dveiv 2 rov ttXovtov dvarripLTrXavTaL 
rrjs (fyiXoirXovrias drr* avrcov tcov rrarepcov. Kal 

fJL€VTOL KCLL StSdOTCaAta 3 Kal* jAlodoVS d^LOVS OTTO" 
TLVOVGLV aVTols, OV <f)lXoVVT€S OTL TToXXd XrjlfjOVTCLL, 

dXXd jJLioovvres on pafjTTCO XapL^dvovotv . firjSev yap 
dXXo 8av/jid^€LV rj rov ttXovtov 5 jxadovres /JtrjSe err* 
aXXcp tlvI c^rjv rj ra> 77oAAa K€Krfjo9ai kcoXvglv tov 

IStOV jStOU TOV 6 €K€LVCOV TTOIOVVTCLI, Kal VOfJLL^OVCTLV 

avrtov d^aipelodai 1 rov xpovov ooov €K€lvols rrpoo- 

E TidrjGLV. StO KOLI L^COVTCOV fl€V €TL TCOV TTCLTepOJV 

Xavddvovres apLcooyerrcos TrapaKXeTTTovcri 8 rrjs rjSovrjs 

KCLL aTToXaVOVOlV LOCTTTep dXXoTpLCOV, fJL€Ta8l8oVT€S 

(filXois, dvaXioKovres els imdvpLtas, ert 9 aKovovres , 
en 10 fJLavOdvovres. 11 OTCLV oe dnodavovTCov tcls kXels 
TrapaXdfitooi Kal tcls o<f)payZoas , erepov fiiov oyfipLa 
avrois eon kclL TTpoocorrov dyeXaarov , avorrjpov, 
dvevrevKTOv ov KoXocf)cov , 12 ov o^alpa, ov rpaxrj- 
F Xlct/jlos, ovk 'A/caS^/xia, ov AvKeiov, aAA' olk€tcov 
dvaKpiois koll ypajjifiareicov 13 eirlaKeifjis Kal irpos 
oLKovojJiovs rj xpecboTas StaXoy torpids Kal dayoXia 

1 iixpXrjdevros (and so G 3 )] eK^XyjOevTos G 1 ; elafiXrjdevTOS 
7j</> N. 2 7TapaXafJLpdv€iv (7reptA. i)] Xa/jL^dveiv W 1. 

3 Kal StSacr/caAta nos : /cat StSaa/caAta (-eta J 2 ) W ; rrjs Stoa- 
oKaXias. 4 /cat] C G Xu y hki q omit. 

5 aAAo . . . ttXovtov] aAAo tcov dXXcov (tcov dXXcov expunged by 
C vet? ) rj tov 7tX. davfi. C. 

6 tov iotov fliov tov DZ^ab : tov avToov (av- C vet? ) fitov tov 
C ; Br) ovv tov avTcov ftiov tov G 3 (tou, fiiov, tov superscribed) ; 
fiiov tov M 2 vw q ; [Siovvtcov y ; 817 ovv avTcov G 1 !^ 1 ; Br) ovv ov 
tcov hi ; Set ovv ov tov Xu W N (Set [Set 1] ovv ov tov Yl); M 1 
omits. 

26 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 526 

keep safe what you have put in. But whereas the bag 
gets dirty and foul-smelling only after the coin has 
been stored in it, the children of misers, before touch- 
ing the money, catch the taint of avarice directly 
from their fathers. Note, however, that the young 
pay them for this instruction in the right coin, not 
loving their fathers because they are to inherit a 
fortune, but hating them because they have not got 
it already. For having been taught to look up to 
nothing but wealth and to live for nothing but great 
possessions, they consider that their fathers' lives 
stand in the way of their own, and conceive that time 
steals from them whatever it adds to their fathers' 
years. Hence even when the father is still alive the 
son behind his back finds one way or another to steal 
some pleasure from the money and spends it as if he 
had no interest in it, giving it to friends and lavishing 
it on his appetites, when still attending lectures and 
still at his studies. But when at his father's death 
the son takes over the keys and seals, his way of life 
is altered and his countenance becomes unsmiling, 
stern, and forbidding. Here is an end of . . ., a of 
ball-playing, of wrestling, of the Academy and the 
Lyceum. There is instead the interrogation of ser- 
vants, inspection of ledgers, the casting up of accounts 
with stewards and debtors, and occupation and worry 

a kolophon is unexplained and possibly corrupt. 

7 a<j>aip€LoBai\ togovtov d<f>. DZ^ab ; av d<f>. hki ; dva<f>. N. 

8 TTapaK\eiTTOVoi\ /cat it. C ; Trapa^Xiirovai W. 

9 ert Wyttenbach : on. 10 en Madvig : rl (n G 1 ). 

11 fxavddvovres (and SO G 3 )] piavddvovoiv (-ox G 1 ) C vet? X 3ss 
Z<£ab M vw. 

12 ov ko\o4>o}v {-u)<f>ajv W <j> l ac ; -o(f><hv [L illegible] C G Xu 
w[?J) : ov KoXvfipos (?) ; ov KoXa^tajjuos ? Post. 

13 ypafi[jiaT€Lajv DZ^ab (-tciov y) : ypafifidroiv, 

27 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(526) /cat cfrpovrls d^aipovfievrj to aptarov /cat ovveXav- 
vovoa vvktos els to fiaXaveZov , 

yvjjivdoLa 8' olaiv everpdcfrr] Atp/c^s* d' 1 v8a>p 

TraptbSevTOLL' ko\v eurrrj tls, " ovk olkovotj 2 tov (f)iXo- 
a6(f)ov ; " " irodev epioi ; " (frrjoiv " ov a^oAa^co 
rod Trarpos redvrj koto?." ai raXaiTrcope, ri ool 
tolovto KaraXeXonTtv otov 3 d(f)r) prjr ai y * rrjv oxoXrjv 
/cat rrjv eXevQepiav ; jjl&XXov Se ouSe 5 eKeZvos dXX' 
6 ttXovtos Trepixvdels /cat Kparrjaas, tboirep r] Trap* 
< Hol68co yvvrj 

527 ev€t arep SaAou 6 /cat copLco 7 yrjpa'C Sa>/cei>, 8 

too7T€p pvrlSas dtopovs rj rroXids inayaycbv rfj 
4* v Xff T( ^ s> <f>povTihas €K ttjs (f)iXapyvpias /cat ras* 10 
doxoXias, vcf)' cSv /zapatVerat to yavpov /cat to 

(f)tXoTLfJLOV KCLL TO (f)iXdv6 ptOTTOV . 

1 t ovv ; cprjoei tls, ov% opqs /cat xpa>- 
jjievovs ivtovs SaiffiXtos toZs xPVl JLa(JiV ! " av §^ 
ovk aKoveis, (^rjoofxev, * KpiOTOTeXovs XeyovTOS otl 
ol puev ov xP^ )Vrai y OL * °^ TTapaxptovTcu, 12 KaOdrrep 

OvSeTtpOV TTpOOTjKOVTOS 'y 1 * dXX €K€LVOVS fl€V OVK 

tbcfreXeZ to OLKeZov ovSe Koofiet, tovtovs he /cat 14 
pXa7TT€L /cat /carata^uvet. 

1 6* «e : T€ or re. 2 aKovar) Stephanus : aKovotis. 

3 otov (and so C vet? )] oirep C 1 ; 'o y. 

4 a<f>r} p7]Tai] a<f>aip€iTai DZ^ub hki ; d<f>alp7]rai N. 

5 ovSe] ovk DZ<£ab y. 

6 SaXov (so Mor. 100 e)] haXolo G Xv W y hi N q. 

7 unto C G Z^ab hki (and Mor. 100 e) : eV oyza) (evofxco N). 

8 Sa>K€v Gk (Soi/ce Mor. 100 e) : Otjkcv. 

9 rrj fpvx^j DZ^ab : rrjs tftvxrjs. 

10 ras Wilamowitz : rrjs (v omits). 

11 (frrjcrei G DZ<^ab y hki M 2 vw q : foal. 

12 ov xp<ovrai ol Se TTapaxp&vrai DZ^ab : XP- °i &* Karaxp&v- 

28 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 526-527 

that deny him his luncheon and drive him to the bath 
at night. 

The place of exercise where he was schooled 
And Dirce's fount a 

are passed by ; and if someone says, " Are you not 
going to hear the philosopher ? " the answer is, " How 
could I ? I have no time b now my father is dead." 
Poor soul ! What has your father left to compare 
with what he has taken away, your leisure and your 
freedom ? Rather it is not he, it is your wealth, that 
overwhelming and overpowering you, like the woman 
in Hesiod c 

Singes without a brand and ages ere your time, 

bringing upon the mind like premature wrinkles and 
grey hairs the cares and distractions that come from 
avarice, whereby all high-heartedness and keenness 
and friendliness are blighted. 

8. " Well," someone will say, " do you not observe 
that some people do make lavish use of their money ? " 
To this we shall answer : And have you not heard 
from Aristotle d that some fail to use it, others use 
it ill, neither course being right ? But whereas the 
first get no good or glory from what they have, the 
others actually get harm and disgrace from it. 

° Euripides, Phoenissae, 368. 

6 For wealth preventing the study of philosophy cf. Teles, 
pp. 45. 2-46. 6 (ed. Hense 2 ), and Seneca, Ep. xvii. 3. 

c Works and Days, 705 ; quoted also in Mor. 100 e. 

d Frag. 56 (ed. Rose) ; cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap. iii. 2 
(279 b). 

rat y u ; XP- °* &* °v XP^ iVTai y lss ? Karaxpcovrai ol Se ov \p. J 2 ; 
\p. ol he 7rapa^pajvrat. 

13 TTpOOTjKOVTOS (and SO G 3 )] TTPOOTjKOVTOS aXkoV 7TpOOrJKOVTOS G 1 . 

14 /cat] C 1 omits. 

29 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 



' <&€p€ Srj GK€lfja)fJL€6a TO TTpOJTOVy Yj 1 XPV GL? avrr J 



St' fjv Oavfjid^erai 6 ttXovtos, tls ; 2 Trorepov rcov 
apKovvrcov ; ov8ev ovv z TrXeov eypvaiv ol 7tXovglol 
rcov fjLerpia k€ktt]ijl€VCov, aAA' " dirXovros " o 4 ttXov- 
tos eoTiv, cos (f>rjai ,@€ocf)pOLOTOS, /cat " d^rjXog " 
dXrjdcos, €t KaAAt'a? ttXovglootoltos 5 'AOtjvollcov /cat 
^GfJLrjvlas 6 ®rj[3oLLCov eviropcoraros expoovro tovtols 
ols HcoKpdrr)s koll 6 'ETra/zetvaVSas'. cos yap 'Aya- 
Ocov tov avXov aTTeirepLifjev e/c tov GvparoGiov npos 
rds yvvaiKas , oldfievos ap/cetv tovs Xoyovs tcov 

TTCLpOVTCOV, OVTCOS d7TOTT€ jJLifj €taS dv 1 KCLL GTpCOfJLvds 

dXovpyovs* kcli TpaTTe^as TroXvreXels koll ra rrepLrrd 
rrdvra, tovs ttXovglovs opcov ^pco/xeVou? ols ol 9 

f '10 

7T€V7]T€S' KOLL 

C OLLlfjd KZ 11 7Tr)8dXLOV [JL€V V7T€p KOLTTVOV KOLTadeLO, 

epya 

S' ov 

ftocov 12 drroXoLTO /cat rjpLLovcov raXaepycov lz 

aAAd 14 xP vao X°' OJV KCLl Topevrcov koll pLvpeifjcov /cat 
fjuayelpcov, KaXfjs /cat oco(f)povos yevopLevrjs ^vr]- 
Xolglols rcov dxprjvrcov . el Se ra fxev dpKovvra 

1 Tj] TLVCOV TLS T) DZ^ab. 

2 rts] DZ<£ab omit. 

3 ovv G 3 DZ<£ab : the rest omit. 

4 aAA' ottXovtos 6 C vet X 3 Z^abM 2 : dAAd ttXovtos (-aros N) 
d (dAAd rv<f>X6s D). 

5 7t\ovo.] 6 ttXovo. DZ<£ab y hki. 

6 Kai] kclI apiOTO<j>avqs Kal C 1 . 

7 aTTOTrefjapeias av DZ^ab : d7707re/z</f€iai> (-etas G 3 y ; -eiev i 2 
V ac ; aTTOTriy^s'r] av C vet ). 

8 aXovpyovs (or d- ; -ovs Z lss )] aXovpy€is D C Z U ; dXXovpycls 
D ac (-ovs ^). 

30 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 527 

Come, first let us consider what is this " use," for 
which wealth is highly regarded. Is it the use of 
what suffices ? Then the rich are no better off than 
men of modest means, and wealth, as Theophrastus a 
says, is "no wealth " and in truth " unenviable," b if 
Callias, the wealthiest man of Athens, and Hismenias, 
the richest of Thebes, got the same use of what they 
had as Socrates and Epameinondas. For as Agathon 
dismissed the flute-players from the banquet to the 
women's quarters, holding the conversation of the 
company to be sufficient entertainment, so too 
might you dismiss purple coverlets and expensive 
tables and all superfluities, when you see that the 
rich have the same service as the poor, and 

Soon you'd hang the rudder o'er the hearth 
And all for nought would be the patient toil 
not 

Of ox and mule d 

but of goldsmith, enchaser, perfumer, and cook, once 
we had been wise and sober enough to expel all that 
is useless from our state. 6 But if even those who are 

a Frag. 78 (ed. Wimmer) ; cf. frag. S6 f , from the Life of 
Lycurgus, chap. x. 2 (45 c), and Mor. 679 b. 

b Cf. Mor. 226 e and 679 b, and Leutsch and Schneidewin, 
Paroem. Gr. ii, p. 253. 25. 

c Cf. Plato, Symposium, 176 e and Protagoras, 347 c-d. 

d Hesiod, Works and Days, 45-46, also quoted in Mor. 
157 f. 

e Cf. Life of Lycurgus, chap. ix. 4 (44 e). 

9 ol] kclI oi DZ(/>ab. 
10 kolI] ovk Z^abM 2 ; ov koi X 2 ; D omits. 

11 K€] T€ D. 

12 8' ou poa>v D : fioa>v S* (and so Hesiod). 

13 toA.] oi raX. G 4 . 

14 dAAa] dAAa /cat G 3 y. 

31 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(527) kolvol Kal 1 tlov pbr) 2 ttXovgiojv icrrlv, aefjuvvverai Se 

6 TrXoVTOS €7Tt Tols 7T€piTTOLS Z Kal TOV 2/C077<IV TOV 

eaoaAov eTraivets, 09 atTrjueis tl tojv Kara 
ttjv oiKiav cos" Trepirrov ovtoj 9 Kal axprjoTov , " dXXd 
fJLijv," €((>?), " tovtols iofiev ^/zeis evSaijJLoves Kal 
D (JbaKapiot rots TTepirrols, dXX ovk eKtlvois rois 
avayKaiois," 6 pa fjirj 7TOfJL7rf)V liraivovvTi Kal 7rav- 
iqyvpiv pL&XXov 7) fiiov eoiKas. 

H TT&TplOS TOJV AlOVVOLOJV €OpT7j TO TToXaiOV 

iirepLTreTO Stjijlotlkcos Kal IXapcos' dfufropevs olvov 
Kal KXrjjjLaTLS, eira Tpdyov tis efA/cev, dXXos loya- 
8ojv appi^ov rjKoXovdei KOfJLt^ojv, em iraoi Se o 
<j)aXX6s. dXXd vvv raura irapopaTai 10 Kal rjc/jdvLorTat 
XpVGOJjjLaTOJV TrapacfrepofJLevojv 11 Kal i/xaricov ttoXv- 
TeXojv Kal £,evya)V iXavvojJievojv Kal Trpooameioyv 
ovtoj 12 to, avayKala tov ttXovtov Kal xprjcrtfia tols 
axprjcrTOLS KaTaKexoJGTac Kal toXs irepiTTols. (9.) ol 
E Se rroXXol to tov TrjXejjidxov Trdoyp^v Kal yap 
€Kelvos vtto drreipias jjl&XXov Se 13 aTreipoKaXLas ttjv 
jjl€V NeWopo? ISdjv OLKtav KXuvas e^ovaav, Tpaire- 
£as, IfiaTia, arpco/xara, olvov rjSvv, ovk ifxaKapc^e 

1 /cat] DZ ac omit. 2 ^ DZ<£ab : the rest omit. 

3 7r€piTTols C Gk Z</>ab y : Trepiaaols. 

4 tov 0.] put after eV. in C. 

5 €ttoliv€ls D c (from -rjs) : iTraiviaeis C Z<£ab w ; iiraiveoais 
G 3 (-crcr-X)u W hki M Ylq ; i-naivioas G 1 N v (y is wanting). 

6 os T)Z<f>ab hki M vw Yl : the rest omit (y is wanting). 

7 ti] yap tl C 1 G 3 (y is wanting). 

8 tojv] Kal tojv C. 

32 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 527 

not rich equally possess enough for their needs, where- 
as wealth plumes itself on luxuries, and you approve 
of Scopas a the Thessalian, who when begged for some 
article in his house on the ground that there it was 
superfluous and not put to any use, exclaimed : 
" Why it is just these articles of superfluity, and not 
the indispensables, that give me the name of enviable 
and fortunate," you must look to it or you will be like 
one who gives his approval to a pageant or a festival 
rather than to the business of living. 

Our traditional festival of the Dionysia b was in 
former times a homely and merry procession. First 
came a jug of wine and a vine branch, then one cele- 
brant dragged a he-goat along, another followed with 
a basket of dry figs, and the phallos-bearer came last. 
But all this is nowadays unregarded and vanished, 
what with vessels of gold carried past, rich apparel, 
carriages riding by, and masks : so has what is neces- 
sary and useful in wealth been buried under what 
is useless and superfluous. (9.) But we are most of 
us like Telemachus. In his innocence, or rather want 
of taste, when he saw Nestor's house with its couches, 
tables, clothes, coverlets, and pleasant wine, he ex- 
pressed no admiration for one provided with all that 

° Cf Life of Cato the Elder, chap, xviii (346 f— 347 a). 
For the rural Dionysia of Attica cf Aristophanes, Achar- 

ans, 247 if. M. P. Nilsson (Studia de Dionysiis Atticis, 
Lund, 1900, p. 91) believes that Plutarch is comparing the 
Attic festival, known to him through his reading, with the 
festival as celebrated in great cities in his own time. 

9 ovrcj] avrtp Bryan. 

10 Trapopdrai] napecoparai D. 

11 7Tapa(j>€pofjL€va)v] 7T€pL<f>€pofjL€vcov C 1 G 3 DZ<£ab q. 

12 OVTO) C M 3 1 : KCLL OVTOiS D ? OVTCDS. 

13 Se] S* Z^ab ; 8e vtt* G 1 (8k vtto y ar ). 

vol. vii c 33 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(527) tov evTTopovvra tojv avayKaicov rj /cat 1 xprjcrLficov, 
Trapa Se rep MeveXdcp deaodpievos eXe^avra koll 2 
Xpvaov koll rjXeKrpov e^eTrXdyrj /cat etWv 

Z^vds 1 ttov TotT^Se y ^OXvpariov evSodev avXrj* 
Sacra ra8' aaireTCk rroXXd* cre/3a9 /x' e^et elaopo- 
covra. 

YiWKpdriqs S' av €ltt€V r) z daoyevrjg- 

ocrcra raS' 4 dOXca iroXXd 

/cat a^p^ara /cat pudr aca m 



F yeXcos 



> »/ 



yeAco? /x e^et etaopocovra. 

tl Xeyeis dfieXrepe; rrjs yvvaiKos ocfyeiXoov Trap- 
eAetv t^v 7Top(f)vpav 5 /cat rov Koapuov tva TravarjraL 
Tpvcf)<A)(ja /cat £evopLavovoa, rrjv ot/ctav 7rdXiv /caA- 
XcjJTTL^eis (hs Oearpov rj dvpieXrjv rot? elacovai; 

10. TotauT^v d ttAoutos* evSaipLovtav e'^et, fewtw 

/cat pbaprvpcov r) 6 to purjSev ovaav. 7 opboiov 8 ye to 

o uo(f) pov elv , to <j)iXoGO(f)e.Zv , 9 to yivdooKeiv a Set 7T£0t 

528 #£ojv /cav 10 XavOdvrj irdvTas dvOpojirovs* loiov Se 11 

aeXas e^ct /cat cfreyyos 12 iv tt} 13 faxf] p<€ya /cat ^apav 

1 17 /cat] /cat C ; 17 /cat raw u D ; 77 i w. 

2 /cat] rocrov /cat G. 

3 r)] ^ *at Z<£ab M v (D y are wanting). 

4 ra8' hki : rd ye G ; r' 1 ; Ta y (D y are wanting). 

6 nap. rrjv nop.] -n^v nop. nap. C. 

6 rj] of? Set naoiv ep.no ixneveiv olvtov rj DZ^ab ; ee omit. 

7 ovaav] eoriv D. 

8 ofjLOiov] dAA' ovx ofxotov DZ<£ab. 

9 0tAoCTo</>€tv] <f>iXeZv C 1 . 

10 kcLv (/cav X ; /cdv N)] dAAd /caV D ; a /caV Pohlenz. 

11 Se] D omits ; yap ee. 

34 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 527-528 

was necessary or useful ; but when he visited Mene- 
laiis and beheld ivory, gold, and amber, he was struck 
with amazement and cried : 

Olympian Zeus, methinks, has halls like this : 
What riches past all telling ! I behold 
And marvel. 

Socrates or Diogenes would have said : 

What rubbish past all telling 

and superfluity and vanity ! 

I behold 
And laugh. 

Fool ! You should strip your wife of her purple and 
adornments, that she may get over her fine airs and 
her infatuation with foreign guests, 5 and do you trick 
out your house instead like a theatre or stage for 
visitors ? 

10. Such is the felicity of wealth — a felicity of 
spectators and witnesses or else a thing of naught. 6 
How different are self-mastery, the pursuit of wisdom, 
the knowing what we should about the gods, d though 
known to no man else ! These have in the soul a 
luminousness of their own and a surpassing radiance, 6 

° Homer, Od. iv. 74-75. 

6 Helen had once gone off with Paris. 

c Cf. Mor. 679 b and Lucian, Nigrinus, 23. 

d Cf. Aristotle, frag. 664 (ed. Rose), quoted in Mor. 545 a, 
and Plato, Republic, 580 c with Shorey's note. 

e Cf. Aristotle in Diogenes Laert. v. 17 : " Sight gets 
light from the surrounding air, the soul from studies [or 
mathematics]." 

12 oiX. ex- kcu <£.] <j>. ex. /cat oi\. C. 
13 tjj] W omits. 

35 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(528) 7rot€t ovvolkov avrfj St' iavrrjs 1 avTiXapifSavopievrf 
rdyaOovj 6 av re tSrj* tis av re XavOdvrj Kal deovs 
kclI dvdpcoTTovs airavras. tolovtov iariv dperrj, 
dXrjOeca, fxaOrjixdrcov KaXXos 5 yeajfierpLKcbv darpo- 

XoyiKWV*' COV TLVL TCL TOV TtXoVTOV (f)dXapa TCLVTCL 

Kal TrepiSepaua Kal Oedpuara KopaaccoSr) TrapafiaXelv* 

d£iOV; fJL7)§€VOS 9 OpOJVTOS fJLTjSe TTpoafiXiTTOVTOS ov- 
tojs 10 rv<f>X6s ytverai /cat d<j>€yyr)s 6 ttXovtos. jjlo- 
vos yap 6 ttXovglos Szlttvcov p,€rd yvvaiKos 11 r) rwv 
B crvvrjdojv ovre tolls Ovtvais 12 rraplyz 1 77/oay/xara 13 
rparre^aLS ovre tols XP vao ^ tKTTOjpbaoLV dXXd XPV~ 
rat tols 14l TTpooTvypvoi, koX r) yvvrj axpvoos Kal 
drrop^vpos Kal dcfreXrjs TrdpearLV orav Se ovvoeu- 
ttvov, tovt€gtl TTojJLTTr) Kal diarpov, avy Kporrjr at 15 
Kal Spapia irXovaiaKov eladyrjraL, " vrjcov S' €K<f>ep€ 
Xeftrjrds re rptnoods re J' rcov re Xvxvojv at drjKaL 16 
TrepiOTTCDVTai, ras 17 KvXtKas dXXdaoovai, rovs olvo- 

1 avrfj bi 9 iavrrjs Paton : avrij ev iavrrj D ; iavrrjs C 1 ; avrrjv 
(~ Tr ) y) iavTrjs (av- vw). 

2 avTiAa[jLpavofi€vr) Wyttenbach : -rjv C G 3 hki w l ac ; -jf. 

3 rdyaOov D : rayadov (rd- C Xu W N Y). 

4 re torj] t elbrj O c G Z<£ab ; re elhrj D. 

5 KaXXos M ras ce : re (re Z, to <f>) KaXXos DZ<£ab ; KaXXos re 

6 dorpoXoyLKOJv] darpovofiLKcov G 4 W ; dpiQ[vr\riKaiv dorpo- 
XoytKwv Wilamowitz. 

7 o>v tlvl rd Aid. 2 : ols rrdvra D ; <o tlvl (-vl Z y) rd. 

8 TTapafiaXelv (j3 from A D c ; napaXapelv ab)] napapaXXeiv G : 
TTapafiaXXelv v, 

9 firjhevos] a (a D) fjLrjhevos DZ<£ab ; ovtojs he firjoevos G. 

10 ovtojs] ovtos DZ<£ ; ovtojs hk 1 v ; G omits. 

11 ywaLKos] Trjs y. DZ^ab. 

12 OvtvaLS W : OoLvaLS C 1 G 1 (Solves X> N ; ev OoLvaLS X 2? 
Z</»abM vw Yl ; KOLvals G a y ; KaLvals q ; xP vaa ^ C 3yp D hki. 

13 npayfiara (and so G 3 )] irp. Kal G 1 . 

36 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 528 

and make delight her constant companion, as by her 
sole power she grasps the Good, whether there is 
anyone to see, or whether no one, god or man, is wit- 
ness. Such is the nature of virtue, truth, the beauty b 
of mathematics — geometry and astronomy — ; and 
with what of these do your trappings of wealth, your 
necklaces, your girlish baubles, compare ? With no 
one to see or look on, wealth becomes sightless 
indeed c and bereft of radiance. For when the rich 
man dines alone with his wife or intimates he lets 
his tables of citrus-wood and golden beakers rest in 
peace and uses common furnishings, and his wife 
attends without her gold and purple and dressed in 
plain attire. But when a banquet — that is, a spec- 
tacle and a show — is got up and the drama of wealth 
brought on, " out of the ships he fetched the urns and 
tripods," d the repositories of the lamps are given no 
rest, the cups are changed, the cup-bearers are made 

a Cf. Plato, Rep. 580 c. 

b Cf. Plato, Gorgias, 475 a. 

c Cf. Mor. 679 b. Wealth is proverbially " blind," that is, 
no respecter of merit (cf. Plato, Republic, viii. 554 b with 
Shorey's note and Zwicker in Pauly-Wissowa, xxi. 1, coll. 
1045 f.). In this paragraph — and also in Mor. 679 b and the 
Life of Lycurgus, chap. x. 3 (45 c-d) — Plutarch takes " blind " 
in the sense of " dark " or " unseen. " 

d Homer, II. xxiii. 259. Achilles orders the cauldrons and 
kettles which are to be prizes at the funeral games to be 
taken out of storage in the ships. 

14 toIs (ttj <£)] C 1 omits. 

15 ovyKporrJTai D : avyK€Kp6rrjTaL. 

16 at dfjKai Paton : hdOrj /cat (variously accented) C 1 G 1 Xu 
WyNM 1 Ylq ; avrixovrai /cat DZ^ab ; exovrat /cat C 3 G 3 M 2 
vw ; Kaiovoi (followed by a lacuna of 10 letters in h, of six in 
k 1 ) /cat hkH. (All but 1 punctuate after #cuAt/cas, and all but 
X after olvo)(6ovs.) 

17 ras] 7T€pi ras DZ^ab. 

37 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(528) X° oy S /JL€TajJL(f)L€VVVOV(7l, TTOLVTCL 1 KLVOVGLV, 2 ^pVGOV > 

apyvpov, XiOoKoWrjroVy* aAAois* TrXovrelv ojjloAo- 
yovvres. aAAa ooo<f>poovvr)s h ye kolv jjlovos Secrrvfj 
helrai koLv q evajxfj. 7 

1 ttolvtcl W hki w : 77-avra' (-as v) Travra. 

2 klvovglv W (-crt DZ<£ab M vw) : KoofiovoL hkM ; kolvovoi 
(-glv Yl). 3 XlOokoXXtjtov] Al9ok6A\t)tcl D. 

4 dXXoLs Pohlenz : airXaJs. 



ON LOVE OF WEALTH, 528 

to put on new attire, nothing is left undisturbed, gold, 
silver, or jewelled plate, the owners thus confessing 
that their wealth is for others. But mastery of self is 
in order whether the owner dines alone or gives a 
sumptuous feast. 

5 craxf>po<jvi>7]s] €V(f>pocrvv7]s C 3 D hkM. 

6 kov Pohlenz : /cat. 

7 €vo)xV nos : €VO)xioLS (SiKaioavvrjs D). 



39 



ON COMPLIANCY 

(DE VITIOSO PUDORE) 



INTRODUCTION 

Dysopia (with the related verbs, adjectives, and 
adverbs) has no exact equivalent in English, or ap- 
parently in Latin, French, Italian, or German. It 
indicates the embarrassment that compels us to grant 
an unjustified request. In the Life of Brutus (chap. vi. 
9, 986 e) it is described asa" defeat at the hands of 
the shamelessly insistent." b The word in this ex- 
pressive (but unclassical) sense was condemned by the 
Atticists, c as Plutarch was well a ware. d 

Plutarch equates dysopia with Aristotle's excess of 
shame (528 e). His use of a Peripatetic source is 

° Philemon Holland renders it " naughtie bashfulnesse " 
and " foolish and rusticall shamefastnes " ; Thomas Hoy 
" bashfulness " ; and A. R. Shilleto " shyness." Erasmus 
calls it " vitiosa verecundia," Xy lander " vitiosus pudor," 
H. Cruserius " immodica verecundia." Amyot has " fausse 
honte," Betolaud " mauvaise honte " ; while the best Antonio 
Massa can do is " quella erubescenza, che e vitiosa, & dan- 
nosa." J. F. S. Kaltwasser has " die falsche Schamhaftig- 
keit " and in a note " die Bauernscham " ; J. C. Bahr " die 
falsche Scham." 

b Cf. 528 f below. 

c Cf. Phrynichus, p. 190 (ed. Lobeck) with the note and 
H. Erbse, Untersuchungen zu den attizistischen Lexika, Abh. 
d. deutschen Ak. d. Wiss. zu Berlin, Phil.-hist. Kl. (1949), 
p. 116. 

d Cf. the expressions " which some call hvocDTrelodai " (Life 
of Brutus , loc. cit.) and " what is called hvocoirla " (528 d 
below). 

42 



ON COMPLIANCY 

shown by two passages in the Nicomachean Ethics (ii. 
7. 14, 1108 a 30-35 and iv. 9- 1-3, 1128 b 10-21). The 
first runs as follows : 

There are means also in the passions and concerned with the 
passions ; thus while shame (aidos) is not a virtue, yet the 
modest man (aidemon) also receives praise. For here too one 
man is called intermediate, another excessive — as the shame- 
faced man (kataplex) who is awed at everything — ; while 
the man who is deficient or totally lacking is shameless, and 
the intermediate man is modest. 

So too in Plutarch : dysopia is a passion (528 d) and 
one of the extremes between which is found the dis- 
position desired (529 a). The mean is never called a 
virtue, nor are the extremes called vices. a We con- 
tinue with the second passage : 

It is not proper to speak of shame as a virtue, for it rather 
resembles a passion than a habit. Thus it is defined as a fear 
of ill-repute, and is brought to pass in a way similar to the 
fear of danger ; for those who feel shame blush, while those 
who fear death turn pale. Thus both appear to be in some 
way connected with the body, and this is held to belong 
rather to a passion than to a habit. The passion does not 
befit all ages, but only youth. For we think that people of 
this age should be modest because they commit many faults 
through living by passion, but are prevented by shame ; and 
we praise the modest among the young, but no one would 
praise an older man for being bashful (aischyntelos), for we 
think that he should do nothing to which shame (aischyne) is 
attached. b 

Like Aristotle and Plato (Laws, i. 647 a), Plutarch 

a Plutarch departs from Aristotle in using " shameless- 
ness " of one who harshly refuses another's request (529 a). 
In the same passage he speaks of the extremes in terms that 
Aristotle would not have used of a passion (asthenos echontes 
and diathesis). The word " passion " (pathos) itself has in 
Plutarch another connotation. 

b A criticism of Plato (Laws, v. 729 b 5-7). 

43 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

treats aidos and aischyne as virtual synonyms (529 d).° 
He implies that shame is the fear of ill-repute (529 a 
and 532 d) b ; and his citation of Cato (528 f) is doubt- 
less due to the desire to find some parallel to Aristotle's 
remarks about the bodily manifestations of shame and 
fear. c Cato surely had no such subtleties in mind ; 
he was merely expressing his preference for the out- 
doors type of young man. With Aristotle's views 
about shame and youth we may compare Plutarch's 
references to the young (528 f, 529 b, 529 c, and 
530 a). 

After a short description of dysopia (528 c — 529 r>) 
Plutarch passes to the two great divisions of the 
essay : the proof that the disorder is injurious, and 
the methods of its cure. d The cure lies in a course of 
training (530 e — 532 d) and in making certain re- 
flexions. The training is presented at 532 b-c, the 
reflexions (preceded by a discussion of the use of 
silence and of quotations in answering importunities) 
are presented at 533 d-f. 6 Next come precepts for 
handling suitors : meet shamelessness with shame- 

° Here the words koX hvoamtlodai are Plutarch's own addi- 
tion : compare the explanation added to Zeno's remark in 
Mor. 603 d below. 

6 Cf. also Plato, Laws, i. 646 f — 657 a, Euthyphro, 12 b-c, 
and von Arnim, Stoicorum Vet. Frag. iii. 416 (p. 101. 37). 
In Plutarch the fear of ill-repute is really a fear of reproach 
or resentment. 

c Cf. also Aristotle, Frag. 243 (ed. Rose) and von Arnim, 
Stoicorum Vet. Frag. iii. 410 (p. 99. 15-18). 

d Cf. Mor. 510 c-d. 

e Elsewhere training comes last. From its unusual order 
here Pohlenz (" Ueber Plutarchs Schrift wept aopyrioias " 
Hermes, xxxi, 1896, p. 329, note 1) infers that the Be Vitioso 
Pudore is later than the De Se Ipsum Citra Invidiam Lau- 
dando, " da die Einschaltung der aaicqais am besten aus dem 
Streben nach Abwgchslung zu erklaren ist." 
44 



ON COMPLIANCY 

lessness (533 f — 534 b) ; with suitors of humble station 
use wit (534 b-c) ; with powerful suitors appeal to 
their sense of artistry, their pride, or their claims to 
virtue (534 c — 535 b) ; with suitors of baser charac- 
ter make use of their vices (535 b-d). The essay con- 
cludes with an exhortation to resist the bait of praise 
and the threat of blame, and the suggestion of a pro- 
cedure useful against all the passions : to keep fresh 
in the memory the disgrace and damage suffered 
from the passion before. 

The essay cannot be dated by the mention of any 
contemporary event. The topic (apparently original) 
would naturally have occurred to Plutarch in his 
maturer years, when his influence and reputation 
were established, and when he had friends of great 
wealth and power. 

A translation by Erasmus appeared at Basle in 
1526 ; there are also translations that we have not 
seen, into Latin by J. Caesarius, a and into French by 
Francois Le Grand. 6 The essay is No. 96 in the cata- 
logue of Lamprias. 

The text is based on LC G Xv I W DZab RnySs 
hki JK N M vw Ylfq. Occasionally aAE are cited 
for conjectures. 

a Plutarchi opusculum de immoderata verecundia a /. 
Caesario Latine redditum, Rome, 1565. 

6 De la Honte vicieuse, traite compose par Plutarque de 
Cheronee, et traduit en notre langue par Francois Le Grand, 
Paris, 1554. This version also appeared in the same year at 
Rouen. 



45 



(528) IIEPr AYS^IIIAS 

c 

1. "Evta rcov €K rfjs 1 yr\s (j>vopuevojv avra puev 
D icrnv aypta 2 /cat a/cap7ra /cat /3Aa/3epdv rols ^)^" 
pots oWp/xacrt /cat (J)vtois rrjv aybrjaiv e^ovra, 
arjfjLt ta 8e avra iroiovvrai yuypas oi yecopyovvres ov 
7Tovr]pas dXXd yevvatas /cat ttlovos* ovtco 8rj /cat 
TrdOrj ipvxijs ioTiv ov ^prfard, XP 7 }* 11 "!^ ^ (j>voea)s 
olov i^avdrjpLaTa /cat Xoyco 77apacr^€tv ipydcnpLov 
eavrrjv €7TI€lk<jl)S SvvcLfjLevrjs . iv tovtols TiOepLai /cat 
rrjv Xeyopuevrjv SvorajTrlav, orjpLelov /xev ov (f>avXov y 
alriav Se pLoxOrjplas ovaav. rd ydp avra rot? 
aVatcr^tVrotS' oi atcr^uvo/xevot iroXXaKis a/xapra- 
vovaiy 7rXrjv otl to Xvtt€lo9 at /cat aAyctv e<£' ols St- 
apbaprdvovaL tovtols TrpoveoTiv, ovx <*>s e/cetVot? to 
E TJSeaOat. dvaXyrjs /xev ydp 6 dvouSrjs rrpos to 
alaxpov, €V7ra0rjs 8e /cat rrpos to (jxuvopievov ala- 
Xpw o €v8vad)7T7]TOS' vrrepfioXr) ydp tov atV^tW cr6 'at 
to 8voa)iT€Lcr6 'at. Sto /cat ovtoj /ce/cA^rat, Tpoirov 

TLVa TOV 7TpOOO)7TOV TTj lftV}($ GVv8lCLTp€7TO[J,€VOV /Cat 

avve^aTOVovvTOS . cos" yap tt^ /car^ctav opit^ovTai 

XvTTTjV KaTCO f3Xe7T€lV TTOIOVGCLV, OVTOJ TTjV aloXVVTTJ- 

Atav /xe^pt tou p/^Se avrtjSAeVetv rot? SeotteVot? 

1 ttjs (and so I)] W DZab Ri^ySs hkM omit. 
2 After aypta we omit -777 y^ (ttJ <£uo-€i DZab M 3 ^). 

a Dysopeomai (to be embarrassed into compliance by im- 
portunity) no doubt originally meant " to be affected by hard 

46 



ON COMPLIANCY 

1. Certain plants are in themselves wild and unpro- 
ductive, and when allowed to grow are harmful to 
cultivated grain and vines and trees ; yet the farmer 
takes them as signs of a soil not unfertile, but gener- 
ous and rich. So too with the affections of the mind : 
some that are bad are nevertheless the outgrowths, 
as it were, of an excellent nature well able to respond 
to the cultivation of reason. Among these I count 
what is called " compliancy,' ' — no unfavourable sign, 
though it leads to bad conduct. For men who feel 
shame often show the same faults as those who feel 
none, with this difference, however : they are grieved 
and distressed at their errors, unlike the shameless, 
who take pleasure in theirs. For the shameless feel 
no pain in doing what is base, whereas the mere 
semblance of baseness dismays the compliant. For 
compliancy is excess of shame. Hence the name 
(dysopeomai), a the face (prosopon) being somehow in- 
volved in the embarrassment and discomposure of the 
mind. For as dejection (katepkeia) is denned as pain 
that makes us look down (kato), b so when modesty 
yields to suitors to the point where one does not even 

or unpleasant looks." Plutarch takes the etymological sense 
to be " to be affected in one's looks," " to become incapable 
of facing someone." 

6 Cf. the Townleyan scholiast on Homer, II. xvii. 556 : 
KaTr)<f>€Ly diTo tov Karoo e^etv rd <t>dr) (dejection : from keeping 
the eyes downcast). 

47 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(528) vrreiKovoav hvaconiav lovollclctclv. odev 6 /xev pryrcop 
tov dvaioyyvTov ovk €(f>rj Kopas iv rot? ollllcloiv 
F eyjE.iv dXXd TTopvas' 6 S' €v8voa)7rr)Tos clv ttoXlv 
dyav to OrjXv rfjs $v)(rjs /cat rpvcfrepov £ll(/)cliv€L Sta 
rr\s oifjetos, rrjv vtto tcov dvaioyyvTCov rjrrav 1 at- 
Gxvvrjv VTTOKopil^ofJLevos . 6 fiev ovv Karcoy eXeyev 
tcov vecov fJL&XXov dyairdv tovs ipvOpicovras rj tovs 
(hxpi&vras , opdcZg idt^cov /cat SlSolgkcov tov ifsoyov 
fJL&XXov rj tov 7tovov 2 SeStevat /cat ttjv vnoifjiav fi&X- 

XoV Tj TOV KLvSvVOV OV LL7JV o\XXa KOI TOV TTpOS TOV 
ifjOyOV VTTOTTTOV KoX iffO(f)0$€OVS TO dyaV CL(f>aip€T€OV, 

529 ojs ov% tJttov eVtot ttoXXolkls a/couaat kclkcos r) 
rradelv SeicravTeg aTreSetAtaaav /cat TTporjKCLVTO to 
kclXov ov SvvrjdevTeg viroLLelvai to a8o£ov. 

2. OlJT€ 8rj TOVTOVS 7T€pL07TT€OV OVTCOS doOeVCJS 
eypVTCLS OVT CLV TTaXiV €K€LVrjV €7TCLLV€T€OV TTJV CLTp€- 

tttov /cat &T€vfj Sta#€crtv, 3 aAA' ejjiLLeXrj tivcl fjbrjxavrj- 

T60V OVyKpCLOlV CLLL(f)OLV, TOV fJL€V &T€VOVS clyCLV TTjV 

dvaiSetav, tov Se imeiKovs ocf)68pa ttjv dodeveiav 
B d<f>aipovoav . fj /cat to depdireviLa hvcryepes /cat 
ovk aKivSvvos rj tcov TOiovTCov TrXeovaofxcov koXcl- 
ois. A tbs yap 6 yecopyos dypiov llev Ikkotttqsv 
pXdarT7]LLCL /cat dyevves avToOev a^ctSa)? eLLJ3aXthv 5 

1 IJTTav G 4 W JK 1 ^ Pyp : &f,iv. 

2 rrovov Wyttenbach : eiraivov (-tt€- N ; zXeyxov DZab M 2 ; 
X n 1 Ss are wanting). 

8 After Siddemv LC Gk Xv W JK M 2 Zab vw have (with 
some variants) iv 8c to dapaaXiov re /cat ifi(X€V€s omrrj opovaai 
<f>aiv€T* ava£apxov kvvcov fxivos. 

4 KoXaais (L illegible) C u X ras (from ko>-) W : kuXvois (and 
so C lss ; oloQ-qois s [but aioB is crossed out] ; kcoXt^gls w) ; 
koXovgls Meziriacus. 
48 



ON COMPLIANCY, 528-529 

look them in the face, it is termed V compliancy/ ' 
And so, as the orator a said that the shameless man 
had harlots, not maidens, 6 in his eyes, so the com- 
pliant man in his turn betrays only too clearly in his 
countenance the effeminacy and flabbiness of his 
spirit, giving his surrender to the shameless the fair 
name of " modesty." Cato c indeed said that in the 
young he preferred the flush of colour to pallor, 
rightly training and teaching us to dread censure 
more than labour, and disapproval more than peril. 
Nevertheless we must also do away with the excess 
of timidity and apprehension at the prospect of cen- 
sure, for instances are frequently found of men who, 
in terror no less of a bad name than of bodily hurt, 
have played the coward and failed in the good fight, 
not having the firmness to submit to ill fame. 

2. Neither then should we be unmindful of these, 
who suffer from so great an infirmity, nor again should 
we approve the other unyielding and stern set of 
character d ; we should rather contrive an harmonious 
blend of both qualities, one that removes the ruthless- 
ness of extreme severity and the infirmity of excessive 
courtesy. Thus the cure is difficult, and the correc- 
tion of such excesses not without risk. For as the 
farmer in weeding out some wild and worthless growth 
thrusts his spade in roughly with no further ado and 

° Timaeus, Frag. 122 (ed. Jacob y). 

b The Greek for pupil is kore, " maiden.' ' Shame resides 
in the eyes : cf. Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 6. 18 (1384 a 36). 

e Cf. Life of Cato the Elder, chap. ix. 5 (341 c) ; Mor. 29 e, 
198 e. 

d One group of mss. has here an interpolation from Mor. 
446 b-c (Timon, frag. 58, Diels, Poet. Philos. Frag. p. 199). 

5 infiaXajv LC C (from -AAow) G 4 k W DJKvw: e/xjSaAAa>v 
(and so I ; -cuW R N 1). 

49 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(529) to OKac/)€Lov dverpei/je 1 rrjv pi^av fj rrvp irpooayaytbv 
eireKavoev , 2 dpurreXco Se TTpooitbv TOfjirjs Seopbevrj Kdl 
fjLrjXeas rj twos iXatas dnropLevos evXafiays e7TL(j>epei 
rrjv x € ^P a y SeSitbs pjr\ tl rod vyiaivovros a7TOTV<j>\a>- 
arj, ovtods 6 <f)i\6oq<f>os cf)96vov puev e^aipcov veov 
i/jvxfjSy dyevves fiXdcrTrjpLa /cat hvoriddoevrov , rj 
<f>iXapyvpiav dcopov r) (f)iXr]8oviav Zttikotttcov a/co- 
Xaarov alpLaaaei /cat me^ei /cat ropurjv rroieZ /cat 
C ovXrjv fiadeZav orav Se rpv<f)epd) puepei ifjv)(fjs /cat 
a77aAa) 3 KoXovovra Trpoaaydyrf Xoyov, olov eon to 
SvaojTTovpievov /cat StarpeTTopievov, evXafSeirai per) 
XdOrj tovtois GwarroKoifjas to alSovpievov. /cat yap 
at Tirdat rcbv fipecfrajv eKrplfiovoai TToXXaKis rov 
pvTTov eA/couatv 5 eviore rrjv udpKCL /cat paaavL^ovcriv . 
odev ov Set rcov vecov Travrdiraoiv ev XP*? rr ) v St>cra>- 
TTtav eKTpifSovras oXiydjpovs TToielv /cat Atav drrpe- 
tttovs' dXX* tooTrep ol KaraXvovres ot/ctas* lepoZs 
yeiTViojaas rd ye avvex^j kcll ttXtjctlov ecocrt /cat 
hiepeihovuiv, ovtqj Set rr)v hvaanriav Kivelv, SeSto- 
ras avve(/)eXKvoao9ai rd opbopovvra rrjs alSovs /cat 
T7)s eVtet/cetas /cat rrjs rjpLeporrjros oh V7ro8e8vKe 
D /cat TTpooTTerrXeKraL, KoXaKevovaa rov evSvocoTrrjrov 
cos <f)iXdvd pamov /cat 77oAtrt/coy /cat kolvov k'xovra 
vovv /cat 6 ovk dreyKrov ovbe avdeKaorov. odev 
evdvs ol Htcolkol /cat ra> prjpLari to alaxyveoQai /cat 
hvoameladai rod atSeta#at Sieorrrjoav tVa p,r)8e rrjv 

1 dvirpeipe] dvearpeiffe Gk Xt> y ac . 

2 iir€KavG€v] a7T€Kavcj€v Zab w. 

3 faxys Kai drraXco (a- X 1 N 1 M ac )] ipvxfjs /cat clttXcj LC 1 ; /cat 
diTaXw (a- G 1 ) ifivxfjs G 2 k. 

4 7rpoaaydyr}] 7rpoadyrj W D W. 

5 £\kovoiv a 3 A 2 EC 2 Z (no accent in b) : ZXkovoiv. 

6 vovv /cat] /cat W ; vovv DZab. 

50 



ON COMPLIANCY, 529 

turns up the root, or applies fire to the weed and 
blasts it, but when he comes to a vine in need of 
pruning or deals with an apple tree or olive, he handles 
it gently, fearing to strip the buds from some healthy- 
part, so the philosopher, when he removes envy from 
a young man's soul, a worthless and incorrigible 
growth, or cuts off an early appearance of avarice a or 
self-indulgence running riot, draws blood, bears down 
hard, and makes an incision deep enough to leave a 
scar ; but when he applies the knife of chastening 
discourse to a soft and delicate part of the soul — a 
description that applies to the part that suffers from 
compliancy and shyness — he takes heed lest unawares 
he amputate with these all feeling of respect. For 
nurses too, when they scour infants too often, some- 
times wound the flesh and do them hurt. It follows 
that we must not scour too close in removing from the 
young the fear to disoblige, and thus make them in- 
considerate and unyielding to a fault, but as those 
who pull down houses adjoining a temple let the con- 
nected and neighbouring portions stand and shore 
them up, in the same way we must deal with com- 
pliancy, taking care not to remove with it the adjacent 
portions of respect and courtesy and gentleness where 
it hides and clings, while it bestows on the man who 
yields to pressure easily the flattering epithets of 
" friendly," " civil, " and " considerate of others," 
not M rigid " or " blunt." Hence the Stoics b dis- 
tinguish from the outset the very words, separating 
V shame " and compliancy from " respect," so as to 

a Illiberality is characteristic of old age : cf. Aristotle, 
Eth. Nic. iv. 1. 37 (1121 b 13 f.) and Rhetoric, ii. 13. 6 (1389 
b 28). 

b Cf. von Arnim, Stoicorum Vet. Frag. iii. 439 (Mor, 
449 a) and 440 (p. 107). 

51 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(529) ojJLCovvjJLiav rw irddei irpocfraoLV rod fSX&TTreiv oltto- 
Xlttojolv. 1 aXX rjjjiiv xprjodai rots ovofiacriv aovKo- 
(jxxvTTjTCDS horojoaVj fiaXXov 8e OfJLrjpiKOJS' Kal yap 

aiocus, rj r avopas fieya otverai rjo ovlvtjol. 

/Cat OX) KCLKCOS TO fiXaTTTOV 2 aVTTJS 7TpOT€pOV €L7T€V 

ytverai yap ax^eAt/xos* vtto rod Xoyov to TrXeovdJ^ov 
acfyeXovros Kal to fieTpiov (ittoXittovtos , 
E 3. UpcoTov ovv tovto Set TreideoOai tov vtto 
TroXXfjs hvoojirias /3ta£o/x€Vov, otl Trade i j3Aa/?epa> 
ovve^ETaiy KaXbv 8k twv fiXafSeptov ov8ev, ov8e Set 
toZs eiraivois k7]Xov[jl€vov 7J8ea9aL Kofjafjov Kal IXa- 
pov dvTL oefjivov Kal fieydXov Kal hiKaiov Txpoo- 
ayopevofievov, ^S' cooirep 6 'Evpi7Ti8ov Tlrjyacros 

€TTT7]Oo' VTT€LKO)V fl&XXoV fj Z jJL&XXoV* OeXot 

Tip BeXXepo(f)6vTr], tois Seofxevous iavTOV e/cStSo- 
F vat Kal avv€KTa7T€LVovv (^o^ovfievov aKovoai to 
" GKXrjpos ye Kal 077^779/ ' tcq /zev yap AlyvTTTLO) 
BoAc^optSt 5 (f>vo€i 6 ^aAevraJ yevofieva) ttjv doirioa 
XeyovoLV vtto tt)s "\ol8os iTTiTTepLcfrdeiorav Kal ttj 
K€(f)aXfj TrepieXixOeioav avuiQev emcr/aa^etv tva 
Kpivrj oLKalojs- r) 8e rot 7 8voa)Txia rot? aTovois Kal 
avdv8pois imKeipLevr] Kal irpos pLrjSev avavtvoai 

1 a7To\i7TO)aiv] aTroXtiTTcooiv W RnySs K ac v. 

2 BXanrov G lss D and Reiske : pAdnTeiv. 

3 fj L RnySs hi lfq (fj N 1 M Y) : t}. 

4 fidXXov added from Mor. 807 e. 

5 poKxopihu (and so C 2 ; -i'8i X 3? ; -IStj N) : ^K X 6pihi LC 1 ; 
fioKx^pihi G 3 (no accent in X 1 ) D R(-oyx- n)ySs hk lss i vw. 

52 



ON COMPLIANCY, 529 

leave the disorder not even the ambiguity of its name 
as an occasion of doing harm. But by their leave we 
shall not quibble about the names, but rather follow 
Homer , a who says 

Respect, the bane and blessing of mankind. 

And he did well to put first its harmfulness. For it 
becomes helpful only when reason removes the over- 
plus and leaves us with the right amount. 

3. One who feels a strong compulsion to be facile 
must first be convinced of this : that he suffers from 
a harmful disorder, and that nothing harmful is ad- 
mirable ; and he should refuse to be beguiled by 
plaudits into preferring the epithets " civilized " and 
" gracious " to the terms " grave " and " great "and 
" just," or like Pegasus in Euripides, b who 

Cringed and yielded as the rider willed 

(the rider being Bellerophon), surrender to suitors 
and descend to their level for fear of the remark 
" Truly a cold, harsh man." Now to Bocchoris the 
Egyptian, a man naturally cruel, Isis (they say) sent 
the asp, which coiled around his head and shadowed 
him from above, to make him observe justice in his 
verdicts ; whereas false courtesy, pressing down upon 
those who are flabby and unmanly, and incapable of 

° The line is actually Hesiod's (Works and Days, 318), bat 
Plutarch held that Hesiod had it from Homer (cf. II. xxiv. 
44-45) : see Proclus, ad loc. 

b From the Bellerophon of Euripides : Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag., Eur. 309 ; quoted also in Mor. 807 e. 

c An explanation of the uraeus : cf. Alexandre Moret, De 
Bocchori Rege, Paris, 1903, p. 87. 

6 ff>va€i (and so G 3 )] G 1 omits. 
7 17 hi rot (and so G 4 )] rj re G 1 ; r) hi ye DZab ; 77 hi tk s, 

53 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(529) fJLTjSe dvT€L7T€tV LGXVOVaa Kol SlKOL^OVTOLS a7TOTp€7T€L 

tov hiKaiov koll ovfifiovAevovras emoTO/xt^t koI Ae- 
yeiv TToXXa koll rrpdrreiv aVay/ca^ci rcov dPovXrjTOJV 
530 6 8e dyvajfioveararos del tov tolovtov Se<777o- 
T7]$ earl koll Kparet ra> fjurj alhelodai to olhov- 
fievov eK^La^ojjievos. odev toorrep yoopiov vtttlov 
koll [xaXaKov rj hvoumia fjLrjSeixiav evrev^tv i^cooai 
fjLTjSe dTToorpeifjcu 1 Swapievr] rots ata^tarois' jSacrt/xos' 
ion rrddeoi koll Trpdyfiaoi' kclkt] puev yap avrrj 
TraiSt/oJ? (fipovpos tjXikicls, ojs eXeye Jipovros ov 

8oK€LV aVTCp KaXtOS TTjV GjpOLV StaT€0eLo9aL TOV TTpOS 

fjLrjSev apvovpuevov KCLKrj 8e daXdpLov kol yvvai- 
Kcovirihos eTTirporros, o>s <f>r)oiv rj irapd rep Ttocfro- 
KXel [jL€Tavoovoa 7rpos tov \xoiypv 

erreioas i^edojifjas. 

B cboO* rf hvoamia 7Tpoo8ia(f)9€Lpaoa 3 to dxroAaoTov 4 
dvoyyypa irdvTa kol a/cAetara koX /caravr^ TTpoSc- 
Sojol toZs eTTiTiOepLevois. kcli Sl86vt€s {lev alpovoi 
Ta9 fSheXvpojTaTas , Tip 8e Treldetv kol hvoaynelv ttoX- 
XaKis KaTepyd^ovTai /cat ras" €ttl€lk€ls. ecu 5 Se 6 Tag 
€6? Ta xPVf JiaTa fiXdfias vrro tov SvocoTretoOaL, 
Savet^ovTOJv ols diriOTOvaiv , iyyvoj/jLevojv ot>V ov 
deXovoiVy kiraivovvTOJV \xkv to " iyyva irdpa S' 
dra," xprjodai S' avTcp Trepl Ta Trpdy\xaTa (jltj 
Swafievcov . 

1 OLTTOUTpdipai M 2 q : OL7rorp€i/jaL (avrtCTTpeifjcu LC). 

2 woO* rj N 2 M 2 vw q : aW -n ((hs rrj C vet G 3 - ; oxttc -n 
DZab RnySs hi f ). 

3 TTpoohia^deipaaa (777)0(78. X k 1 )] 7rpoor8ia(/)d€Lpovaa L?C D hi ; 
TrpoSia^deipacra a 2 AEZab v c . 

4 After aKoXaarov LC W Gk Xv add olvttj yap, 

5 io) (ecu n)] /cat D ; id Ss. 
54 



ON COMPLIANCY, 529-530 

denying or refusing anything, turns them aside from 
justice in their verdicts, silences them in the council, 
and compels them to say and do many things that go 
against their will. The most unreasonable person is 
always master of such a man and controls him, coercing 
with his effrontery the other's shyness. And so, like 
a low-lying and loose terrain, a compliant disposition, 
being unable to fend off or repulse any appeal, is ex- 
posed to the most degrading experiences and deeds. 
For it is a poor guardian of the years of boyhood (thus 
Brutus a said that he thought one who denied nothing 
had made no good disposal of his youthful grace), and 
a poor custodian of the nuptial chamber and the 
women's apartments, as she who repents in Sophocles b 
says to the adulterer, 

You coaxed and wheedled me to ruin. 

Thus complaisance further corrupts the profligate 
mind and delivers everything up to the attacker : the 
position has no defences, no bars, and is commanded 
on all sides. And whereas it is with gifts that the 
vilest women are taken, argument and a bold address 
often prevail even over the good. I pass over the 
losses in money for which compliancy is responsible, 
when men lend to persons they distrust and go bail 
against their will, and though they approve the pro- 
verb " he that is surety is never sure," are unable to 
follow it in practice. 

° Cf Life of Brutus, chap. vi. 9 (986 e). 
b Cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Sophocles, no. 773 (no. 
857 Pearson). 

c For the proverb cf Mor. 164 b, 511 b. 

6 8e R ac and Emperius : Srj (Set N 1 ). 
7 oils (L illegible)C G^k 1 Xv W DZab : ok. 

55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(530) 4. "Oaovs 8* dvr)pr]K€ tovto to rrdOos ovk dv rt? 
e^apid ixTjaairo paStcos. kcll yap 6 VLpetov TTpos rrjv 
M.rj8eiav elirajv, 

C Kpetcraov Se (jlol vvv npos o* direx/deadcu, yvvai, 
r) [AaAOcLKiadevO' v&repov fieya areveiv, 1 

dXXois iyvcofjioXoyrjaev , avros 8e rrjs hvocoirias rjr- 

TOJV y€VOfJL€VOS Kdi fJLLOLV 7jjJL€paV aLTOVJJL€Vrj 80VS OL7T~ 

coXeae rov oZkov. evioi 8e koX o<j>ayds vcfyopcofxevoL 
koli <f)apjJLaK€ias 8i€Tpa7Tr}<jav. ovrco TTaparrcoXeTO 
Atcov, ovk dyvorjoas irn^ovXevovra Y^oXXlttttov 
dXX aloxvvOels <j)vXdTT€oQai <f)lXov ovra /cat tjevov 
ovtojs 'AvTiTrarpos o KacrdVSpou A77/Z777-/HOV KaXe- 
aas €776 Selrrvov, elra KXrjdels rfj varepaca TTpos 

aVTOV fj8€O0rj TT€TTlOT€V\JLivOS OLTTLOTeiV, kcll iropev- 

6 els €G(f)dyr] fierd to 8€Zttvov. 'HpafcAea 8e rov 

D 'AXe£dv8ptp 2 yevofievov €K Jiapoivrjs (LfMoXoyrjae 

[lev ULaudvSptp TloXvTTepxcov dvaiprjcreLV errl raXdv- 

TOLS iKCLTOV, €LTCL €7TL SetTTVOV €KaX€L' TOV §6 jA€l~ 
pCLKLOV T7JV kXtjOLV V(f>OpCOIJL€VOV KCLL 8e8oLKOTOS, 

dXXtos 8e 7Tpocf)aGi£oiJL€vov {JLaXoLKcbrepov eyziv, iX- 
dtov 6 TloXvTTepxwv, ? 7Tpa>Tov," ziiTev t M cS 7TCU, 

fJUflOV TOU 3 TTCLTpOS TO €VKoXoV KOLI (f> iXeT at pOV , €1 fJLTj 

vtj Aia 8e8oiKas rj/JL&s cos irn^ovXevovras • al8e- 
odels* rjKoXov9r)CF€v 6 veavloKos' ol 8e SenrvlcravTes 5 
avrov eorpayyaXivav . 6 ov yeXolov ovv, cos <f>aai 

1 [iiya gt€V€lv Euripides and W DZab S 2 s hi JK M 2 (oriveiv 
fA€ya C 2 vw) : arlve.iv. 

2 aXe&vbpa) G 2 W DZab hki M 2 : 6.\ € £dvo P ov. 

3 tqv] rcov rod D. 4 After alocadeis G 3 k DZab have ovv, 
56 



ON COMPLIANCY, 530 

4. The lives that this disorder has cost would not 
be easy to number. Thus when Creon said to Medea, 

Better for me to have thy hatred now 
Than yield to rue it bitterly thereafter, a 

he expressed a maxim for others to use, but suc- 
cumbed to pressure himself, and by granting her re- 
quest for a day's respite brought ruin on his house. 
Even some who suspected assassination and poison 
have given way to the feeling. Thus Dion was lost, 
not from ignorance of Callippus' plot, but because he 
was ashamed to take precautions against one who 
was his friend and guest. b Thus when Antipater, son 
of Cassander, after inviting Demetrius to dinner, was 
invited by him the following day, he was ashamed to 
distrust one who had trusted him, went, and was 
murdered after the meal. c Polyperchon agreed with 
Cassander for a hundred talents to do away with 
Heracles, Alexander's son by Barsine, and proceeded 
to invite him to dinner. When the youth, suspecting 
and dreading the invitation, alleged an indisposition, 
Polyperchon called on him and said : " Young man, 
the first quality of your father you should imitate is 
his readiness to oblige and attachment to his friends,^ 
unless indeed you fear me as a plotter." The youth 
was shamed into going ; and they gave him his 
dinner and strangled him. The advice of Hesiod e is 

a Euripides, Medea, 290-291. 

b Cf Life of Dion, chap. lvi. 3 (982 e). 

c Cf, Life of Demetrius, chap, xxxvi. 9-12 (906 c-d). 

d Cf Life of Alexander, chap, xlviii. 1 (692 a). 
e Works and Days, 342 ; also quoted in Mor. 707 c. 

5 bciTTVLcravTcs W DZab RnySs h M 2 : SeinvrjaavTcs. 

6 avrov iorpayyaXioav LC Gk Xu W DZab JK vwS 2 : 
iorpayyaXioav avrov. 

51 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(530) rives, ov8e afieArepov, dXXd oocj>6v to rod 'HcrtoSoir 
tov cfriXeovT* ZttI Scutcl KaXelv, tov 8' i^Opov iaaou. 

E {JLTj 8vOC07TOV TOV [ALGOVVTa fJL7]8* VTTCLLKaXXe 1 771- 

areveiv Sokovvtol' KXrjdrjcrr] yap KaXeoas /cat henrvq- 
oeis av heiTTviarjS, ojoTrep ^a(f)rjv rrjv cfyvXdrrovoav 
air lot Lav ixaXa")(9eloav ala^vvr^ rrpoepLevos. 

5. *£ls OVV 7ToXXa>V KCLKCOV CLLTIOV TO VOGTjfJLCL 

tovto ov 7T€ipar€ov a7roj3ta££cr#at rfj doKrjaei, TTpco- 
tov dp^afxevovs 3 cjanep ol raAAa pLeXertovres , diro 
rcov puKpcov koll (JLTj crcf>68pa Suaa vr i^Xerrroj v. olov 
F iv §€L7Tvtp rrpoTTLvet tls d8rjv eyovrv p,rj 8vaoj7rr]- 
dfjs piTjhe rrpoofiidor) aavrov, dXXd Karddov to 
Troriqpiov. clvOls erepos napaKaXel Kvfteveiv 7rapd 

7TOTOV fJLT] 8vOO)7T7)df]S fJL7)8e 8€LOT)S aKC07TTOpL€VOS' 

dAA' worrep 'Revo(j)dvr)s Adcrov rov 'JLppuovews firj 
fiovXofJievov 2 avrcp ovyKvfieveLV 8eiX6v dnoKaXovvTOS 
opioXoyei koll 3 rrdvv SetAo? etvai Trp6s rd ala^pd kolX 
aroA/xo?. 4 ndXiv d8oXeaxjf ovvrjvrrjKa^ emXapL- 
fiavofieva) koll TrepLTrXeKopLevcp- jlwj 8vaa)7rr]dfjs dXXd 

8LOLK6lfjOLS €7T€LyOV KOLL 7T€pOLLV€ TO TTpOK€LfJL€VOV . at 

531 yap roLavraL (jtvyal /cat Sta/cpoucrets', €v eXacfrpals 
[jl€jjh/j€cfl rrjv pLeXeTrjv e^ovoaL rov d8vcra)TrrjTOV , 
rrpoeOi^ovoLV* rjpLas ijrl rd pLeL^ova. /cat to tov 
ArjpiocrOevovs ivTavda /caAco? e^et 8LapLvrjfjL0V€V€LV 
tcov yap 'AOrjvaLajv wpfjLrjpievajv * KprrdXcp fiorfOelv 

1 VTraLKaXXe W (vTTdtKKaXe G 3 yP) : vttckkolXci C vet ?P J X K v c 
(from -€kol-)w ; vnevyaXe N ; vTreK^aXc. 

2 PovXofxevov] PovXofievaj (iJAo/xeVco R)nySs ; fiovXofxivov hi 
N M 1 vw Yl ; povX6fjL€vos fq. 

3 6fioX6y€L koll Matthaei : ojfxoXoyei kox (cofioXoyrjKC N). 

4 irpos . . • aroXfjios] Kal cltoXjaos irpos tcl ata^/oa LC. 

58 



ON COMPLIANCY, 530-531 

therefore not absurd or silly, as some assert, but wise : 

Your friend invite to dinner, not your foe. 

Do not let your enemy embarrass you, nor fawn on 
him when he appears to trust you. For after you in- 
vite him he will invite you, and after he dines with 
you you will dine with him, a once you have let the 
mistrust that was your preservation lose its keen edge 
under the influence of shame. 

5. This malady therefore, as cause of many evils, 
we must endeavour to expel by a course of training, 
beginning first (as tiros elsewhere) with what is trivial 
and not too hard to face. Thus a man drinks to you 
at dinner when you have had your fill. Do not yield 
or force yourself to comply, but set the cup down. 
Another again invites you to play at dice over the 
wine : do not yield or let his scoffing daunt you, but 
like Xenophanes, & when Lasus of Hermione called 
him coward for not wanting to throw the dice with 
him, confess in your turn that you are a great coward 
indeed and too faint-hearted to risk disgrace. Again : 
you meet a bore who lays hold of you and clings. Do 
not yield but break his hold and make haste to com- 
plete what you have to do.. For such escapes and 
rebuffs as these, where we practise firmness at the 
cost of but slight dissatisfaction, condition us to meet 
more difficult occasions. In this connexion it is also 
well to bear Demosthenes' words in mind. The 
Athenians were set on joining Harpalus and were 

° Cf. Comm. in Hesiodum, 27 (vol. vii, pp. 65 f. Bern.). 
b Diels and Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 6 , Xenophanes, 
a 16. 

5 dboXdaxV (and so n 2ss )] dSoAea^aj Dn 11 . 
6 Trpoedl^ovoLv] npoacdiCovaw G aras D Rn 1 yS aras s hi. 

59 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(531) Kal KopvoaojjLevojv irrl tov 'AXi^avopov i^ai(f>vrjs 
€7T€(f)dvr] OtAd£evo9 6 rtbv irrl daXdrrrj rrpayixdrcDV 
' AXei;dvopov OTparrjyos. iKTrXayivTos Se tov Sry- 
fxov Kal oia)TTti)VTOS hid tov <f)6^ov 6 Arjfiocrdevrjs, 
" tl TTotrjaovoiv," €(/>r], " tov rjXiov l$6vt€S OL jJLTJ 
SvvdjJLevoL 77/069 Xv^yov 1 avTifiXeTreiv ; " tl yap 
TToirjozis iv TrpdyfjiaaL fieyaXois, fiaaiXews ivTvy- 

B ^dvovTOS rj Srjfjiov Svgcottovvtos , el TTOTrjpiov aTTO)- 
oaadai psr) ovvaoai npoTeivovTos 2 ovvrjOovs /zrySe 
dSoXeoxov Xafirjv Siac/yvyeiv, dXXd irap€x €L S ^fXTrepi- 
TraTelv <f)Xvdpoj aavTOV, ovk €vtovojv elirelv, " oi/jo- 
fiau cre avdis, vvv Se ov cr^oAa^co " ; 

6. Kai pcrjv ouS' rj rrpos tovs iiraivovs tov aovo- 
(joTTTfrov pbeXeTT) Kal aGKrjoLS iv puKpols Kal iXa- 
(f>pols dxprjoTOS ioTiv. olov iv ovpLiroaLto <f>LXov 
KiOapcpSos a'Set KaKtos rj ttoXXov Ka)pL<x)86s ia)vrj- 
p,ivos iTTiTpifiei MeVavSpov, ol Se TroXXol KpoTodai 

C Kal davpid^ovoLV ovSev olpbai ^aAe77ov ov8e Svcr- 
koXov aKovetv acajTrfj Kal /xr) irapa to <j>aiv6pb€vov 
dveXevdipojs irraivzlv. iav yap iv tovtols /xt) Kpa- 
7779 aavTov, tl 7ToirjG€LS (j>iXov 7TOL7]pLa <f>avXov dva- 
yivcboKovTOS rj Xoyov iirL&eiKvvpiivov yeypapcpbivov 
afieXTepcos Kal yeXoia)s ; irraLvio^LS StjXovotl Kal 
ovv€Tri9opvpr)CF€LS toZs KoXaKevovoi. 3 77609 ovv iv 
TTpdypiaoiv* dfiapTavovTos eViA^i/fry ; 77609 Se irepl 
dpx^jv rj ydpiov fj TroXiTeiav dyvatpuovovvTa vovde- 
TTqoeis ; iytb pcev yap ov§€ to tov IlepiKXiovs 
a77oSe^o/xat 77/009 tov d£iovvTa puapTvpiav ifjevoij 
pbapTvpfjaai <f>iXov y fj Trpoorjv Kal b'pKos, zIttovtos, 

1 Xvxvov I W : tov Xv^yov (tov rjAiov D). 

2 7TpoT€ivovros (and so L I ; from 7rpoT€ivov rrjs C vet )] rrrpo- 
T€Lvavros G vet k W y ac ; TrponlvovTos M 2 Zab. 

60 



ON COMPLIANCY, 531 

girding themselves against Alexander when Alex- 
ander's admiral Philoxenus suddenly sailed in view. 
To the assembly, which its fear had rendered mute, 
Demosthenes said : " What will they do on seeing 
the sun who are dazzled by a lamp ? " For what will 
you do in great affairs, in the presence of a king or 
when the assembled people put you out of counte- 
nance, if you want the strength to reject a cup held 
out by a friend or to escape the clutches of a bore, 
but allow a driveller to have his will with you because 
you lack the firmness to say, " I'll see you another 
time ; just now I am busy " ? 

6. So too with the bestowal of praise : to practise 
and train ourselves not to be daunted in trivial and 
easy things is not without its use. Thus at a friend's 
banquet a citharode sings badly or a comic actor got 
for a great price murders Menander, and the crowd 
applauds and admires. Here I think it no hard or 
grievous matter to listen in silence and refrain from 
insincere and unmanly applause. For if you are not 
your own master here, what will you do when a friend 
reads a wretched poem or declaims a silly and pre- 
posterous speech ? You will of course praise him and 
join the flatterers in their applause. How then will 
you correct him when he errs in the affairs of life ? 
How admonish him when he is misguided in the case 
of some office, marriage, or policy of state ? For my 
part I cannot even approve Pericles' a answer to the 
friend who asked him to give false testimony under 

° C/. Mor. 186 c, 808 a ; Aulus Gellius, i. 3. 20 ; Leutsch 
and Schneidewin, Paroem. Gr. ii, p. 523. 

3 Ko\aK€vovoi] KoXaKevfiaat, Gk 1 . 

4 iv TTpdynaaw] iv ypo.yi\iaoiv W ; 7r/>ay/z,aoxv N ; D Rn 1 ySs 
hi omit. 

61 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(531) <t / <-> o ~ i f \ * * >> \ f \ » \ 

t> ^X? 1 TOV P^jjlov (piAos eipa • Aiav yap eyyvs 

rjXdev, 6 8e 7T6ppcodev iavrov edioas fJLrjrz Xeyov- 

tos €7raiV€iv Trapa yvwpirjv fJLrjre aSovros Kpore.lv 

fJLTjT€ (JKOJTTTOVTOS d(j)VO)S ZTTiyeXaV OVK €OL(J€L \l^X? 1 

tovtov rrpoeXdelv ouS' elirelv irpos tov iv €K€lvois 
d8vaa)7TrjTov " opLoaov vrrep ipiov Kal t<x ifjevorj 
fjLCLpTvprjaov " koll " aTrocjyrjvai 1 Trapa to Sikcliov." 

7. Ovrcx) 8e Sec Kal rrpos rovs alrovvras dpyvpiov 
avraipeiv, rrpoeOi^oixevov iv rols fJLrjre pieydXois 
fJLrjre SvaTTapaiTrjTOLS . 'Apx^Xaos fJ^ev yap 6 tqjv 
MoLKeSovcov /3aorAeu9 Trapa heZnvov alrrjdeis eKircu- 
/xa xpvaovv vtt* dvdpcoTTov jJLrjSev rjyovfjievov kolXov 

E fj to Xapifidveiv eKeXevaev JLvpnriSrj rov ttcuScl 
hovvai, Kal 7rpos rov dvdpojTTov CKeXvov aTTofiXeipas , 
ov [lev," 2 etrrev, " alrelv eTurrfizios el Kal [xrj 
Xapifidveiv , ovtos Se Aa/xj8dVetv 3 Kal fjurj alrwv," 
apiora rod ScSovai Kal yapi^eodai Kvpiov ttolcov to 
Kpivov dXXd pur) to SvaajTrovfievov rjjjLels 8e ttoX- 
XaKis dv9pd)Trov$ imeiKeZs Kal oiKelovs Kal Seo- 
lievovs 7repiopa)VT€s iripoLS aiTOVow ivheXex&S Kal 
tTa/xa)? i8d)Ka/JL€v, ov oovvai OeXiqaavTes dXX dpviq- 
oaodai fir] SvvrjOevTes. uioirep* *AvTiyovos 6 yepojv 
vtto Blwvos 5 ivoxXrjOels iroXXaKis, " 86t€," elnev, 
Bia 8 TaXavTov Kal Ava/yKri" KaiToi /xaAtara 

F T(x)v fiaoiXiojv e/z/zeA^9 rjv Kal TTidavog diroTpi- 
fieoOai Ta TotavTa. kvvlkov yap ttot€ opaxp<r)v 
aiTTjoavTOS avTov, aAA ov paoiAiKov , ecprj, to 

1 anSfavai (and so C 2 )] faofave LC 1 W JK lss NMwYI. 

2 /xev] ixkv yap LC Gk 1 Xu I W *PK ; {lev fxev y. 

3 \afjLpdv€Lv (and so G 3v I)] Xa^dvci G 1 N. 

4 <X)G7T€p] OJG7T€p ydp Gk 1 . 

5 Blcdvos Casaubonus : piavros (j8iWti N). 
• piq. LC G^k 1 Xu I W Y lss : plavn (fitavra JK ; plan, q). 

62 



ON COMPLIANCY, 531 

oath, " As far as the altar I am your friend.' ' For this 
was getting much too close. Whereas he who keeps 
his distance by making it a practice never to praise a 
speech or applaud a song insincerely or laugh at a 
pointless joke, will call a halt long before there is any 
question of presuming so far or of saying to one who 
is independent in these ways " take an oath for me 
and give false testimony " or " pronounce an unjust 
verdict." 

7. The same method is to be used in opposing re- 
quests for money : we must first school ourselves in 
situations that are of no great moment, and where 
refusal is not difficult. Thus Archelaiis, king of the 
Macedonians, when asked at dinner for a golden cup 
by one whose only notion of propriety was that it is 
proper to receive, ordered the servant to give it to 
Euripides, and looking the fellow in the face re- 
marked : " You are just the man to ask and not 
receive ; he to receive even when he does not ask," 
wisely letting his judgement, and not any feeling of 
embarrassment, govern the disposal of his gifts and 
favours ; we, on the other hand, often pass over 
honest men, kinsmen, and those in need, to confer our 
gifts on others who are persistent and pressing in 
their demands, not that we consent to make the gift, 
but that we are too weak to refuse. Thus, repeatedly 
pestered by Bion, the aged Antigonus said : " Give 
Violence a and Coercion a talent." Yet he was the 
most adroit and plausible of kings at brushing such 
importunities aside. On one occasion, asked by a 
Cynic for a drachma, he answered : " Kings do not 

a Bia in the Greek. 

63 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(531) 86jjlcl "• rov 8e vttotv)(6vtos , s< 809 ovv fxoi rdXav- 
tov," a7rrjVTr]G€V ' y " dXX ov kvvlkov to ArjfjLfjba." 
AtoyeV^s jJ>€V ovv tovs dv8pidvras j}T€i rrepudjv iv 
KepajuetAco) Kal Trpog rovg Oavpud^ovras eXeyev diro- 
rvyxdveiv pbeXerav rjfjuv 8e TTpcorov ipLpueXer^reov 
iorl tols (fravXois Kal yvpuvaoreov irepl rd puKpa 
irpos to dpvelodai rols alrovoiv ov TTpoorjKovrtos, 
532 wa tols rrpooriKovrajs 1 Xrjipop,€VOLS emKovpelv e^co- 
fxev ov8els yap, a>9 o ArjfiocrOevrjs (f)7]oriv, et? a /jltj 
Set Karava Act) eras' rd rrapovra ra>v purj irapovrajv 
€V7ToprjG€i TTpos a Set. ytverai 8e tjjjllv TToXXarrXd- 

GlOV TO atOXpOV OTOLV iXXl7TOJjJL€V 2 €19 T(X KaXd 

7TXeovdoavT€s rols 7TepiTTols. 

8. 'E776t 8e ov xp^^drojv jjlovov 3 rj 8voa>iria kolkt] 
kcli dyvcbfJLCov oiKovopLos eoriv, dXXd Kal 7T€pl rd 
fjLCL^ova TTapaipelrai^ to ovpicfrepov rod Xoyiopbov 
(Kal yap larpov vooovvres ov 7TapaKaXovfi€v rov 
€fi7T€ipov aloxwofjievoi rov ovvrjOr), Kal Traial SiSa- 
B OKaXovs dvrl rcov xp^tTTtov rov? irapaKaXovvras 
alpovfieda, Kal 8lkt]v exovres iroXXaKts ovk icofiev 

€LTT€LV TOV OX^eXifJiOV Kal dyopdiOV, aAA' OLK€LOV 

twos rj ovyyevovs veto x a P L ^°l Jb€V01 TrapeowKaficv 
epmavryyv pio ai> reXos 8e ttoXXovs eortv I8elv Kal 
to)V c/)iXooo(j)€Xv XeyofJLevojv 'ETTtKovpecovs Kal StcdI- 
kovs dvraSy oi>x eXopuevovs ov8e Kpivavras dXXd 
TrpooOepilvovs 8voojttovolv olkclols Kal <{)lXols 5 ) (f>€pe 

1 Iva rots it poor) kovt us supplied by Paton (ha toZs kclt d^lav 
by Wilamowitz). 

2 iXXl7TO)IX€V (-W(Jl S aC )] i\\€L7TQ)fJL€V W hi l aC . 

3 fiovov] fiovcov NM Yl; Zab omit. 

4 napaipeiTai (-re D)] TTapaireZrai LC W ac R hi MZab vw f. 

5 oIk. koX <j>i\. (and so C 2 )] oik€lovs Kal <f>lXovs (L illegible) C 1 
Gk 1 Xu (-koI- N) M 1 Ylf*q. 



ON COMPLIANCY, 531-532 

give so little " ; and when the other countered, " Then 
give me a talent," he replied, " Or Cynics take so 
much." a Now Diogenes went about the Cerameicus 
soliciting the statues, and said to the astonished specta- 
tors that he was getting in condition to meet refusals ; 
we, however, must first practise on the vulgar and 
train ourselves in trivial matters to rebuff those who 
present unfitting requests, that we may have the 
means to succour those on whom our bounty will be 
fittingly bestowed. For no one, says Demosthenes, 6 
after spending what he has on what he should not, will 
be able to spend what he has not on what he should. 
And our disgrace c is rendered many times greater 
when we are short of funds for worthy ends because we 
were lavish in expenditures that were not called for. 
8. Since compliancy is not only a wasteful and in- 
judicious manager of an estate, but in graver concerns 
as well deprives us of the fruits of understanding — 
when in illness, for example, we do not call in the ex- 
pert in the disease, fearing to offend our family practi- 
tioner ; or when to instruct our children we choose not 
those who are competent but those who beg for the 
employment d ; or when in a lawsuit, as we often do, 
we do not commit our case to one who can help us 
from his familiarity with the courts, but in order to 
oblige a friend's or kinsman's son allow him to practise 
declamation at our expense ; and when to crown it 
all we can see many so-called philosophers who are 
Epicureans or Stoics not from choice or judgement, 
but because they acceded to importunate relations or 

° Cf. Seneca, On Benefits, ii. 17. 1. b Or. 3. 19. 

c Cf. Mor. 90 e : " For it is not so honourable to do a good 
turn to a friend as it is disgraceful not to do it when he is in 
need ; . . . " 

d Cf. Mor. 4 d. 

VOL. VII d 65 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(532) 8rj /cat rrpos tclvtcl TroppojOev iv toZs emrv)(ov(n /cat 
IxiKpols yvpLvd^ajfiev eavrovs, eOit.ovres \xyyre KovpeZ 
fjLrjre yva^eZ 1 Kara 8vaamLav xpfjad at firjSe 2 koltcl- 
Xvetv iv (fxivAco 7Tav8oK€ia) fieXriovos Trapovros on 

C ttoXXolkls 6 TravSohceps rjGTrd&aTO rjfJL&s, aAA' edovs 
eW/ca, Kav fj rrapa jjuKpov, alpeZuQai to jSe'Artov, 
c!)(j7T€p ol UvdayopiKol 7rap€(j)vXaTTOV del /x^Se7rore 3 
rto 8e£itp psVjpcp tov evcovvfjiov iiriTiOevai fjir)8e tov* 
dprtov dvrl rod irepiTTod XafieZv tcov dXXojv €7T lgtjs 
eypvTOdv, idiOTeov 8e 5 /cat Ovoiav Troiovpbevov 77 
ydpLov rj Tiva dXXrjv tolclvttjv viroho^v pur) tov 
daTTaodfjievov KaXeZv r) rrpoaSpa/zcWa pidXXov r) tov 
evvovv /cat xprjGTov 6 yap ovtojs idicrdels /cat 
daicrjaas hvadXojTos carat, jitaAAov Se oAaJS" dveiri- 
XecprjTos, iv rot? jit€t£ocrt. 

D 9» He pi jjiev ovv doKiqoeojs t/cava /cat raura' 

TCOV Se -%pV)oL\L03V €77tAoytajLtd)V TTpOJTOS ioTLV 6 StSa- 
OKOJV /Cat VTTO\ll\lVT](JKOJV OTL TTaOL [JL€V ToZs TTaQeOlV 

aKoXovOeZ /cat rot? voor)\xaoiv a fyevyeiv St' clvtcov 
8okov{jl€V dSo^tat </>tAoSo£tats" /cat Aurrat (fyiXrj- 
hoviais /cat ttovol /xaAa/ctats* /cat <j)iXoviKiais rjTTai 
/cat /caraSt/car ttj 8e hvaojrria avfi^e^Kev arc^co? 
(f)€vyovarj Kairvov dSo^tas els Trvp ipufiaXXeiv iavTrjv. 
alaxwopievoL yap dvTiXeyeiv toZs dyvojpiovojs 8vo- 
amovaiv voTepov 8vGOJ7TovvTat tovs St/cata)? ey- 
KaXovvTas y /cat 8e8iOTes fxe/jufjiv iXacjtpdv 7roAAa/ct9 
E alaxvvrjv ofjLoXoyovfJLevrjv VTTopLevovcriv /cat yap 

atTOVVTOS dpyVpLOV 6 <j)iXoV 8vOOJ7T7)9eVTeS aVT€LTT€LV 

1 yva<f>€i\ ypafel (y legible in L)C J N lss (-rj N u ) vw ; Kvafel 
Dab RnSs hi ; W y are wanting. 2 p.r)hk Bern. : /Lujre. 

3 fjLTjSeTTOTe] fii]7roT€ Gk 1 . 4 tov] to Reiske. 

5 8e] ovv LC. 6 alrovvros dpyvpiov] dpyvpiov alrovvros LC. 
66 



ON COMPLIANCY, 532 

friends — let us keep a wide berth and train ourselves 
for these situations too on ordinary people and in 
trivial occasions, accustoming ourselves not to patron- 
ize a barber or fuller from fear of giving offence or to 
put up at a bad inn when a better can be had because 
the innkeeper has often greeted us, but instead, for 
the habit's sake, to choose the better, though the odds 
be small, as the Pythagoreans always took care never 
to cross the left leg over the right or to take the even 
number instead of the odd, when otherwise there was 
no difference. We must also form the habit when 
celebrating a sacrifice or marriage or giving some 
other entertainment of not inviting a person who has 
greeted us or run up to welcome us in preference to a 
friend and honest man ; for one who has this habit 
and training will in greater matters be no easy victim, 
or rather will be quite proof against assault. 

9- So much for training. To pass to useful re- 
flexions : the first is that which teaches and reminds 
us that all passions and disorders involve us in what 
we think we are avoiding by their means a : ambition 
leads to disgrace, love of pleasure to pain, indolence 
to toil, contentiousness to discomfiture and defeat at 
law ; and it turns out that compliancy, in its dread of 
getting a bad name, escapes the smoke to fall into 
the fire. 6 For when men are too embarrassed to re- 
fuse unreasonable petitioners they later must incur 
the embarrassment of just reproaches ; and from 
dread of trifling censure they must often put up with 
out-and-out disgrace. Thus having been too shy to 
refuse a friend's request for money that they do not 

° Cf. Mor. 502 e, 519 d, and Seneca, De Ira, i. 12. 5. 

6 The Greek for " out of the frying-pan into the fire " : cf. 
Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroem. Gr. i, pp. 314, 374 ; ii, 
pp. 220, 474, 684. 

67 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(532) ovk e^ovres olgx^I^ovovgl [L€T dXiyov e^eAey^o- 
iievoi, /cat /3or]9r)G€iv 6/JLoXoyrjoavTes eviois OIKTJV 
eypvoiv, elra rovs erepovs StarpaTrevre^ arnoKpv- 

TTTOVrai KOLL Opa7T€T€VOVGl. TToXXoVS 0€ KCLL TT€pl 

ydfiov 1 Ovyarpos 2 rj doeX^rjg et? oLioXoyiav dXvoi- 
reXrj /cara/cActCTacja ovacoTria ipevoeoQai rrdXiV dvay- 
/ca£et neTCLTidepLevovs. 

10. c O fJL€V yap €L7Twv on rrdvres ol TTjv 'Aatav 

kcltoikovvt€s ivl oovXevovviv dv9pd)irtp oid to litj 

F ovvaaOat iilav €ltt€lv ttjv ov crvXXa^rjv ovk icrTTov- 

Saaev aAA' eaKcoipev rols Se SvaajTrovpievot?, k&v 

LirjSev €L7Ta>aiv, e^eariv ocfrpvv errdpaui \iovov r\ 

KCLTO) KVlpaOL 77oAA(X9 d^OvXl^TOVS KCLL OLTOTTOVS 

viTovpyias 8ia<f)6vy€Lv 3 ' rrjv yap 4 glojtttjv 6 fiev 

Evpi7Tl87]S (f)7]al TOLS CJO(f)ols OLTTOKpLGLV €LVCU, KLV- 

SvvevojJLev 8e li&XXov avrrjs helodai irpos rovs dyvco- 
Liovas, irrel rovs ^apUvras eon /cat Traprjyoprjoai. 

Kat rcpoyeipd ye Set /cat 5 ovyyd tcjv liri^avGyv 
koX dyaOcov dvSpcov e^eiv aTTo^deypLara /cat pjvr)- 
Liovevetv TTpog rovs hvaamovvras' olov to Qwkiojvos 
533 rrpos ^Avrirrarpov' " ov Svvaoai (jlol /cat 6 (f)iXcp 
XpfjvOai /cat /cdAa/ct/' /cat rrpos rovs 'AOrjvatovs 
imSovvat KeXevovras avrov iv ioprfj /cat Kporovvras 3 

aioyyvoiiai, enrev, vlllv emoioovs rovrcp be 
fjLT) drroSiSovs," KaAAt/cAea 8ei£as rbv SaveiarrjV. 9 

1 ydfjiov] ydfjucov W. 

2 Ovyarpos Gk 1 n 1 : /cat irtpl Ovyarpos LC Xu W J X K M vw 
Ylfq ; 7) 7T€pl Ovyarpos aZab ; /cat Ovyarpos D RSs i N (jq 
Ovyarpos h ; y is wanting). 

3 Sta<f>€vy€iv] hia(j>vy€iv D. 

4 ydp] fiev ydp LC ; Se k 1 . 

5 /cat] W ac omits. 6 /cat] I 1 W omit. 

7 ata^uyojLtat] ato^wo/zat ydp LC Gk 1 v I W. 

8 vfjuv (r)/juv R vw)] vfitv fikv Gk 1 DZab. 

68 



ON COMPLIANCY, 532-533 

have, they presently cut a sorry figure when the truth 
comes out ; and having agreed to support one of the 
parties to a lawsuit, they then are so put out of 
countenance by the others that they hide and run 
away. And many, reduced by this feeling to con- 
senting to disadvantageous terms for a daughter's or 
a sister's marriage, are then driven by it in turn to 
break their word by making new arrangements. 

10. Now he who said that the entire population of 
Asia were one man's slaves because they could not 
say the one syllable " no," was not serious but jesting. 
Yet those who are importuned need not say anything : 
merely by raising the brows or dropping the eyes they 
can avoid rendering many reluctant and uncalled-for 
services. For while Euripides a asserts that silence is 
an answer to the wise, we are much more likely to 
need it in dealing with the inconsiderate, for reason- 
able men are open to persuasion. 

Yes, and we must also have in readiness a stock of 
sayings of illustrious and virtuous men and quote 
them to the importunate, as Phocion's reply to Anti- 
pater : " You cannot use me both as friend and 
flatterer," b and his answer to the Athenians who 
applauded him at a festival, clamouring for a special 
gift to the city : "I should be ashamed to give the 
money away to you and not back to him," pointing 
to Callicles the money-lender. For as Thucydides d 

° Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. p. 675, Eur. Frag. 977. 

b Cf. Life of Phocion, chap. xxx. 3 (755 b) ; Lives of Agis 
and Cleomenes, chap. ii. 4 (795 e) ; Mor. 64 c, 142 b, 188 r. 

c Cf. Life of Phocion, chap. ix. 1 (745 d) ; Mor. 188 a, 
822 e. 

d ii. 40. 1. 

9 hav.] 8av. avrov LC Gk Xu I W JK M 2 vwS 2 ; avrov 8av. 
Zab. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(533) " 7T€vlav yap ovx opboXoyelv alaxpov," <hs ®ovkv- 
8l8t]s (firjotv, " dAA' €pyco (jltj huufyevyeiv ataxiov"- 
6 8e dfieXrepla koll /jlclXclk la Trpog rov alrovvra 
SvacoTTovfJLevos elnelv 

ovk ear ev dvrpois XevKos, cS £eV, apyvpos, 

elra ojoirep eve^vpov Trpoepievos rrjv euayyeXiav 

alSovs ax<iAK€VTOL(JLV e^evKToa, TreSous. 

B o Se Hepcrcuos dpyvpiov tlvl tcov yvajpLjJLcov Savei£tuv 
Si' dyopds kcll rpa7Te^7]g eTroielro to avpL^oXatov 
jjLejjLvrjfjLevos SrjXovori rov 'HcuoSou Xeyovros 

Kai re KaoiyvrjTCp yeXdcras enl fidprvpa deodai' 

davfidaavros 8e eKeivov Kai elirovros, " ovrojs, 4> 
Uepoate, vojjlikcos ; " " vat," elirev, " tva (fiiXtKtos 
dnoXdficQ Kai firj vo/xt/cco? aTraLrrjoa) .' " rroXXol yap 
ev dpxfj Sia, Svocorriav Trpoepievoi to ttlgtov vorepov 
exprjoavro tols vopiiixois 1 puer^ ex@P a S' (H») TrdXiv 
6 nAdVcDV 'EAi/caw tw Kt>£i/c7ji/a> SiSovs TTpOS 

C AlOVVGLOV €7TLOToXrjV eTTTjVeoeV ai)TOV CO? i7TL€LKTJ 

Kai puerpiov, elra irpooeypaifje rfj emoroXfj reXev- 
twot]' " ypd(f)(x> 8e ool ravra Trepl dvdpwirov, £coot> 
cf)vo€L evpLerafioXov." llevoKpdrrjs 8e Ka'nrep avorrj- 

P&S COV TOV TpOlTOV OfJLCDS VTTO SvOOJTTLaS €Kd[JL(f)9rj 

Kai ovveorrjoe YloXvnepxovri Si' e7noroXfjs dvdpaj- 
7tov ov x? y ] OT ^ v i *PS to epyov ehei^ev 8e£ia)orafJL€Vov 
he avrov rod Ma/ceSoVos 1 Kai rrvdofievov fjurj tlvos 
€%ol xpzlov, rjrrjoe rdXavrov 6 Se eKeivto puev eSco/ce 

1 vo/jli/jlois (-cos N)] suspected by Wilamowitz. 

° Cf. Nauck, Trag, Graec, Frag., Adespota, no. 389. 
70 



ON COMPLIANCY, 5SS 

says, " the confession of poverty is no disgrace ; what 
is disgraceful is the failure to avoid the reality." But 
he who in his silly spinelessness is too meek to say to 
a suitor 

But sir, no silver shines within my caves a 

and then proceeds to surrender his promise, as a 
pledge, 

Lies bound in honour's gyves, unforged by man. b 

Lending money to one of his followers Persaeus drew 
up a contract in the market-place with a banker, 
evidently remembering Hesiod c : 

Be he your brother, laugh and call a witness. 

The other was surprised and said : "So legal, Per- 
saeus ? " " Yes," he answered, " that the sum may 
be repaid in the way of friendship, not reclaimed by 
way of law." For many who start out by waiving 
security for fear of giving offence later go to law and 
lose their friend. (11.) Again, giving Helicon of 
Cyzicus a letter to Dionysius, Plato commended the 
bearer as good and estimable, but added at the close : 
" I write this to you about a mortal man, a creature 
naturally unstable." d But Xenocrates despite the 
rigour of his character gave in to pressure and wrote 
to Polyperchon a letter of introduction for a worthless 
fellow, as appeared from the event. When the Mace- 
donian welcomed him and inquired if he needed any- 
thing, the man asked for a talent. Polyperchon gave 

6 Cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Eur. Peirithas, no. 595 ; 
quoted also in Mor. 96 c, 482 a, 763 f. 

c Works and Days, 371. 

d Ep. xiii. 360 c-d, cited from memory ; also quoted in 
Mor, 463 c and 474 e, 

71 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(533) Eevo/cpdret Se eypai/je rrapaLVtov eTTLpLeXeorepov to 
Xolttov i^erd^eiv ovs avvLcrrrjoLV, 6 p,ev ovv Eevo- 
Kparrjs rjyvorjoev r) peels 8e /cat rrdw rroXXaKLS cttl- 
ordpuevoL rovs rrovrjpovs /cat ypd/x/xara TrpolepLeOa 

I) KCLL XpTjpLCLTCL, f3\cL7TTOVT€S iaVTOVS OV /X€0' r)8oV7)S 

toorrep ol rats iralpctLS xapt£djU,£Vot ^at T °fc k6Acl£lv, 
dXXd hva^epaivovres kcll fiapvvopLevoL rrjv aVat'Setav 
avarperrovoav rjpLtov /cat /carajSta^o/xeVryv rov Aoyt- 
cr/xov. el yap TTpos aXXo tl, /cat rrpos rovs 8vo- 

COTTOVVTCLS €^€CTTLV €L7T€LV TO 

jjLCLvddvco pi€V ofa 8pav /xeAAa) 1 /ca/ca 
ra ifsevSrj puaprvpcov tj tc\ [jltj St/cata Kplvcov rj ra pcrj 

OVfJL(/)€pOVTCL yjELpOTOvQiV Tj 8aV€ LL^6fJL€VO£ V7T€p TOV 
[JLTj a7To8(X)OOVTOS . 

12. Ato tlov 7radtdv /xaAtara rep 2 8voco7T€lct6cll 
to 3 fieravoelv ovx vcrrepov, aAA' evOvs iv ots rrpdrreL 
TrdpeoTL* /cat yap 8l86vt€S dx^opieOa /cat pLaprv- 

E povvres aloxvvopieda /cat avvepyovvres dSo£o£- 
/xev /cat purf rrapexovres eAey^o^tefla. 7roAAa yap 
vtt* dodevelas rod dvrtAeyetv /cat tlov dSvvdrcov 
rjpZv VTTLaxvovpieda rot? XnrapovoLV ? cos ovordaeLS 
iv avXats /cat 777)09 rjyepuovas 6 ivrev^€LS s firj /JouAo- 
/xevot /zrySe cuTOVouvre? elirelv " ovk ot8ev rjpias 6 
pacrLXzvs, aAA' iripovs opa 1 fxaXXov "• a>9 Aucrav- 
SpO? 'AyrjGLXdtp 7TpOOK€KpOVKCOS d^LovpLevog 8e /xe- 

F ytcrrov 8vvaa6aL Trap* avrco Std r^v 8o£av oi5/c 

1 5pav fieXXco (and so ms. L of Euripides and all other cita- 
tions)] fieXXco Spdv LC Gk 1 Xi> W J X K vw ; toA^iJoco MSS. 
ABVP of Euripides. 

2 tG) D : rov (and so G 4 ; to G 1 ). 

3 to (and so G 4 )] tov G 1 R (vw omit). 

72 



ON COMPLIANCY, 533 

it but wrote to Xenocrates advising him in future 
to scrutinize more carefully the persons he recom- 
mended. Now Xenocrates acted in ignorance ; we, 
however, although often well aware that a man is a 
scoundrel, yet part with letters and money, injuring 
ourselves without the pleasure got by those who in- 
dulge courtesans and flatterers, but loathing and re- 
senting the brazen importunity that overthrows and 
masters our reason. For to no one more aptly than 
to those who wring concessions from us by their im- 
portunity can we say 

I know the evil I set out to do ° — 

in giving false testimony, rendering an unjust verdict, 
voting for an inexpedient measure, or borrowing for 
one who will never repay. 

12. Thus it is in facility, more than in any other 
disorder, that regret is not subsequent to the act, but 
present from the first : when we give, we chafe ; 
when we testify, we are ashamed ; when we act as 
partners, we are disgraced ; — and when we fail to 
perform, the sorry truth comes out. For being too 
weak to refuse we promise persistent suitors many 
things beyond our power, such as presentation at 
court or introduction to a governor, for want of the 
will and the firmness to say : " I am unknown to the 
king ; you must apply elsewhere," as Lysander, who 
after the break with Agesilaiis was still supposed from 
his celebrity to stand high in his favour, was not 

° Euripides, Medea, 1078. 

4 iir]\ Gk 1 omit (R is wanting). 

5 Xiirapovoiv Meziriacus : dei irapovaiv (-01 v). 

6 rjyefxovas] rjyefjLOvos D. 

7 6pa D c and Madvig : 6pa. 

73 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(533) f]crxvv€TO Trapatre la9 at rovs IvTvyyavovTas , ame'vax 1 
TTpos erepovs KeXevojv Kal Treipaodai tojv fxaXXov 
avrov Trapa rep jSacnAet Swafxevajv . ov yap aloypov 
to fJLrj iravra Svvaodou- to Se 2 firj Swapievovs rj (jltj 
rrecfrvKOTas dvaheyeodaL tol TOiavTa Kal Trapafiia- 

{,€odai TTpOS TO> aiO%pCp Z \vTTt]pOTCLTOV €OTLV. 

13. ^Att* dXXr]s Se apx^js' ra fJiev fieTpta Kal 

TTpeTTOVTCL Set 7Tpo6vfJLO>S VTTOVpyeZv Tols d^LOVOL 

534 p,rj Svoamovpievovs aAA' e/coVras', 4 ev Se tols jSAa- 

fiepols Kal OLTOTTOLS TO TOV TjTjVOJVOS del TTpOyeLpOV 

eyew, os 5 drravTrjoas veavLoKto tlvI 6 twv avvrjdcov 
rrapa to TeZyos r r)vvxfj j8a8i£oi>Ti koll rrvOopLevos otl 
c/)€vy€L <f)LXov a^LOVVTa [jLapTvpelva vtco tol ifjevSrj, 
" tl XeyeLS," ^tjolv, " a/3e'Arepe; ere pukv £k€lvos 
ayvcofJLOvujv Kal clSlkcov ov Se'Stev ov8e aicr^uveTai, 

OV 8e €K€LVOV V7T€p TCOV StACCUCOV OV 6app€LS V7TO- 

GTrjvaL ; " o /zev ya/> elrrojv 

TTOtI TTOVTJpOV OVK CLXprjOTOV OTtXoV OL TTOVTJpLa 

B KaKtos e#t£ei pLLpLovpLevov dfivveoOaL ttjv KaKLav, 
to Se tovs avatSco? Kal dSvoajrnjTOJS evoyXovvTas 
aTTOTpifieodaL tco d8vooj7T7]Ttp, Kal /jlt] yapL^eodaL 
tcl aloypd tols dvaLuyvvTOLS alcrywopLevov, opdebs 

Kal SlKOLOJS yLVOjJL€VOV €OTLV VTTO TO)V VOVV lyOVTiOV. 

14. "Etc. to lvvv tcov 8voojttovvtojv tols fJLev 
d86£oLS Kal TarreLVols Kal (JLrjSevds d^ioLS ov fieya 

1 aincvai M 2 C 2 Zab : airzivai (aTrrjvai Y ac ). 

2 hk (and so G vet )] G 1 Xv W omit. 

3 After alGXpa> DZab have kol. 

4 eKovras Meziriacus : gikovtols (-to D ; zlkovtos L?C). 

5 os] us D N. 

6 oltt. veav. tlvl LC Gk Xu W JK (veav, tlvl air. vw) : air. (out, 
D Rns N 1 ) tlvl veav, 

74 



ON COMPLIANCY, 533-534 

ashamed to turn suitors away, directing them to 
others, and telling them to resort to those who had 
more influence with the king. a For there is no dis- 
grace in not being omnipotent ; whereas to under- 
take such services and to force matters when we have 
not the power or the talent required, is not only 
ignominious but mortifying in the extreme. 

13. There is another point of view. Reasonable 
and proper services we must render gladly to those 
that ask them, not in helpless submission, but because 
we choose to. But when the service is harmful and 
unjustified we must always be ready with the saying 
of Zeno. 6 Meeting a young man of his acquaintance 
pacing slowly by the city wall, and learning that he 
was avoiding a friend who expected him to give false 
testimony in his behalf, Zeno said : " Fool ! This 
man, who is dealing unfairly and unjustly, has no 
fear or respect for you ; and you, to defend the right, 
dare not stand up to him ? " For he who said 

A handy arm with knaves is knavery c 

recommends to us the bad habit of resisting vice by 
resorting to it ; whereas to rid ourselves of brazen 
and unabashed suitors by being unabashed ourselves, 
and not, by giving in to shame, to render shameful 
favours to the shameless, is what is rightly and justly 
done by men of sense. 

14. Again when suitors are obscure, of humble 
station, and of little worth, it is no great trouble to 

° Cf. Xenophon, Hell. iii. 4. 8, also referred to in the Life 
of Agesilaiis, chap. vii. 8 (599 e). 

b Von Arnim, Stoicorum Vet. Frag. i. 313 (p. 69). 

Kaibel, Comicorum Graec. Frag, i, p. 142, Epicharmus, 
no. 275 ; quoted also in Mor. 21 e. 

75 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(534) epyov avrtcr^etv, dAAd /cat pberd yiXayros evtot /cat 

GKcbfJLlJLaTOS €KkXlVOVOI TOVS TOLOVTOVS, 1 (h$ 06O- 

Kpiros, Sveiv avrov 2 iv fiaXaveicp o-rAeyy t'Sa Kt^pa- 
fievcoVy rov puev £evov, rov Se yvcopifjiov kXItttov, 
fjLera TratSta? dpLcfrorepovs SteKpovaaro eiTrwv, 3 " ae 

[JL€V OVK OtSa, G€ Se OtSa." * Au(7t/xa^7J §6 'A^VT}- 

C oiVy r) rrjs HoXtdSos lepeia, rcov ret tepd rrpoo- 
ayayovrcov opecuKo/Jicov lyyzai KeXevovrcov > " aAA' 5 
okvca)," elrrev, ' j^ 7 ) ^at rovro rrdrpiov yevrjTai." 

KCLL * AvTiyOVOS TTpOS TIVCL VEaVLOKOV yeyOVOTa fJL€V 

€K Xoxayov x a P^ €Vro ^y avrov S' droXpiov ovra /cat 

fJLdXaKOV, dtjiOVVTOL &€ TrpOCLxdrjVCLL, 6 " Trap 9 €fJLOl," 

(f)7]GLV y " to pbetpaKLov, avhpayadias elalv ov rrarpa- 
yaOLas Tt/zatV 

15. Kat p,r)v edvrrep 6 8vora>7rtov evoo^os rj /cat 
Svvcltos (ot $r) fidXtdra /cat 7 SvaTrapairrjToi /cat 

SvcrCLTTOTpiTTTOL* TT€pi T0L9 KpL(J€lS /Cat TCZS" X 6t P°" 

rovias evrvyxdvovres eloiv), o fxkv errpa^ev 6 KdVa>v 
D veos tbv ert 77/009 KdrvW ovk dv rivi (fxiveirj 
pdhtov lacog oz3S' dvay/catov. 6 yap KdrAos" ^v /zei> 
iv d^LtofJiaTL rcov c Pa)/xata)v /zeytara) /cat rore tt)v 
TLfJLrjTiKrjv dpx^jv ^X €V ' dvefirj Se rrpos rov 9 VLdrwva 
rerayfjeevov irrl rov Stj/jloolov rapaeiov TrapaiTrj- 
aofjievos riva rcov i£,r]iJLLa>iJL€va)v vtt* avrov /cat At- 

1 tows' tolovtovs (and so G 2 )] rots' tolovtols G 1 . 

2 avTov] avTmv v ; avTco RnySs hi ab M 2 Y ls8 ] 1 ^ss)fis3 q 2ss . 
avTa> tov M 1 ; Trap* avTov D (rrap* avTov Z) ; Pohlenz would 
delete. 

3 elncbv] etnas G^k 1 J 1 !^ (etnas G 3a <> X x t, W K a <> M 1 Yl) ; 
G 1 omits. 

4 ou/c otSa o€ Se otSa (R omits ere Se ofSa)] otSa oe Se ou/c otSa 
LC vw. 5 aAA* (and so G 4 )] G 1 omits. 

6 TTpoaxOrjvai {TrpaxBrjvai K ac )] rrpocraxdrjvaL G aras Y aras , 

7 /cat] D omits. 

76 



ON COMPLIANCY, 5U 

resist them ; some indeed put them off with an 
amusing jest. Thus when two men in a bath-house 
wanted to borrow Theocritus' ° scraper, the one a 
stranger, the other a thieving acquaintance, he evaded 
both with a quip : " You I don't know, you I do." At 
Athens Lysimache, priestess of Athene Polias, when 
asked for a drink by the muleteers who had brought 
the sacred vessels, replied : "I fear it will get into 
the ritual." And Antigonus answered when a certain 
youth whose father was a distinguished captain, but 
who lacked resolution and courage himself, asked for 
advancement : " At my court, my boy, it is a man's 
valour and not his father's that is rewarded." b 

15. But if the petitioner is a man of prominence and 
power — and these are the hardest to refuse and shake 
off when they appeal to us about a verdict or an 
appointment — the course indeed that was taken by 
Cato, while still a young man, in dealing with Catulus, 
would hardly, I think, commend itself as easy or 
necessary. Catulus, of all the Romans the most 
highly regarded, held the office of censor at the time. 
He had gone up c to see Cato, who was in charge 
of the public treasury , d to intercede for one of the 

° Theocritus of Chios, historian and wit of the fourth 
century. For the story cf. the Philogelos, no. 150 (p. 34 
Eberhard). 

b Cf. Mor. 183 d and Stobaeus, Anth. iv. 29 b 39 (pp. 717 f. 
Hense). 

c Cato was in the treasury, on the slope of the Capitoline. 

d Catulus was censor in 65 b.c. : cf. T. R. S. Broughton, 
The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, vol. ii (New York, 
1952), p. 157. Broughton (ibid. pp. 163 and note 5) assigns 
Cato's quaestorship to 64. 

8 hvOdTTOTplTTTOl A 2 VW : -€7TTOL (-C7TTOS N 2 ). 

9 rov Gk Xv W J N Ylfq : the rest omit (and so C vet ; 
LC 1 are wanting). 

77 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(534) Traprjs eyivero 1 rats Serjaeoi 7rpoo-/3ta£o/xevos > , axpi 
ov Svoavaoxerrjaas eKelvos, " aloxpov €otlv/ > ecfrr), 
" KdVAe, ere rov TipLrjTrjv aTraXXayfjvai per) jSouAd- 
puevov ivrevdev vtto tcov ipitbv vrnqpercbv eA/ccaflat ' ' * 
/cat o KarAo? ala^yvdels 7rpos opyrjv anrjAdev. 
E oK07Tei Se /jltj to 2 tov 'AyrjoiXdov /cat to tov 
QepuaroKAeovs 3 eVtet/ceorepoV cart /cat fxerpicorepov. 
6 {lev yap ' AyrjolXaos vtto tov irarpos KeXevopLevos 
Kplvai riva Slkyjv rrapa rov vopuov, " dAA' vtto gov," 
e<f)7], * Trdrep, TreiOeoOai rols vopuois eStSaa/cou^r 
077' o\px^S' Sto /cat vvv ooi neLOopbai purfhev Troieiv* 
TrapdvopLov." 6 Se QepucrTOKXrjs npos rov HtpojVLSrjv 
d^iovvrd tl tcjv put) St/cata>v, " ovt av ov 7TOLrjrrj^ 
ayauos eir)s t €</>?), Trapa pieAos aoa>v ovt av eyco 
Xprjcrros apycx>v rrapa vopuov kpivwv." (16.) /catrot 
ov Std ttjv tov rrohos Trp6s ttjv Xvpav d/xer/Hav, 5 a>? 
HXaTOJV* eAeye, /cat TroXeis iroXeoi /cat ^t'Aot <f)iXois 
F hia<f)€p6pL€Voi tol ecr^ara 7 Spcoot T€ /cat Ttdaypvoiv , 
aAAa 8t<x T17V 7rept tcx vopupia /cat St/cata rrXrjpLpLe- 
Aetav. aAA 5 SfJLCos eVtot ttjv 8 iv /xe'Aecrt /cat ypdpu- 
uaat /cat pueTpois aKpifieiav avTol (jivXaTTOVTes 
CTepovs iv dpxeus kcu Kpioeai /cat irpd^eaiv d^tou- 
cxtv dAtyajpetv tou /caAcos* e^ovTOS. Sto /cat tovtco 9 
/xdAtara XPV GT * 0V ^P^S avTovs. ivTvyxdvei vol 

1 eytverd LC G 3? k Xu W DZn JK C ? vw fq : ^&t*i 

2 ^ r3 LC 1 Gk 1 XuIWDH: /cal ro MZab vw 1 ; ^ 
/cat to RnySs C 2 k 2 N Yfq ; /jltj /cat hi. 

3 dcfiioTOKteovs] TTcpiKXeovs DZ RnVSs N M 1 Yl. 

4 Trotetv (ttoi^ W ac ? N 1 )] Trotcuv Matthad. 

5 Trpos r. A. d/xcrptav] d/Lterptav 7rpos" t. A. G 3 . 

6 7rAdrajv] d 7rActTOJv Gk 1 Xu h. 

78 



ON COMPLIANCY, 534, 

persons he had fined, and urged his appeal with great 
insistence. Cato at last lost patience and said : It 
is unseemly, Catulus, that you, the censor, since you 
won't take yourself off, should be thrown out by my 
staff." a Catulus was abashed and left in anger. But 
consider whether the conduct of Agesilaiis and Themi- 
stocles was not more courteous and moderate. Told 
by his father to render an illegal verdict in a certain 
case, Agesilaiis said : " But it was you, father, that 
taught me from childhood to obey the laws ; I am 
therefore obeying you when I do nothing unlawful." 
When Simonides asked an unjustified favour Themi- 
stocles answered : " You would not be a good poet 
if in your singing you failed to observe the music, nor I 
a proper officer if in my judgements I failed to ob- 
serve the law." b (16.) Yet, as Plato c said, it is not 
discord of measure and music that sets city against 
city and friend against friend and leads them to in- 
flict and undergo the greatest calamities, but jarring 
errors in law and justice. Nevertheless some, them- 
selves sticklers for propriety in music, words, and 
metre, expect others who hold office, render verdicts, 
and are engaged in public affairs to disregard what is 
proper. This therefore is the very point that we must 
chiefly use against them. A pleader appeals to you 

a Cf. Life of Cato the Younger, chap. xvi. 6-8 (755 d) ; 
Mor. 808 e. 

b Cf Life of Themistocles, chap. v. 6 (114 c) ; Mor. 185 d, 
807 b. 

c Clitophon, 407 c-d ; quoted also in Mor. 439 c. 

7 ra eox aTa [Plato] and Mor. 439 c : ra Aa^tcrra L W N 1 q 
(ra iXaxiora N 2 ; TaAa^tara with or without a grave accent on 
Tci the rest) ; ra KaKiara D A 2ss EZ 2ss ; ra alox^ora Reiske. 

8 tt)v DZab (rav S c? s) : ra>v. 

9 rovrw] tovto LC G 1 Xu n hi N w ac Y ac? f. 

79 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(534) Slkol^ovti prjrcop 77 fiovXevovTi SrjfjLayajyos* o/jloXo- 
yrjoov iav €K€ivos ooXoiKucrrj TTpooipna^ofjievos rj 
papfiapLorr) St^yoi^evos" ov yap ideXtfoei Sta, to 
(f)aLv6fJb€Vov aloxpov iviovs yovv opcofxev ov8e (fxjovrj- 
€Vtl ovyKpovaai <f>ojvfjev iv rco Xeyeiv VTTOfievovras. 
535 erepov ttoXlv hvoamovvTa tcov inifyavodv koX iv- 
86£cov KeXevoov opxcufJievov St' dyopas Sie^eXOeZv 1 
rj Siaarpei/javra to TrpocrcoTrov iav Se apvfjrai, 06s 
ioTiv 6 Kaipos €L7T€lv Kal rrvdeodai tl alcrxpov 2 
iarw, to croAot/ctaat 3 /cat hiaorpeifjai to TTpooojTrov 
7) to Xvoai, tov vopuov Kal TTapafifjvat, tov opKov koX 
TrXeov vet/xat rw 7rovrjpcp tov dyadov irapa to 
St/catov. ert tolvvv, cocnrep Nt/cdarparos' d 'Ap- 
yeto? 'Ap^tSa/zou irapaKaXovvTos avTov inl XPV~ 
/>taat ttoXXols Kal yajxco yvvaiKos <S 4 jSouAerat 
AaKauvrjg npohovvai Kpco/zvov ovk ecfrrj yeyovivai 
tov 'Ap^t'Sa^ov d</>' 'Hpa/cAeous" £k€lvov fxev ydp 

B OL7TOKT LVVVVai 7T€pUOVTa 5 TOV$ TTOVrjpOVS, TOVTOV 

Se tovs xP r ] <TTOV ^ TToielv Trovrjpovs' ovto) Kal rj/juv 
7rpos dv9pa)7Tov d£iovvTa koXov Kayadov Xeyeodai 
pr)T€ov> av 6 jSta^rat /cat 7 Svoamfj, jjltj rrpeTTovTa 
TToieiv 8 jjlt]$€ a£ta ttjs irtpl avTov evyeveias Kal 9 
dpeTTJs. 

17. 'Em Se tcov (f>avXa)v opav XP^) /cat hiavoeloOai 

tov <f)iXdpyvpov el SvoajTrrjoet? dvev avpLpoXaiov 

avetaat TaAavTOV 77 tov (piAOTipbov eKOTrjvai ttjs 

irpoehpias rj tov cfriXapxov 11 Tr)s irapayyeXias eVt- 

1 he{€\6€tv (L illegible ; S«?|- C)^Gk 41 Xv W ,PK : iieXdelv. 

2 ri alaxpov] tls aloxpov W ; rl aiox^ov Leonicus and Dona- 
tus Polus. 

3 ooXoiKioai (and so G 4 ; -rjaai C ac ; -ta N ; -tcrat 1)] opxqoa- 
aOai G x k. 4 cS] ijs DZ. 

5 irepaovra G 3 k W DZab S M vw fq : irepiovra. 

80 



ON COMPLIANCY, 534,-535 

when you are hearing a case, or a party-leader when 
you hold a seat in the council : give your consent if 
he will commit a solecism in his proem or a barbarism 
in his narration. For this he will not do because it 
appears unseemly — indeed we see that some cannot 
even abide the collision of one vowel with another 
in making a speech. Another shameless petitioner is 
an eminent and respectable personage : tell him to 
dance a or make a face as he passes through the 
market-place. If he refuses, it is your cue to speak 
and inquire which is unseemly — to commit a solecism 
and make a face, or to break the law, to perjure your- 
self, and unjustly to favour a scoundrel at the expense 
of an upright man ? Furthermore, as Nicostratus 
the Argive, & when offered by Archidamus a great sum 
and his choice of the Spartan women in marriage if 
he would betray Cromnon, called Archidamus no true 
Heraclid, since Heracles had gone about killing male- 
factors, while Archidamus was making malefactors of 
honest men, in the same way we must say to one that 
claims the name of gentleman, if he forces matters 
and presses an impudent request, that his conduct is 
unseemly and unworthy of his birth and character. 
17. With men who have vices you must consider 
and reflect whether you could bully the miser into 
lending a talent without a bond, the proud man into 
resigning his seat of honour, or the ambitious politi- 
cian into giving up his candidacy when expected to 

° For this as disgraceful c/. Cicero, Be Officiis, iii. 19 (75) 
and iii. 24 (93). b Cf. Mor. 192 a. 

6 dv] k$.v LC. 7 /cat k MZab vw 1 : kov. 

8 TTOLCLv] 7TOLJJ Xu N M Yl. 9 Kdl Gk a '. T€ KdL 

10 €K(JTT}vai] 7T€IG€IS (7TOL-qa€LS Xu 1 ??) €KOT7JVCU LC Gk V U W JK 
M 2 VW f 2ss . 

11 <j>tXapxov] <f>i\apxov iKorrjvaL LC Gk 1 Xu W J X K. 

81 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(535) 8o£ov ovra Kparrjoetv. Seivov yap av dXr)9cos 
C <f>avetrj tovtovs LLev ev voorjLLaoi Kal TradrJLLaotv 1 

aKOLflTTTOVS 8iajJL€V€LV KCLI e^ypOVS KCLL SvGLl€Ta9e- 

rovs, rjLias oe fiovAoLievovs Kal <f)doKovras elvai 

cf)lXoK(iXoVS KCLL (f)lXoOLKCLlOVS LLTj KpCLT€LV eCLVTCOV 

dAA' dvar perreoQ ai kclI TrpoteoQ ai rr)v dperrjv. kcll 
yap el LLev ol Svocorrovvre? errl o6£rj Kal ovvaLLei 2 

TOVTO TTOLOVGLV CLTOTTOV €<7Tl KOGLLOVVraS erepOVS Kal 

av^ovras doxrjLLOvelv avrovs* Kal KaKcos aKoveiv, 
taoTTep ol rrapafipafievovres* ev tols ay cool Kal 
Xapa^oLLevot 5 rrepl rds ^etporovia? e£ ov irpoor}- 
kovtcov 6 ap^€ta Kal ore<f)dvovs dXXots Kal So^av 7 
d^taipovvrai to evho^ov avrcov Kal to 8 KaXov el Se 9 
XprjLLdrcov eVc/ca TrpooKeiLLevov opcopiev rov hvo- 
D amovvra, ttcjs ov rrapiorarai Seivov elvai to rrjs 
lotas 86£rj$ Kai aperfjs d<f>eioelv 10 tva to rod Selvos 
j3a\\dvTLOv fiapvrepov yevryrai; 

Kairot Trapiorarai ye rots rroXXols rd roiavra 
Kal ov Xavddvovoiv eavrovs e^afiaprdvovres , cooirep 
ol rds LLeydXas KvXiKas eKTriveiv 11 dvayKa^ofievoi 
jjloXls Kal orevovres Kal rd irpoocoira Staorpei/javres 12 
eKreXovoi to tt poorer ay LLev ov} z (18.) dAA' eoiKev 
rj rrjs ^XV 9 drovia oojpiaros Kpdoei Kal TTpos 
dXeav kokcos ire(f)VKvia Kal irpos Kpvos* erraivov- 
jjievoL re 14 yap vrro rcov Svoconovvrcov Travrdiraoi 
OpvTrrovrai Kal ^aXcovrai, rrpos re ras LLepufjeLS 

1 voarjiiaoi Kal 7Ta6r)fJLaaiv] TTadrJixacn /cat vooy^xaaiv LC Gk Xi> 
W J 1 K. 2 8wa/x€t (and so G 4 ) : ovvaoreia G 1 ^ 

" 3 avrots LC G 3 ' X J u W DZab (avroi>s G 1 ^ 1 X 2 -' JK) : 
eavrovs. * irapa^p. (jrepifip. hi?)] fipafievovres W. 

5 xa/oifd/xcvoi] Pohlenz transposes x a P l l°l Ji€V0L after dXXois ; 
Rciske would add oibovres, vefiovres, irepnroiovvTes or the like 
after aXXois. 



ON COMPLIANCY, 5S5 

win. For it would appear strange indeed that these in 
their disorders and passions should remain undaunted, 
firm, and steadfast, while we, who desire and profess 
to be partisans of honesty and justice, should so fail 
in control that we are overthrown and abandon our 
character for virtue. Indeed, if the suitor's aim is 
glory and power, it is absurd to enhance the lustre 
and greatness of another by cutting a sorry figure 
ourselves and getting a bad name, just as umpires 
who cheat at the games or officials who make corrupt 
appointments, while awarding to others offices, crowns, 
and glory not theirs to bestow, lose their own reputa- 
tion and honour ; whereas if money is his object, can 
we fail to observe that it is a strange bargain to 
squander our own repute and character in order to 
increase the weight of so-and-so's purse ? 

Yet such thoughts do occur to most people, and 
they know well that they are making a mistake. They 
are like men compelled to down a large beaker, who 
barely manage, moaning and with a wry face, to 
carry out the order. (18.) But infirmity of the mind 
resembles a bodily constitution intolerant of either 
heat or cold. For when praised by the importunate 
such men go utterly soft and limp ; while in face of 

6 TrpoarjKovTCDv (and so C vet ; -ovv- from -ovv- N 2 )] 777)00-77- 
kovtcjs L ; TrpoarjKOvras C 1 . 

7 aAAot? /cat 8o£cu>] /cat Sofav aWois LC Gk 1 Xu W J X K vw. 

8 to] X W omit. 

9 8e] Se to N. 

10 d^eiSelv (and so L)] a<^7T€tSetv C aras ; a-mhelv G v ; irap- 
lSclv k. 

11 €kttlv€lv] €K7tl€lv DZab RnySs hi. 

12 hiaorpeijjavres (-arp- v)] StaoToe^ovTCS" DZab. 

13 to TTpoGTcray/jievov LC Gk Xu W (tci 7r poore-r ay fieva J X K) : 
to TrpoaroLTTOfjicvov (to irpoararovevov S 1 ; to Trpoararovpi^vov s). 

14 t€ (and so G 4 )] G 1 W ac n 1 JK omit. 

83 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(535) kcu v(f)opdo€LS tcov anoTvyxavovTOov ifjocf)o$ecos 
E /cat SeiAcos e^ouat. Set 8e avTiaxvpi^eadat irpos 
dfJL^orepa, puryre rols SeSiTTopLevocs prpre tols /coAa- 
K€vovglv evStSovras. 6 puev ovv QovKvSi8r]g, cog 
dvayKalcos enopievov^ rep hvvaoOai tov (fidovelodai, 
" /caAoj?/' (f>r)<ji, " fiovAeveoOai tov eirl pbeyiarois 
Xapi^dvovra to eixidpQovov "* rjpets Se tov pcev 
<j)06vov Stacfrevyeiv ^aAeTrov 1 r)yovp,evoi, to Se /xe/x- 
ifjec p/t] irepi^neoelv pL7]8e AvTrrjpov tivl 2 yeveaOat 
F tcov ^pojpievojv dhvvarov ttclvt air aoiv optbvres 
opOcos fiovAevoopLeda rds tcov dyvcopiovcov ane- 
xOelag e/cSe^o/zevot p&AAov fj rds tcov Sikcllcos iy- 

KOiAoVVTCOV idv €K€LVOlS p/Y] SlKOLlCOS 3 V7TOVpyCO[L€V. 

/cat pcrjv eVatvoV ye tov irapd tcov SvorcoTrovvTcov 
KtfiSrjAov ovtcl TravTarraoL Set (frvAaTTecrdai /cat purj 
Trddos TrdaxeLV vcoSes, vtto Kvqapiov /cat yapyaAi- 
apiov irapeypvTa xp^crflat paara tco Seopcevcp, /cat 
/carajSaAAetv eavTOV viroKCLTaKAivopLevov . ovSev yap 
Sta</>e'pouat tcov ra OKeArj toIs vttoottcooi Tiapeypv- 
tcov ot ra cSra rots' KoAaKevovai TrapaScSovTes, aAA' 
536 ato^tov dvaTpeTTovTai /cat ttitttovglv, ol /zev ex~ 
6pas /cat KoAdcreLS dvievTes dvOpcoirois Trovrjpols tV 
eAerjpioves /cat cf)iAdv9pcoTroi /cat ovpuradelg kAtjOco- 
Giv y ol Se TovvavTiov aTTexOeias /cat /car^yopta? 
ovk dvayKaias ov8e aKivSvvovs dvaSe£ao9ai nrei- 
adevTes vtto tcov eiraivovvTCOv cog pcovovs dvSpas 
/cat pbovovs aKoAaKevTOVs /cat vrj At'a crTOjLtara /cat 
(f>covds TrpoaayopevovTcov . Sto /cat Btojv a,77et/ca£e 
tou9 TOtouTous 14 dp(f)opevcnv a77o 5 to)v ojtojv paSccos 

1 Before ^aAcTrov Erasmus and Reiske omit ov. 
2 rtyt G 4 k x W : rt. 

3 <n/CatCt>s] SlKOLlOlS W. 

84 



ON COMPLIANCY, 535-536 

the complaints and disapproval of rejected suitors 
they are timorous and fearful. We should make a 
bold stand on both fronts, yielding neither to intimi- 
dation nor to flattery. Thucydides, a indeed, holding 
that power necessarily attracts envy, says : " He does 
wisely who incurs envy for the greatest prize,' ' but 
we, who though we consider envy difficult to avoid, yet 
observe the utter impossibility of escaping reproach 
or avoiding offence to some of those with whom we 
deal, shall do well to incur the wrath of the incon- 
siderate rather than the wrath of those who will have 
just cause to complain if we do injustice to oblige the 
others. Furthermore, the praise that comes from 
suitors is false coin : we must be thoroughly on our 
guard against it and not behave like swine, because 
of our itch to be scratched and tickled allowing the 
suitor to handle us as he pleases, and sinking to the 
ground in subservience to him. For he who gives ear 
to flatterers is no better than he who allows a leghold 
to one who would throw him ; nay, the toss and fall 
is in his case more disgraceful. Some, to get a name 
as merciful, humane, and compassionate, release 
wrongdoers from enmity and punishment ; others on 
the contrary are persuaded to undertake quarrels and 
prosecutions that are neither compulsory nor free 
from risk, when they are praised as alone deserving to 
be called " men " and alone incapable of subservience 
— yes, and the flatterers even call them " mouths V 
and " voices." Consequently Bion compared men 
of this sort to pitchers easily carried away by the ears. b 

a ii. 64. 5 ; also quoted in Mor. 73 a. 
6 C/. Mor. 705 e and Frag, incert. 101 Bern. 



4 tovs toiovtovs (and so G 4 )] rots' toiovtols G 1 . 

5 Q.TTQ Dab : V7TO. 



a§ 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(536) /xcra^epojueVots". 1 tborrep 'AAe^tvov loropovai tov 

ao(f)LGrrjv 7roXXd cfravXa Xeyetv iv rep TrepiTrdrcp rrepl 

B HtlXttcovos tov Meyapea)?, €lttovtos Se tlvos tcov 

7rap6vTCx)v , " dXXd pcrjv eKtlvos ae 7rpcprjv €7777 vet," 

vrj Ata , (pavai- ' pe At lotos yap avoptov €Otl kcll 

yevvcuoTOLTOS ." dXXd Meve'S^/zo? rovvavrlov, olkov- 

oas d)s 'AXe&vos avrov irraLvel ttoXXolkls, " iyco 

€, ei7T€v, aei ifjeycx) AAegcvov ojot€ kclkos €otlv 

avOpcorros 2 rj KaKov iiraLVcov r) vtt6 z ^prjOTod ifteyo- 

fJL€VOS." OVTCjOS CLTp€7TTOS 7}V Kal dvdXoJTOS V7TO TCOV 
TOLOVTOJV Kal KpOLTCOV €K€LV7]S T7JS TTapaLV€0€OJS TjV 

6 'AvTcaOeveios 'HpaKXrjs Traprjvet toZs ttclioi, Sta- 
KeXevofievos pcrjSevl x^P LV ^X €LV irraLVovvTL^' tovto 
Se rjv ovSev dXXo rj pur] hvoumelodai pbrjSe dvTL- 

C KoXaK€V€lV TOVS €77 ULV 'OVV7 CLS . dpK€L ydp OljLCat TO 
TOV HtvSdpOV 77/009 TOV XeyOVTOL TTCLVTOLXOV Kal TTpOS 

iravTas irraLveZv avTov elrrovTos, " Kayd) gol %aptv 
aTTohihojpLi- ttolcj ydp ae dXrjdeveLV." 

19. "0 tolvvv irpos TrdvTa ra 5 rrdOrj xptfoifiov 
€otl, tovtov Set /xaAtara tols evSvowTrrjTOLS' orav 
€KpLao6evT€S V7TO tov rrddovs rrapa yvwpLrjv dfidp- 
tojol Kal SLaTpaTTcooLV, loxvpcos fJLvrjjjLoveveLV Kal ra 
or)iJL€La tov Srjyfiov 6 Kal ttjs pceTapLeXelas depuivovs 7 
iv eavTols dvaXapLJ3dv€LV Kal cf>vXaTT€LV irrl rrXeZoTov 
Xpdvov. d>s yap ol Xidco tt pooixTaioavTes oSoLTropoL 
D rj Trepl dkpav dvaTparrevres KvflepvfJTaL, av pivrjpLO- 

1 fjL€ra<l>€pofi€voLS G 1 Xu W J X K N 2 (from -pa)-) M 1 Yl: -ovs 
(and so L ? and G 4 ). 

2 dvdpcjnos nos : avOpcoiros. 

3 rj vrro DZ K vw (vno J) : 7? and (and so I ; 1/ is illegible). 

4 After hrawovvri Bern, omits avrovs. 

5 tA] LC G s k x Xv W omit. 

6 SrjyjjLOv DZab JK : 8^ou (j8tou w ac ). 

86 



ON COMPLIANCY, 5S6 

Thus it is reported that Alexinus the sophist was 
roundly abusing Stilpon of Megara in the Promenade 
when one of the audience said : " But he was praising 
you the other day." " Exactly," said Alexinus, " he 
is the most honest and outspoken of men." Mene- 
demus said on the contrary, on hearing that Alexinus 
often praised him, " For my part I have never a good 
word for him. The fellow is therefore a knave, as he 
either praises a knave or is censured by an honest 
man." So steadfast was he and secure against the 
likes of these, and so firmly did he hold to the advice 
that Heracles in Antisthenes a gave his sons, to thank 
no man for his praise, which came exactly to this : 
not to let themselves be prevailed upon by those who 
praised them and not to flatter them in return. Pin- 
dar's answer is enough, I fancy. To one who said 
that he praised him everywhere and to everyone he 
replied : " And I return the courtesy ; it is my doing 
that you tell the truth." 

19. Now the same remedy that helps to cure all 
disorders of the mind is especially indicated for those 
who yield easily to pressure : when forced by the 
disorder to err against their judgement and succumb 
to embarrassment, they must keep it firmly in the 
memory and store up reminders of their remorse and 
regret and rehearse them and preserve them for a 
very long time. For as wayfarers who have stumbled 
over a stone, 6 or skippers who have capsized off a 
headland, if they retain the circumstances in their 

Antisthenes, Heracles, Frag. 6 (ed. Dittmar). 

h Cf. the proverb (Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroem. Gr. 
i, p. 65) Sis npos rov avrov alaxpo. (nos : alaxpov) TrpooKpovew 
Xidov " to stumble twice against the same stone is shameful. " 

7 0€IJL€VOVS] d€fl€VOLS LC 1 . 

9f 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(536) vevcocnv, ovk e/cetva fxovov aAAa kcu tol TrpocrofAOLa 

<f>piTTOVT€S KCLl (j)vXaTT6jJL€VOL SiareXoVGLV, OVTOJS Oi 

to. rfjs hvoconlas alaxpo. kcli fiXapepa avvex&S rep 
fieravoovvrt koI SaKVOfxevco TrpofiaXXovres 1 olvtl- 
Xrjifjovrcn, tt&Xiv iavrcov iv rols opboiois koI ov 
Trporjoovrai pqStcos vircxfrepopLevovs. 

1 7rpopdXAovT€S LC C D fq : TTpoofiaXkovres. 



88 



ON COMPLIANCY, 536 

memory, henceforth never fail to avoid with a shudder 
not only the occasion of their misadventure, but every- 
thing resembling it, so those who constantly hold up 
to their repentance and remorse the shame and loss 
involved in compliancy will in similar circumstances 
resist the feeling and not easily allow it to carry 
them away. 



ON ENVY AND HATE 

(DE INVIDIA ET ODIO) 



INTRODUCTION 

Envy was called the worst of evils. a It is common in 
Plutarch's lists of undesirable passions, b and in the 
De Vitioso Pudore (529 b) he speaks of the philosopher 
removing it from a young man's soul. Its resem- 
blance to hate is great enough to allow the envious to 
disguise their envy under that name (537 e, infra). 
As the flatterer who disguises himself as a friend by 
means of the " similarities " is exposed by means of 
the " differences " (51 d), so here, after briefly pre- 
senting the similarity of envy to hate, Plutarch spends 
the rest of the essay in exposing the differences. 

That his theme is envy, rather than hate, can be 
seen from the language. The very title gives envy 
precedence ; and the word is twice omitted as not 
needing explicit mention (536 e, 538 d). c 

Nearly everywhere in the essay Plutarch agrees 
with Aristotle, and doubtless used him, perhaps in 
part indirectly. In the Rhetoric (ii. 4. 30, 1381 b 37 f.) 
Aristotle says, after discussing friendship, that we 

° Cf. Euripides, Ino (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Eur. 
403) ; Menander, frag. 538. 6 (vol. ii, p. 178 Korte) ; and 
Galen, De Affectuum Dignotione, chap. vii. 2. 

b Cf for example Mor. 61 e, 455 c, 459 b, 462 a, 468 b, 
475 32, 481 d, 501 e. 

c Note the language used in comparing the two : envy is 
said to differ {cf. 537 c, 538 d) from hate (or to be the same 
with it, as at 536 f) ; we do not hear of hate differing from 
envy. Envy is similarly emphasized at the expense of hate 
by the omission of /xeV at 537 a. 

92 



ON ENVY AND HATE 

must study hostility and hate in the light of the oppo- 
sites ; and many points in Plutarch's discussion of 
hatred were doubtless suggested by Aristotle's dis- 
cussion of friendship in Rhetoric, ii. 4. 1-29 (1380 b 34 — 
1381 b 37) and books viii-ix of the Nicomachean Ethics. 
Thus Plutarch calls hatred both a irdOos (536 e, f, 
537 E, 538 c, d) and a SidOecrcs (538 e ; it is a e£ts in 
Aristotle : see the note on 538 e) ; it shows a wpoac- 
pea-is (538 e), and it is found in animals (537 b). 

The treatise falls into two main parts. In the first 
the similarities between envy and hate are presented 
(chapter 1) ; in the second (chapters 2-8) the dis- 
similarities. The origins of the two are different ; 
hatred is directed against both men and brutes, envy 
confined to men ; hatred is found in brutes, envy in 
man alone ; no one is justly envied, many are justly 
hated ; hatred increases with the increasing wicked- 
ness of the person hated, envy with the increasing 
virtue of the person envied ; increasing wickedness 
increases hate, but increasing prosperity extinguishes 
envy ; great misfortune puts an end to envy but not 
to hate ; hate is given up under conditions that either 
do not put an end to envy or that actually exasperate 
it ; and the aim of hatred is to injure, that of envy to 
reduce one's neighbour to equality with oneself. 

We have found no evidence for the date. The essay 
was translated into Latin by Niccolo Perotti a and by 
H. Stephanus. It is not included in the catalogue of 
Lamprias. 

The text is based on LC y HU. Occasionally a, s, 
nBr, and AE are quoted for conjectures. 

a Cf. G. Mercati, Per la cronologia delta vita e degli scritti 
di JSiccolb Perotti, arcivescovo di Siponto (Studi e testi, 44, 
Rome, 1925), pp. 34-35. 

93 



(536) 

E IIEPI (D0ONOY KAI MISOTS 

1 . Ovtco 8rj /cat So/cet fjLrjdev 1 rod jjlloovs Sta- 
(f)€p€LV 2 aAA' o 3 avros €lvgu. kcl96\ov {lev yap 
coarrep TToXvayKiorpov rj /ca/ct'a tols e^rjpTrjfjLevoLS 
avrrjs Tradeaiv Kivovpuevt] Sevpo /cd/cctae 7toAAcls 
TTpos aXXrjXa 4, ovva^as /cat 5 irepLnXoKas evSt'Sojat, 

F ravra Se tooTrep voa^fxara ovpmaQtl tols aXXrjXojv 
(frXeyfjiovcus. 6 yap tVTvy&v ofioLtos /cat rov [ii- 
aovvra Aurret /cat rov (/>9ovovvra. Sto /cat rrjv 
evvoiav apicfroTepoLS vopbt^opiev dVrt/cetaflat, jSouAryatv 
ovoav dyadcov tols ttX^glov, /cat rep jjllo€lv to* 
<f)6oveiv TavTov 1 elvaiy otl ttjv IvavTiav tco </>lX€lv 

€^€t 7TpoaLp€OlV. €7T€L §€ 01>X OVTCO TaVTOV at 

ofJLoioTrjTes cos eTepov at 8iacf>opal ttolovglv, /card 
TavTas 8 ^rjTodfJLev* idv p,€Ta8icb£copL€v , 10 drro ttjs 
yevecrecos dp^a/xevot tcov iradcov. 

2. Tevv&Tat tolvvv to puaos e/c <j>avTaoias tov 11 
otl rrovrjpos rj kolvcos rj TTpos avTOV Iotlv 6 (jllgov- 

1 /jLr)0€i>] p-qbev (L is wanting) C y nBr E. 

2 ht,a<f>€p€LV (L is wanting) C HUa 1 : 8. 6 <j>66vos. 

3 o] (L is wanting) C 1 omits. 

4 TToXkas 7rpos aXX-qXa a 2 : rroXXas rrpos dXXijXas U 3 a 1 ; upos 
aXXas TTpos dXXrjXas HU 1 ; npos aXXas (L is illegible) C 1 ; ttoXXgls 
77-pos" aXXas C 2 ; irpos aXXas Kal aAAas" V 1 ; TTpos aXXas Kal aXXrjXa 
y 2 . 5 Kal] (L is illegible)^ 1 y 1 HUa 1 omit. 

6 rwji. to H 1 U^a : to /x. rw L?C y H 2 U 2 B. 

7 ravrov C 1 {ravrov y) : touto or touto. 

8 ravras) ravra HU 1 . 9 fyroGfiev) ^rjrcojxcv A 2 E. 
10 fjL€ra$iu)£a)ti€v (and so L[?] ; -ofjuev y)] nerahid>£a) C 1 . 

94 



ON ENVY AND HATE 

1 . On the following view it a is thought to differ not 
at all from hate, but to be the same. Thus one may 
say in general that vice, like a line with many hooks, 
as it moves to and fro with the passions attached to 
it, gives them occasion to form many connexions and 
entanglements with one another ; and that it is with 
the passions b as with diseases : when one becomes 
inflamed the other does. Thus it is the fortunate 
man that is a source of pain to one who feels hate as 
well as to one who feels envy. Hence we consider 
goodwill to be contrary to both, as it is the wish for 
one's neighbour's prosperity c ; and hatred and envy 
to be the same, since their aim is the contrary to that 
of friendship. But since similarities do not so surely 
make for sameness as dissimilarities make for differ- 
ence, we shall endeavour to settle the question by 
examining the latter, noting first the origin of the 
two passions. 

2. Now hate arises from a notion that the person 
hated is bad either in general or toward oneself. d 

° Envy. 

6 Aristotle calls envy and hate passions : Eth. Nic. ii. 5. 
2 (1105 b 21-23). 

c Cf. Aristotle, Eth. Nic. viii. 2. 3 (1155 b 31-32), viii. 6. 
1 (1158 a 7-8), ix. 5. 3 (1167 a 8-9) ; Andronicus, nepl tt*QG>v, 
vi. 2 a (von Arnim, Stoicorum Vet. Frag. iii. 432, p. 105). 

d Cf. Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 4. 31 (1382 a 4-7). 

11 rod U 3 a : rovro LC 1 HU 1 ; rovrov y. 

95 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

537 fJievos (/cat yap dSt/cetcr#at ho^avres clktol Trecfyv- 
KCLOi jJLioelv /cat tovs aAAa*? 1 aSiKrjriKovs rj Trovrjpovg 
TTpofidXAovrai /cat Svcrxepaivovaiv)' cf>9ovovoiv Se 
a7rAa)s' Tots €v Trpdrreiv Sokovglv. 69 ev cot/cev o 2 
<j>96vos aopiOTOs* tlvaiy Kaddnep o</>#aA/zta 77/009 
a/nav to AapLTrpov e/crapaaao/xevos', to Se [moos 4, topi- 

OTOLl, KOL0' V7TOK€L/JL€VOJV OL€L TLVCDV a77£petSo/Z€VOV. 5 

3. AevTepov Se to jxioelv ytWrat /cat 77/009 d'Aoya 6 
£a>a (/cat yap yaAa? /cat KavOaplSas eVtot pnoovoi 
/cat <f>pvvovs /cat octets • TeppLaviKos Se dAe/cr/ovoVos' 
ot>Ve <f)OJvrjv ovt€ oipiv V7T€fji€LV€V' ol Se ne/ooxDv 

B /xdyot rous" jLtus* aneKTivvvoav, oj? avTol re jitt- 
oovvTes /cat rou #eou hvo")(€paivovTOS to £<pov ojjlov 
tC yap 7rdvT€s "Apafies /cat AM tones fivaaTTOVTat) • 

TO JJieVTOL (f)9oV€LV 77/00? fJLOVOV dv9p(x)7TOV dv9pU)7TCO 

y tVerat . 

4. *Ev rots' 9rjptois 8 <f>96vov /zev ovk et/cos* ey- 
ytveo9ai npos dAArjAa (rou yd/o eu npaTTeiv rj 
/ca/cco? eVepov 9 (f>avTaotav ov Aapifiavovoiv , ov8e 
a7TT€Tat to evooqov rj aoogov avTOJV, 01s o (puovos 

1 aAAajs] aAAow L?CynB. 2 6] 6 fiev a 3 snBr. 

3 aopiaros] 6 apiOTOS HU 1 . 

4 puoos L (/xiaos y) a 3 snBr : jLieifov. 

5 After a7r€peiS6fi€vov we omit npos avrov (-ra y 1 ), for which 
Kronenberg conjectures Trpoaojiraiv. 

6 aAoya] ra aAoya LC. 7 ti Reiske : re. 

8 cV (eV 8e y) toZs 0r)p(oLs] kolv (kolv nr) rols drjpiois §€ a 3 snBr. 

9 €T€pov a 3 snBr (erepa y) : iripav. 10 77] 1} to LC. 

0/. Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 1. 4 (1378 a 1-3). 

b Cf. Mor. 39 e; Aristotle, Eth. Nic. ii. 7. 15 (1108 b 
3-5) ; Cicero, Be Orator e, ii. 52 (210), Tusc. Disput. iv. 7(16), 
that is, von Arnim, Stoicorum Vet. Frag. iii. 415, p. 101 : 
" invidentiam esse dicunt aegritudinem susceptam propter al- 
terius res secundas, quae nihil noceant invidenti " (cf. Aris- 

96 



ON ENVY AND HATE, 537 

Thus it is men's nature to hate when they think they 
have been wronged themselves ; and again men re- 
probate and view with disgust all who in any other 
way are given to wrongdoing a or wickedness. Where- 
as to attract envy all that is required is apparent pros- 
perity. 6 Hence it would appear that no bounds are set 
to envy, which, like sore eyes, c is disturbed by every- 
thing resplendent d ; whereas hate has bounds and is 
in every case directed against particular subjects. 

3. In the second place, even irrational animals may 
be objects of hate : some people hate weasels, beetles, 
toads, or snakes. Germanicus e could not abide the 
sound or sight of a cock ; and the Persian magi killed 
water mice/ not only because they personally hated 
them, but because they felt that God regarded the 
animal as offensive ; thus nearly all Arabs and Ethi- 
opians loathe it. But envy occurs only between man 
and man. 

4. In animals it is not likely that envy of one 
another arises, 9 ' as they have no notion of another's 
good or ill fortune, nor are they affected by glory or 
disgrace, things by which envy is most exasperated. 71 

totle, Rhetoric, ii. 9. 3, 1386 b 20-25); Magna Mor alia, i. 
27.2 (1192 b 24-26). 

c Cf. Philodemus, ncpl kclki&v Liber Decimus, col. xii. 15 
(ed. Jensen). 

d Cf. Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespota, 547. 12 (p. 
947). 

e Cf Olympiodorus, In Plat. Phaedon. Comm. p. 156. 26 f. 
(ed. Norvin). 

' Cf. Mor. 369 f, 670 d, and J. Bidez and F. Cumont, Les 
Mages hellenises, ii (Paris, 1938), p. 75, note 11. For attempts 
to identify the animal cf Sir DArcy W. Thompson, A 
Glossary of Greek Fishes, pp. 166-168. E. H. Warmington 
suggests that it is the water-shrew or water-vole or both. 

8 But cf Mor. 961 d. 

h Cf. Cicero, Be Orator e, ii. 51 (208). 

VOL. VII E 97 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(537) e/crpa^werat pbaXiora)* pucrovoi, Se a'AAryAa 1 /cat oltt- 
eyddvovrai /cat nroXepLovaiv cboirep doTrzLoTovs 2 
Tivas 7ToXefjLov9 3 derol /cat SpaKovres, Kopcovai 
/cat yXavKes, alyidaXXol /cat a/cavfluAAt'Ses'/ aJare 
tovtcjv ye </>acrt pLTjSe 5 to atjLta Ktpvaodai ocfxxr- 

G rofievcov, dXXd /caV fii£fl$ 9 tSta 7raAtv diroppelv* 
SiaKpLVOfxevov. et/cos 7 Se /cat ra> Ae'ovrt rrpos rov 
dXeKrpvova /cat ra> eXecfravri, rrpos rrjv vv pZoos 
laxvpov yeyevvrjKevai rov </)6^ov' o yap SeStacrt, /cat 
/xtcretv irecfrv kololv. wore /cat ravrr] <j>aiveodai Sta- 
<f>epovra rov puioovs rov <f)Q6vov, to 8 piev Se^o^eV^s* 
rrjs tcov OrjpLcov cf)VG€Ojg, rov 9 Se fjLTj 8 eyp puevr] 9. 

5. "Ert tolvvv to [lev c/)9ov€lv npos ovheva yiverai 
St/cata)? (ouSet? yap aSt/cet tw eurir\;eu', errt tovtco 
Se <f)9ovovvTai) ' (JuoovvTOu Se 7roAAot St/cata>9, a>s" 10 

D ous* di;iopiior)Tovs /caAou/xev, cSaTe /cat rot? aAAot? 
iyKaXovfjiev 11 dv firj (f>evya)OL rov? toiovtovs [xrjSe 
jSSeAuTTOJvrat 12 /cat hvo^epaivojoi. 13 /ze'ya Se tovtou 

1 aXXrjXa (and so L)] dAA^'Aa C 1 ? HU 1 . 

2 aoTTtioTovs Reiske (adding 7roAe/xous- before 7roA€/xo£krtv) : 

a7Tt(TTOU?. 

3 7roXe(jLovs Emperius (ttoXc/jlovs rdo€ Wyttenbach) : 7roAe- 
/xovo-t Se. 4 d/<:cu>0uAAi§€?] -dvXi- LC ; -077A1- y. 

5 /iT^Se] /lit) LC y. 

6 airoppelv H : airopelv U 1 ; anoppei (and so U 2 ). 

7 ctxros- Stephanus : cIkotws. 8 to] tov (jaras # 
9 T <H to LC y HU 1 . 

10 cos] Reiske would omit. 

11 cjgt€ kcll . . . iyKaXovfi€v supplied by Pohlenz. 

12 pSeXvTTCovrcu] -ovTOLi C H nr ac . 

13 SvcTx^paivajGi] -ovgl H ac . 

For friendship among animals cf. Aristotle, Eth. Nic. 
viii. 1. 3 (1155 a 18 f.), and the Eudemian Ethics, vii. 2. 17 
(1236 b 6-10) and vii. 2. 53 (1238 a 32 f.). 

b Cf. Aristotle, Hist. Animal, ix. 1. 10 (609 a 4). 

98 



ON ENVY AND HATE, 537 

But there is mutual hatred, hostility, and what might 
be called truceless war between eagles and snakes, b 
crows and owls, c titmice and goldfinches ; indeed it is 
said that the blood of these last will not mingle d when 
the animals are killed, but even if you mix it, separates 
again and runs off in two distinct streams. It is likely, 
moreover, that in lions the strong hatred of cocks, 6 
and in elephants of swine/ has been engendered by 
fear ; for what they fear they naturally hate as well. 5 ' 
Here too, therefore, envy is seen to differ from hate, 
as animal nature admits the one but not the other. 

5. Again, no one is ever envied with justice, 71 as no 
one is unjust in being fortunate, and it is for good 
fortune that men are envied. On the other hand, 
many are hated with justice, as those we call " de- 
serving of hate " ; and we censure others when they 
fail to shun such persons and to feel loathing and dis- 
gust for them. Good evidence of this is the circum- 

c Cf. ibid. (609 a 8) ; Aelian, Nat. Animal, v. 48. 

d Cf. Aristotle, Hist. Animal, ix. 1. 22 (610 a 6-8) ; Aelian, 
Nat. Animal, x. 32 ; Pliny, N.H. x. 74 (205) ; Antigonus, 
Mir. chap. 114. 

i Cf Mor. 981 e ; Lucretius, iv. 710-713 ; Pliny, N.H. 
viii. 19 (52) ; x. 2\ (47) ; Sextus Empiricus, Pyrrln. Hyp. i. 
58 ; Aelian, Nat. Animal, iii. 31, vi. 22, viii. 28, xiv. 9 ; 
pseudo-Alexander Aphrodisiensis, Probl. i (p. 4. 22 f., ed. 
Ideler) ; Ambrose, Hexaem. vi. 4 (26) ; Geoponica, ii. 42. 3, 
xv. 1.9; Aristophanes, Hist. Animal. Epit. ii. 155 (p. 75. 5, 
ed. Lambros). 

' Cf. Mor. 981 e; Seneca, De Ira, ii. 11; Pliny, N.H. 
viii. 9 (27) ; Aelian, Nat. Animal, i. 38, viii. 28, xvi. 36 ; 
Horapollo, ii. 86 ; Polyaenus, iv. 6. 3 ; Georgius Pisides, 
Hexaem. 963 f. ; Aristophanes, Hist. Animal. Epit. ii. 106- 
107 (p. 60. 20-22, ed. Lambros) ; and Suidas, s.v. KeKpay^ov. 

g Cf. Stobaeus, Anth. iv. 7. 20 (p. 254. 3 Hense). 

h Cf. Plato, Philebus, 49 d 1 ; Eudemian Ethics, iii. 7. 12 
(1234 a 30) ; Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespota, 532, and 
Hippothoon, Frag. 2 (ibid. p. 827). 

99 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(537) T€KfJLi]piov on paoretv [lev 1 ttoXXovs 6/JboXoyovatv 
€vlol, (/)dov€tv Se ovSevl Xeyovoi. /cat yap rj jjugo- 
TTovrjpla tcov eTraivovpbevtav ecrrr /cat rov doeX(f>ihovv 
rod AvKovpyov XaptAAov, jSaatAeiWra 7-779 277a/)- 
7-779, emeiKf) Se bvra, /cat rrpaov, eVatvowrojv tlvcov 6 
ovvcLpyoav , " /cat 770)9/ ' €<f>r], " XP r J aT ^ * GTL XdptA- 
Xos, os 2 ovoe rots TTovrjpoZs x a ^ €7T °S eari ; " /cat 
rod QepciLTov 6 7701077-779 rrjv /zev rod aoj/xaros" 

KCLKLdV 7ToXvjJL€pO)S KoX 77epta>SeU/XeVoJ9 €^€fJLOp(f)a)- 

E oev, ttjv Se rov rjOovs fJLoxOrjpLav ovvropLajrara /cat 
St' eVo? €(f)pao€V 

exOiGTOS S' 'A^tA^t 3 ixdXiar 771/ 778' 'OSvafji 5 - 

vTrepfioXr) yap rts" 6 (fiavXoTrjTOS to toIs Kpariorois 1 
ixOpov etvat. /cat 8 cfrOovelv Se dpvovvrai' /cav eAe'y- 
Xojvrai, 9 pbvpias oK^eis Trpotoxovrai, opyi^eadai 
Xeyovreg 77 (jiofieZoOai rov avOpojrrov 77 paoeiv, 77 10 6 
tl dv Tv'x a}(JLV ctAAo 11 rep (f)66va) 12 rov irddovs oVo/za 

776ptj8aAAoVT€9 /Cat /CaAv77TOVT€9 13 OJ9 \lOVOV TOVTO 

roov 7-779 14 ijjvxvjs vooiqixdroov diropprjTov. 

6. 'AvdyKT) Toivvv rd rrddrj ravra rots avrots 
djGTrep ra (j)vra /cat rpe<f>eo9ai /cat av^eodat, Sto 

>15 » ' O 16 '1 *'\ \ 17 r» ^ 18 

/cat €7TLT€LveouaL 7T€(f)VK€v aAAot9. fjaoovfiev yap 

1 ii€v] LC 1 v omit. 

2 8s] cos LC 1 . 3 d*iAiji] -AA- y HU s. 

4 jxaXiGT rjv a 3 nBr c (from -r r)v) : ixaXiara rjv (L illegible) 
C y ; /xaAtcrr' U ; [klXlgt' to ? from fxaXtara H 2 . 

5 oSu arju] -ocr- (L illegible) C y HU nr ; ovoorji s. 

6 TtS"] TTyS" H. 7 TOt? K/OaTlOTOts] TOWS' KpOLTLGTOVS H aC . 

8 /cat] Wyttenbach would omit. 

9 Kav iXeyxcovTcu,] koI iXiyxovres (L illegible) C 1 . 

10 ^ y 2? a 2 E : the rest omit (L illegible). 

11 aAAo] aAAa) H r ac . 12 rep <p06vto\ Pohlenz would omit. 

13 KaXvTTTOvres] avyKaXvurovres LC y. 

14 rijs LC y H : the rest omit. 

100 



ON ENVY AND HATE, 537 

stance that while some confess that they hate a good 
many people, there is no one that they will say they 
envy. Indeed hatred of wickedness is among the 
things we praise a ; and when certain persons praised 
Charillus, Lycurgus' nephew, who was king of Sparta, 
but a mild and gentle man, his colleague remarked : 
" How can you call Charillus a good man, when he is 
not even severe with scoundrels ? " b And whereas 
Homer was very detailed and circumstantial in his 
description of Thersites' bodily deformity, he ex- 
pressed the viciousness of his character very succinctly 
and in a single statement : 

Most hateful he to Achilles and Odysseus. c 
For it is a kind of extreme of baseness to be hateful 
to the best men. But men deny d that they envy as 
well ; and if you show that they do, they allege any 
number of excuses and say they are angry with the 
fellow or fear or hate him, cloaking and concealing 
their envy with whatever other name occurs to them 
for their passion, implying that among the disorders 
of the soul it is alone unmentionable. 6 

6. Now these passions, like plants, must also feed 
and grow with what produces them/ They are con- 
sequently intensified by different things. Thus while 

a Cf. Mor. 451 d-e and [Aristotle], Be Virt. et Vit. 1250 b 
23 f. 

b Cf. Mor. 55 e, 218 b, 452 d, and Life of Lycurgus, chap. 
v. 9 (42 d). c //. ii. 220, quoted also in Mor. 30 a. 

d Cf. Arrian, Epict. ii. 21. 3. 

e Cf. Basil, Be Invidia, 92 a. 

1 Cf. Aristotle, Eth. Nic. ii. 2. 8 (1104 a 27 f.). 

15 Blo /cat nos (SOev kcll Pohlenz ; /cat yap ovk Kronenberg") : 
icat. 16 eVtretVeo-flat Wyttenbach : iTnyivzadai. 

17 aXXois nos (aAAa aXXois Post, who reads ravra for ravra 
above) : dAA^Aoty. 18 yap nOs : ye (and so Post). 

101 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

I ) fJL&AAov tovs pc&AAov 1 els Trovrjpiav eTuSioovras, <f)do- 
vovoi 8e fJL&AAov rots ptaAAov 2, eir* dperfj irpolevat 

hoKOVGt. StO KOLl ®€lJLl(JTOKAfjS €TL jJL€ip(XKLOV COV 

ovSev ecf>rj irpdrretv AapL7rp6v ovrrco yap (fydovetod at. 
KaOdrrep ydp at KavdaptSes eptfivovrat /xaAtara rep 
aKfjid^ovrc atrco /cat rot? evOakeat poSots, ovrcos 6 
cf)96vos aWerat ptdAtorra rcov xP r ] (JT ^ )V KaL a v£o- 
(Jtevcov TTpos dperr)v /cat 86£av r)6cov /cat Trpoacorrcov. 
/cat rovvavrtov av rrdAtv at ptev a/cparot rrovrjptat 
ovveTTtretvovoi? to jjugos. tovs yovv HcoKpdrr] 
538 ovKO(j>avTiqoavT as cos els eoyarov /ca/ctas eA^Aa/cd- 
ras* 4 ovtcos epttarjoav ol TToAtrat /cat arreoT pd$r\aav 
cos pLr]T€ TTvp aiietv ptrjTe dtTOKptveodat irvvdavo- 
ptevots, ptr) 5 Xovoptevots Kotvcovelv vSaros, dAA' 
dvayKa^etv e/c^etv 6 etcelvo tovs rrapaxvras 7 cos pte- 
pttaaptevov, ecos drnjy^avTO ptr) (frepovres to puoos. 
at 8e rcov evrvx^^drcov VTrepoxol /cat XaptTrpoTrjTes 
TToAAaKLs tov (f)96vov KaTaofievvvovotv . ov yap 
elKos 8 'AAe^dvSpco rtvd (f)9ovetv ov8e Kvpco Kparrj- 
aacrt /cat yevoptevots Kvpiois dirdvTCov. aAA' cocrnep 
6 rjXtos cov av virep Kopv(f>rjs yevrjTat /cara^ed- 
B ptevos 9 to cf)cos r) navTaixaot rrjv gklolv dvetXev r) 
1 n&Wov] LPC 1 y omit. 2 fidXXov] LC 1 y 1 omit. 

3 GVV€lTlT€lVOVOl\ OVVTZLVOVGl H. 

4 iX-qXaKoras (and so a 2 ; -ra B)] avveXrjXaKoras (L illegible) 
C ; GvvrjXaKoras y HUa 1 ?. 5 fir)] ^tJtc Reiske. 

6 Ikx^iv y a 3 snBr c E : eyxelv (sic) L ; e^ety C ; iyx^lv HU. 

7 7rapaxvTOLs] -tjs LC ac . 8 €lkos H A 2 B : eoiKOS* 

9 /caraxeo/Aevos a ras snBr : /cara^ca/xcvos C ac ? y 1 H ; /cat Kara- 
X€0[jl€i>os LC c Ua aras . 

° In 537 a it was prosperity that excited envy. But virtue 
102 



ON ENVY AND HATE, 537-538 

our hatred increases as the hated progress in vice, 
envy on the other hand increases with the apparent 
progress of the envied in virtue. a This explains why 
when Themistocles was still a youth he said that he 
was doing nothing remarkable, as he was not yet en- 
vied. 6 For just as beetles appear most of all in grain 
when it is ripe for harvest and in roses when they are 
in full bloom, so envy fastens most of all on characters 
and persons that are good and increasing in virtue 
and fame. In contrast unredeemed villainies intensify 
hate. At any rate, those who brought false charges 
against Socrates, being held to have reached the limit 
of baseness, were so hated and shunned by their 
countrymen that no one would lend them light for a 
fire, answer their questions, or bathe in the same 
water, but made the attendants pour it out as pol- 
luted, until the men hanged themselves, finding the 
hatred unendurable. 6 On the other hand supreme and 
resplendent good fortune often extinguishes envy. d 
For it is hardly likely that anyone envied Alexander 
or Cyrus when they had prevailed and become masters 
of the world. But just as the sun, when it stands 
directly over a man's head, pouring down its light, 
either quite obliterates his shadow e or makes it small, 

is the greatest blessing (cf. 538 d, infra), and there is no 
greater prosperity than the possession of it. 

b Cf. Hippasos, Frag. 6 (Diels and Kranz, Frag. d. Vor- 
sokratiker*, i, p. 109. 1-3) ; Kock, Com. Att. Frag., Adespota, 
385. 

c Conflicting stories of the fate of Anytus and Meletus are 
found in Diogenes Laert. ii. 43, vi. 9-10 ; Diodorus, xiv. 37. 
7 ; and Themistius, Or. 20 (239 c). Plutarch's story illus- 
trates Aristotle, Eth. Nic. ix. 4. 8 (1166 b 11-13). 

d Cf. Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 10. 5 (1388 a 11 f.). 

e For envy as the shadow of glory cf. Stobaeus, Anth. iii. 
38. 35 (p. 715. 15-18 Hense). 

103 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(538) jJUKpav €7Toirjcrev y ovtoj 7toXv tcjv evTvyywiojrixiv vifjos 
Aaj36vTO>v Kal yevopbevojv Kara Kec/xiXrjs rov cf)96vov 
avareXXerat Kal ava^ay pel KaTaXapLTrop,€Vos m to 

JJL6VTOL flL(JOS OVK OLVLrjGLV Tj TCDV lyftpGdV V7T€pOX^J KdX 

8vvapus. 6 yovv ' AXe£av8 pos (frdovovvra piev ovoeva 
ef^ey, jAiGovvras Se" ttoXXovs, v<f> y <Lv reXos eVi- 
fiovAevdels OLTredavev. o/jlolojs toivvv Kal tcl ovotv- 
Xfil^ojra tovs fJL€V (j>dovovvras rravet ras S' av ex9pas 
ovk dvaipeZ. puoovcri yap Kal rarreivovs tovs ix~ 
dpovs yevopcevovs, (frOovei 1 Se onsets' rep 8votvxovvtl, 

C dXXa Kal to prjOev vtto twos tcov Ka9* r^puas cro- 
(f>iGTO)v, otl 2 7]8iOTa ol <f>6ovovvT€S iXeovoiv, dXrjdes 
eoTiv. o)OT€ Kal TavTrf pieydXrjv elvac tcov iradcov 
Siacfropdv, ojs to /zev 4 pucros ovt€ zvtvxovvtojv ovt€ 
Svgtvxovvtojv d(f)ioTao6ai TrecfrvKev, 6 Se (j)96vos 
rrpos ttjv dpi(f)oZv V7T€pf3oXr]v a7Tayopev€L. 

7. "En tolvvv — rf pbdXXov ovtojs — aTTo tcjv ivav- 
tlojv to avTO OKOTTwpbtv. Xvovoi yap exOpas Kal 
puaos rj TreLoOevTes pLTjSev dhiKeiodai fj 86£av d)s XP 7 )' 
gtcov ovs epbioovv ws Trovrjpovs XafiovTes rj Tpvrov ev 
7ra96vT€s* -. rj yap reAeurata 6 ^apt?/' ojs 7 Qovkv- 
8i8rjs (f)r)OL, " kclv eXaTTOJV fj, Kaipov e^ouora Suvarat 

D pieZ^ov eyKXrjpua Xvaat." tovtojv Se to pbkv rrpcoTov 
ov Xvet rov cj)96vov (7T€Tr€iopL€voi yap e£ dpx^js 
pb7]8ev d8iKeZa9ai <f>9ovovoi) , to\ Se Xoma Kal irap- 

1 <f>d0V€i] <f>6oVOVGL LC 1 . 2 OTl] H OHlitS. 

3 ravrr] Reiske : tclvttjv. 

4 /jl€v] LC 1 y omit. 

5 rj] Kal a 3 snBr ; y omits ; Pohlenz puts it after /LtaAAov. 

6 reXcvrata] reAeurata L HU 1 sn. 

7 <bs] o LC 1 . 

a Cf. Plutarch, Frag, xxiii. 2 Bernardakis. 
b Cf. Life of Alexander, chap. lxx. 7 (707 a). 

104 



ON ENVY AND HATE, 538 

so when good fortune attains great elevation and 
conies to stand high over envy, then envy diminishes 
and withdraws, being overcome by the blaze of glory. a 
Hate, however, is not made to relent by the pre- 
eminence and power of one's enemies. Alexander 
certainly had none who envied, but many who hated 
him, and it was these who plotted against him and 
killed him in the end. & So too with misfortunes : they 
put a stop to envy but not to hate, for men hate even 
their humbled enemies, whereas no one envies the 
unfortunate. Rather it is a true remark of a certain 
sophist d of our day that those who envy take the 
greatest delight in pitying. Here too, therefore, there 
is a great difference between the two passions, since 
it is the nature of hate to depart from neither the 
fortunate nor the unfortunate, whereas envy is no 
longer sustained when either fortune is at its height. 6 
7. Again — or rather this is what we have just been 
doing — , let us examine the same principle in its nega- 
tive aspect. Men forgo hostility and hate either 
when convinced that no injustice is being done them, 
or when they adopt the view that those they hated 
as evil are good, or thirdly when they have received 
from them some benefit, " for the final service," as 
Thucydides f says, " though small, if opportunely be- 
stowed, wipes out a greater disservice." Now the 
first of these circumstances does not wipe out envy ; 
for men feel it though persuaded from the first that no 
injustice is being done them.* 7 The other two actually 

c Of Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 4. 31 (1382 a 14). 
d Unidentified. 

e Cf. Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 10. 5 (1388 a 11 f.). 
' i. 42. 3. 

g Cf. Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 9. 3 (1386 b 20-25), and Cicero, 
Tusc. Disput. iv. 8 (17). 

105 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(538) o£vv€f toZs re yap Sokovgl xPVvtols fiaoKaivovoi 
jjl&AAov, cos 1 St) to fieyiarov dyaOov rrjv dperrjv 

€%OVGl, KOLV €V TtaGyUtfJlV VTTO TCOV €VTV)(OVVTOJV , 

dvLWVTai cf)dovovvT€s avrols Kal rrjs rrpoaLpeaecos 
koX rrjs SvvdfJLeaJS* to /zev ydp dperfjs eon to Se 
evrv^iaSy dyaOd Se djU^dre/oa. olo TravTeXcog ere- 

pOV eOTl TOV fJLLOOVS, 1 €1 St' d)V €K€LVO 7TpaVV€TCLt 
TOVTO \V7T€ITCU Kal 7Tapo£vV€Tai. 

8. "HS77 Toivvv Kal ttjv Trpoaipeoiv avrrjv €Ka- 

TCpoV TTaOoVS OK07TtbpL€V. €OTL Se {JUOOVVTOS JJL6V 

E TTpoaipeois KaKcJos rroirjoai (Kal ttjv Svvapuv ov- 
tojs opi^ovTaiy hiddeoiv Tiva Kal irpoaipeoiv im- 
rrjprjTLKrjv tov KaKCJos 7TOLrjoaL), to) (f)dova) Se tovto 
yovv dneoTiVy rroXXovs ydp 2 oi <f)dovovvTes tcov 
ovvrjOojv Kal olk€lo)v dnoAeoQ ai /xev ovk dv ideXocev 
ovoe Suaru^aat, fiapvvovTat Se evTV^ovvTas' Kal 
koXovovol* fJbev, el SvvavTai, ttjv oo^av avTtov Kal 
XapLTTpOTrjTa, ovjJL((>opas Se dvr)KeoTovs ovk dv rrpoo- 
/3dAoiev, 4 dAA' coorrep oiKias VTrepexpvor]s to eiri- 
okotovv avTols Ka9eX6vT€s dpKovvTai. 

1 After jjiiaovs LC y U 3ss add ndOos 6 (f>96vos, which HU 1 
omit. 

2 yap] supplied by Stephanus. 

3 KoXovovai Bern. : kcoXvovgl. 

4 TrpoofiaXoiev H ?U : irpofiaXoizv (L illegible) C 1 y 2 (-AA- y 1 ). 

° Cf. Basil, Be Invidia, 93 c. 

b Cf. Mor. 87 b ; Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 4. 31 (1382 a 8) ; 
Diogenes Laert. vii. 113 (von Arnim, Stoicorum Vet. Frag. 
iii. 396, p. 96) : pZoos Se ionv eVt^u/xta tis tov KaKchs zlvai tlvl 

fJL€TOL 7TpOK07TfjS TlVO$ KCU TTapaTOLCrCCJS. 

c Thus Aristotle speaks of an "intention " in friendship 
and says that the intention proceeds from a " habit " : Eth. 

106 



ON ENVY AND HATE, 538 

exasperate it : for enviers eye more jealously those 
who enjoy a reputation for goodness, feeling that they 
possess the greatest bleisSiig, "virtue ; and even if they 
receive some benefit from the fortunate, are tormen- 
ted^ envying them for both the intention and the 
power. For the intention proceeds from their virtue, 
the power from their good fortune, and both are bles- 
sings. It is therefore quite distinct from hate, if what 
soothes the one torments and embitters the other. 

8. Let us therefore now take the intention of each 
of the two passions and examine it by itself. The 
intention of the hater is to injure, 6 and the meaning 
of hate is thus defined : it is a certain disposition and 
intention G awaiting the opportunity to injure. d In 
envy this, at any rate, is absent. For there are many 
of their intimates and connexions e that the envious 
would not be willing to see destroyed f or suffer mis- 
fortune, although tormented by their good fortune ; 
and while they abridge their fame and glory if they 
can, they would not, on the other hand, afflict them 
with irreparable calamities, but as with a house tower- 
ing above their own, are content to pull down the 
part that casts them in the shaded 

Nic. viii. 5. 4 (1157 b 29-31) ; cf. Eudemian Ethics, vii. 2. 35 
(1237 a 33 f.). 

d For " awaiting the opportunity to injure " cf. Aristotle, 
Rhetoric, ii. 5. 8 (1382 b 10 f.), and the Stoic definition of kotos 
(von Arnim, Stoicorum Vet. Frag. iii. 395, 397, 398, pp. 96. 
17 and 42 and 97. 25 f.), which was suggested, like that of 
XoAo?, by Homer, //. i. 81-83. 

e For friends as the object of envy cf. Plato, Philebus, 
48 b 11, 49 d 6, 50 a 2-3, the Definitions, 416. 13, and Xeno- 
phon, Mem. iii. ix. 8. 

' Cf. Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 4. 31 (1382 a 15). 

Cf. Xenophon, Mem. iii. ix. 8 and Chrysippus' definition 
of envy (Mor. 1046 b-c). 

107 



ON PRAISING ONESELF 
INOFFENSIVELY 

(DE SE IPSUM CITRA INVIDIAM 
LAUDANDO) 



INTRODUCTION 

In this essay Plutarch takes a topic of the rhetorical 
schools, " How to praise oneself inoffensively, " ° and 
treats it as a moralist. Neither Plato nor Aristotle 
discusses self-praise ; the nearest approach is the 
passage in the Nicomackean Ethics (iv. 7) on the alazbn 
and the eiron (the " boastful " and the " mock- 
modest " man, as Ross translates). These Aristotle 
judges according to the truth or falsity of their claims, 
whereas Plutarch supposes his statesman virtuous 
and truthful and deals with the ends that justify him 
in praising himself and the devices that by making 
the self-praise palatable enable him to use it so as 
to achieve those ends. 

This adaptation of rhetorical precepts to a moral 
use has led to a certain enlargement of the point of 
view. Thus in the earlier and more rhetorically 

° See L. Radermacher's illuminating discussion, " Studien 
zur Geschichte der griechischen Rhetorik, 1 1 : Plutarchs Schrift 
de se ipso citra invidiam laudando," Rheinisches Museum, lii 
(1897), pp. 419-424, and M. Pohlenz' concluding remarks in 
" Eine byzantinische Recension Plutarchischer Schriften," 
Gbttinger Nachrichten, 1913, pp. 358 f. The very term for 
self-praise, periautologia, that is used by the rhetoricians (see 
Alexander in Spengel, Rhet. Graec. iii, p. 4. 9 and Plutarch, 
539 e) comes from the softened expression " to speak about 
myself " that Demosthenes uses in the oration On the Crown 
(4 and 321) ; and it is probable that the whole topic was sug- 
gested to the rhetoricians by that oration. 

110 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE 

coloured parts of the essay Plutarch speaks of " the 
statesman " a ; later he speaks more generally of 
" us " h ; again he at times has an actual oration in 
mind, c but elsewhere writes as if the scene of the self- 
praise were an ordinary conversation or the circle of 
some grandee. Plutarch doubtless felt that only the 
statesman was justified in praising himself; in any 
case the expansion is natural enough : the rhetorical 
precepts were formulated for actual speech-making, 
whereas the moralist is concerned with all self-praise, 
not least when it occurs in daily life. 

The essay falls into three main parts : the intro- 
duction, the discussion of the circumstances that 
justify self-praise and of the devices that make it 
acceptable, and advice for avoiding it when it is un- 
called for. 

1 . Self-praise is offensive for a number of reasons. 
The statesman will however risk it when to accom- 
plish some worthy end he must establish his own 
character with the audience. Other justifications 
Plutarch will consider later. d Everywhere, however, 
we must see to it that the self-praise does not have a 
" frivolous " e and offensive character. 

2. Plutarch now tells how offence is avoided and 

a Cf. 539 e, 539 f, 541 c, 542 e, 545 d, and 545 e. 

6 Cf. macros 546 b and the first person plural at 546 p (8o«ctD- 
jLtcv), 547 A (ot 8' aAAot . . . ocfyeiXofiev), and 547 f (dfagofMeda). 

c Cf. 540 c and aKpoarrjv at 542 c and 545 d. 

d They are given in chapters 15-17, summarized in the 
second part of the following paragraph. 

e " Frivolous " or " purposeless " or " vain " — kenos is 
literally " empty " — self-praise is defined (540 a) as that of 
persons thought to praise themselves for no other reason than 
to receive praise. One might have expected to hear that ill- 
advised self-praise is praise of themselves by such persons. 
But Plutarch, unlike the rhetoricians, supposes the speaker 

111 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

gives further reasons for self-praise. Self-praise es- 
capes censure when the speaker is defending himself, 
is unfortunate, or is the victim of injustice ; again it 
is acceptable when it is presented indirectly, the 
speaker showing that the opposite of the conduct with 
which he is charged would have been shameful ; when 
it is interwoven with praise of the audience ; when it 
appears as praise of others of similar merit a ; when 
the credit is given partly to chance and partly to God ; 
when praise has already been introduced by others, 
and the speaker corrects it ; when he includes in it 
certain shortcomings of his own ; or when he men- 
tions the hardships endured in winning the praise. 
But suspicion of vanity is also avoided when the self- 
praise is beneficial. A man then might praise himself 
to arouse emulation in his hearers, to check the head- 
strong, to overawe an enemy or raise the spirits of his 
friends ; and to prevent vice from being commended 
he might even set his own praises against those of 
others. 

3. Lastly precepts are given for avoiding unseason- 
able self-praise. There are circumstances of special 
danger : when we hear others praised, when we re- 
count some lucky exploit of our own (and especially 
when we tell of praises received), and when we cen- 
sure others. Those with a craving for glory must be 
especially careful to abstain from self-praise when 
praised by others. The best precaution of all is to 

virtuous and truthful, and therefore not really guilty of mere 
vanity. Yet for self-praise, even by such a speaker, to achieve 
its worthy end it must not alienate the audience, or be thought 
to proceed from a mere hunger for praise. 

° Plutarch hints (542 e) that this device can be used at all 
times, even when the speaker is under no compulsion to 
praise himself. 

112 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE 

remember vividly the bad impression made on us by 
others' praise of themselves. a 

If, as seems likely, the Herculanus to whom the 
essay is addressed is C. Julius Eurycles Herculanus L. 
Vibullius Pius (for whom see Groag in Pauly-Wissowa 
x, coll. 580-585), it belongs to Plutarch's old age. It 
is No. 85 in the catalogue of Lamprias. 

There are Latin translations by Julius Gabrielius 
(Gabrielli) b and Thomas Naogeorgus (Kirchmeyer), c 
and an Italian translation by L. Domenichi. d 

The text rests on C G Xv I W ^ D RySs hki JK Zab 
N Me Vvw Ylfoq. Once a 2 is quoted for a conjecture. 

a In moral treatises of this sort it was common to pass from 
the disorder to the cure : cf. Mor. 510 c-d, 517 c, 536 c-d, and 
Pohlenz, " Ueber Plutarchs Schrift irepl aopyrjatas" Hermes, 
xxxi (1896), pp. 328-329. 

6 Quomodo aliquis sese laudare sine invidia possit. Plu- 
tarchi libellus ad Herculanum, a Iulio Gabrielio Eugubino 
Latine redditus. Rome, 1552. 

c Plutarchi . . . Libelli septem in latinum conversi, . . . 
Thoma Naogeorgo . . . interprete. Basle, 1556. 

d Opere Morali di Plutarcho, nuovamente tradotte, per M. 
Lodovico Domenichi . . . Come altri possa lodarsi da se 
stesso senza biasimo . . . Lucca, 1560. 



113 



539 IIEPI TOY EAYTON EIIAINEIN 

ANEIIKD0ONQS 1 

1 . 1 o 7T€pt eavrov Aeyeiv co? rt ovros* 7] ovva- 

fjLevov rrpos irepovs, co 'HpfcAave, 3 Xoyco fiev erra- 

B x@€S a7TO(f>aivovoLV / epyco 8e ov rroXXol to^v drjSiav 

avrov 8ia7T€(f)€vya(jLV ov8e ra>v i/jeyovrcov. 6 yovv 

EvpiTTiSTjS €LT7(a)V 

el S' ^crav avOpcoTroioiv ojvrjrol \6yoi 
ou§€69 av avrov 5 ev Xeyetv ifiovXero* 
vvv S', Ik fiadelas yap napeoriv alOepos* 
XafieTv dfiiadl, iras tls rjSerai Xeycov 
rd r ovra Kal yd)- fyfjitav yap ovk £y£V 

C (f>opTLKOjrdrrj Key^pvyrai \xzyaXavyia ra) ovyKara- 
7tX€K€lv 7 tols rpaycooovpievois rrdOeoi Kal TrpdypLaoi 
/jirjSev rrpoarjKovra rov rrepl avrov Xoyov. 6/jlolojs 
6 TllvSapos (frrjcras 

Kal ro Kavx&odai rrapd Kaipov piaviais* vtto- 

Kp€K€iV 9 

1 it. rod iavr. in. dv.) ntos dv ris iavrov inaiviaeiev dv. Lam- 
prias ; iv aAAo> ncpl rov nore /cat na>s iavrov inaiveiv XPV v lmg 
S 2m e ; n. rov in. dv. y 2 (y 1 omits). 

2 iavrov) iavrov ri C ; avrov G c (avrov G ac Vvw). 

3 'Hp/oWc Kontos and Hatzidakis : yjpKXave I 2 (rJpKXave C 
G X 2 u I 1 W DZab M 2 Vvw) ; -qpKXdve (no accent in y ; 17/0/cAriVe 
fpq). 

114 



ON PRAISING ONESELF 
INOFFENSIVELY 

1. In theory, my dear Herculanus, it is agreed that 
to speak to others of one's own importance or power 
is offensive, but in practice not many even of those 
who condemn such conduct avoid the odium of it. 
Thus Euripides a says : 

If speech were got by purchase, there is none 
Would care to lay out money on self-praise. 
But since the bounteous air provides it free 
There's none but dwells with pleasure on his merits 
Real or fancied, for it costs him nothing. 

Yet he brags most intolerably, interweaving with the 
calamities and concerns of his tragedies the irrelevant 
theme of his own praise. Pindar does the like. 
Though he says b 

Untimely vaunting plays the tune for madness 

a Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. pp. 675 f., Eur. no. 978. 
b Olympian Odes, ix. 41 f. 

4 aTTO<f>alvovoiv D Ry 1 S 1 s N M Yl : airo<f)aLvovoi rtavTes /cat 
dveXevdepov. 

5 avrov or avrov] avrwv G Ry 1 S 1 S 1 hki 1 (au- i 2 ) Z N 2 l 2 . 

6 aWepos] aWpias D 2 . 

7 ra> ovyx. X 3 e : /cat to ovyK. C G 1 ? X x u I Ry^S hi K" N 2 
M Vvw Yl ; /cat ra> ovy K . G 4 k W y 2 JK l8S Zab N 1 fpq ; avv- 
KaTaTrXeKtov D. 

8 iiavlcus] fiavLcucriv Pindar and s ; puavlas X 3 W ac M 1 w. 

9 V7TOKp€K€LV (-/C€- M 1 )] VTTOKpaiK€lV Ry 1 S 1 i ; KITjOepl^LV V7TO- 
Kp€KK€W N. 

115 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(539) ov rraverat pieyaXrjyopcov Trepl rfjs iavrov hwdjieoos , 
d^ias fxev 1 iyKoo/jiLOov ovcrqs — ris yap ov (frrjoiv ; — 
aAAa, /cat rov? arec^avovpievovs iv tols dyoooiv 
erepoi vikcovtcls dvayopevovai, rrjv drjSuav rrjs rrepi- 
avroXoyias dcjxupovvTes . fj 2 /cat rov Tipiodeov irrl 
rfj /caret OpwtSos 1 vlktj ypd(f)ovra, 

jLta/capto? rio6a y TifioOeos* €vre* K&pv£ 5 
eiTrev, " vik& Tt/xd^eos* 

M(A7yatOS >6 TOV KdfJLOJVOS 7 rov LCOVOKapLTTraV," 8 

D et/cdra)? SvoxepatvopLev ojs dfiovGcos /cat rrapavo- 
[jlcos dvaKrjpvrrovra rrjv iavrov vlktjv. avrcp {l€V 
yap 6 Trap" oXXojv eTraivos rjhiarov aKovafidroov 
eariv, oouTrep 6 Zevo^oov etprjKev, erepois he 6 rrepl 
avrov XvTrrjporarov. rrpcorov puev yap dvaiayyvrovs 
rjyovfJLeOa rovs eavrovs enaivovvras , alhelaOai rrpoo- 
rJKov avrols kolv vrf dXkoov eiraivGyvrai* Sevrepov 
e abiKovs, a Aapbpaveiv eoet, Trap erepcov avrov? 
avrols 9 StSdvras" rpirov rj aiwrrcovres d^deadai /cat 
c/)0ov€lv SoKovfiev, rj rovro SeSoiKores aVay/ca£d- 
pieda ovvefydrrr eadai Trapa yvoopLrjv roov eiraivcov 

E /cat avvempiaprvpetv , rrpay\xa /coAa/ceta jjl&XXov 
dveXevdepop rrpoorjKov rj rififj ro erraivelv rrapovras 
vrropievovres. 

2. Ov firjv aAAa Kalrrep otVa> rovra>v eypvrcov 

1 [ikv\ fir) y 1 ; X ras 6 y 2 ab ras omit. 

2 i (V Yq)] rj C 1 G 1 X 1 ^ W M 1 Vvw 1 ; N omits. 

3 TtfioOeos Hartung : TifjuoOee. 

4 €vt€ Wilamowitz : ore (on G ac? X4o). 

5 xapvZ W s k Vvw Y 2 l 2 ( K d P v£ G 1 u D RyS hi N MC 2 
YWpq) : Kijpvi C 1 G 3 X« JK ab (mj/wf X 1 Z). 

6 MiAiycrio? Bergk : o /LttA^crtos' (-eo>? N). 

7 Kdficovos Pollux : Kapcovos D c (from -va) y ; Kapfiaivos. 

116 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 539 

he never wearies of extolling his own powers, which 
indeed deserve all praise — who denies it ? — ; but 
even the winners of the crown at the games are pro- 
claimed victors by others, who thus remove the odium 
of self-praise. Thus when Timotheus a writes in cele- 
bration of his triumph over Phrynis, 

O blest wert thou, Timotheus, when the herald 
Called forth : " Timotheus of Miletus wins 
The prize from Camon's son, the modulator 
Of soft Ionic cadences," 

we are properly disgusted at this jarring and irregular b 
heralding of his own victory. For while praise from 
others, as Xenophon c said, is the most pleasant of 
recitals, praise of ourselves is for others most distres- 
sing. For first we regard self-praisers as shameless, 
since they should be embarrassed even by praise from 
others d ; second as unfair, as they arrogate to them- 
selves what it is for others to bestow ; and in the 
third place if we listen in silence we appear dis- 
gruntled and envious, while if we shy at this we are 
forced to join in the eulogies and confirm them against 
our better judgement, thus submitting to a thing 
more in keeping with unmanly flattery than with the 
showing of esteem — the praise of a man to his face. 
2. Yet in spite of all this there are times when the 

a Frag. 27 (ed. Wilamowitz). 

6 It violated the regulations that governed such contests. 
c Memorabilia, ii. 1. 31. 

d Of. Demosthenes, On the Crown, 128, quoted also by 
Quintilian, Education of the Orator, xi. 1. 22. 

8 lajvoKdfjLTTTav G u Xv y 2 S 2 MC 3? Vvw Ypq (-Tmv C 1 W D 
Ry 1 S 1 S hki N f [olovoKafX7rav 1] ; -TTTtjv G 1ss ) : olcovoKdfiTrrrjv 

J X K ; TTlTV0KdfJL7TTT)V Z (-7T7)V ab). 

9 clvtovs avTols Kronenberg : avTols or clvtols {clvtovs X 1 ). 

117 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(539) €OTLV fj 7TapaKLv8vV€VG€L€V (IV 6 TToXlTlKOS dvrjp 

aipaoOou rfjs KaXovfJLevqg TTtpiavToXoyLas, rrpos ov- 
SejJLLav avrov ho^av rj xdpiv, dXXd Katpov Kal 
Trpd^eco? drraLTOVor]s ws rrepl d'AAou tl 1 Xe^Orjvai 
Kal Trepl avrov 2 tcov dXr]9a)v 3 ' /zaAtcrra, 8e orav fj 
ra rrerrpayixeva Kal rrpoaovra xprjGTa p^rf (f>€icrd- 

jJL€VOV €L7T€LV 5 SlOL7Tpd£aa9aL TL TCOV OfJLOLOOV. KaXoV 

yap 6 tolovtos eTraivos €K(f>€p€i 6 Kapirov, ooorrep 
F a77o GTrepixaros TrXeLOvaov irepcov air* avrov Kal 
KpeiTTOvajv (frvofievoov eVatvcuv. Kal yap rrjv 86£av 
6 ttoXltlkos dvrjp oi>x cos riva jjlloOov fj rrapapLvdiav 
rrjs dperfjs anaiTzi Kal dyarra tols rrpd^eoL rrapov- 
oav aAA' on to TnoreveaOai, Kal 8ok€lv xprjOTOV 
etvat ttXziovojv Kal koXXlovcov rrpd^ecov d(/)oppids 
St'Saxjt. TTeidofAevovs yap a/xa Kal (jtiXovvras rj8v 
Kal pdoiov cbcfreXelv, rrpos Se vrroipLav Kal SiafioXrjv 
ovk eon xPV Gaa ^ aL T fj Q-perfj, (frevyovras €v 
rradelv Trpoofiia^opLevov . el 8e Kal St' erepas alrias 7 
540 6 ttoXltlkos av 8 avrov inaLveaeLe gk€ttt€ov, 9 ottcos 
i^evXafiovpLevoi to k€vov Kal Sucr^epatvdjitevov, et tl 

XP^OLfJiOV €%€l JJLTj TTapaXLTTW/JLeV }° 

3. ''EcjTtv ovv K€vos erraLvos 6 tcov eavTOVS €7rat- 
V€tv ottcos eiraivedojGL ookovvtcov, Kal /cara^povetrat 
jitaAtara, ^tAort/xtas" eveKa yiveodat Kal oo^rjs a/cat- 

1 cos TTepl dXXov tl Wyttenbach : a>s rrzpi dXXo re K 3 ^ ; worrep 
dXXo ri (a>07T€p dXX 9 on X 1 !;). 

2 avrov (av~y\ avrov n D. 

3 dXrjOcov] dXrjdivoov W D hki. 

4 [at) Pohlenz : ro pur) (rw pur) De 2ss S 2? s hki JK w 1 ; rov purj 
R ; ra>v pirj y-^S 1 ). 5 eiVeiv D : etVctv rj. 

6 €K(f)€p€L (€K<f>€p€rai Z)] €7TL(f>€p€l C. 

7 iripas alrias Pohlenz : irepas alrias nvas D ; iripas {-aov 
S 11 ) rtvos Ry 1 Ss ; irepas rivas. 

8 av] Dc RySs hk x i omit. 

118 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 539-540 

statesman might venture on self-glorification, as it is 
called," not for any personal glory or pleasure, but 
when the occasion and the matter in hand demand 
that the truth be told about himself, as it might about 
another — especially when by permitting himself to 
mention his good accomplishments and character he 
is enabled to achieve some similar good. For such 
praise as this yields a handsome return, as a greater 
harvest of yet nobler praise springs up from it as from 
a seed. Indeed it is not as a reward or compensation 
for his merit that the statesman demands recognition 
and values it when accorded to his acts : he does so 
rather because the enjoyment of confidence and good 
repute affords means for further and yet nobler 
actions. b For when men are trusting and friendly it 
is pleasant and easy to do them good ; whereas in the 
presence of distrust and dislike it is impossible to put 
one's merit to use and force benefits on those who 
shun them. Whether there are also other reasons for 
a statesman's self-praise is a question to consider, so 
that, while avoiding all that is frivolous and offen- 
sive in the practice, we may not overlook its possible 
uses. 

3. Now the praise is frivolous which men are felt to 
bestow upon themselves merely to receive it ; and it 
is held in the greatest contempt, as it appears to aim 
at gratifying ambition and an unseasonable appetite 

a Periautologia (self-glorification) is a technical term in 
rhetoric : see Introduction, p. 110, note. 
b Cf. Mor. Ill e-f, 821 c. 

9 <jk€7tt€ov Pohlenz : rives elotv avrai (avrai X 1 ) ok. G X 3 € v 
W ab ; ok. rives elolv (ok. rivis elotv [ok* rives €i- N 1 ] N 2 M 
Yfpq) avTai {rives avrai elol ok. J X K ; tlvcs [-os v] ok. cloiv 
avrat Vvw). 
10 7Tapa\['na)fjL€v (-7ro- N)] 7TapaX€L7r(x)fM€v Dc 2ss p 1 . 

119 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(540) pov (fxuvofxevos. (hs yap ol rpocfrfjs dnopovvres it; 1 
avrov rod oojjiaros dvayKa^ovrai rrapa </>vaiv rpe- 
<f)€adai, } Kal rovro tov Xljjlov reXos iortv, ovtojs ol 

7T€LVO)VT€S €7TaiVCx)V, dv [JLTj TVyydvGOGW' 6T€pOJV 

€7raivovvTOJV, avrol rfj (f)iAo8o£ia Trap* avrcov eV- 
B apKelv tl fiovXeoOai Kal crvveiorc/tipeiv 8okovvt€S 
aoyr^xovovcjiv . orav Se ///^Se 3 dirXaJS Kal KaQ* 
avrovs* iiraiveioOai fyrcocrLV , dAA' apaXXa) fxevot irpos 
aXXoTplovs ivraivovs epya Kal Trpd^ecs avrnrapa- 
j3dAAoj<jiv 5 avrcov ojs dpLavpcjoovres* irepovs, Trpos 
rep Kevcp fidoKavov irpayjJLa Kal KaKorjdes ttolovolv. 
tov p,€V yap iv aXXorpico X°P^ ) ^oSa rtdevra 7 Trepl- 
epyov rj Trapoipiia Kal yeXolov aTTohziKvvoi,* rrjv Se 
iv aXXorpiots irraivois els fieoov vtto (f)96vov Kal 
tflXorvnias i^ojdovfJLevqv TrepiavroXoyiav ev fidXa 
Set (j)v\drreod at, Kal p/qhe erepoov vnopbeveiv eVai- 
C vovvrcov avrov? dXXd Tiapayc^pelv rots ripLCjpLevois 
allots ovoiv 10 - dv Se avd^iot Kal <J>avXoi 86£qjolv 
elvai, fjirj 11 rots ISlols irralvois d^aipcopieOa rovs 
iKelvojv, aXX dvriKpvs iXey^ovres Kal SecKvvvres ov 

7Tp0O7]K0VT0JS €v8oKlfJLOVVTaS . TaVTa fJL€V OVV SrjXoV 

on <f)vXaKT€ov . 

4. Avrov Se iixaivelv ap^epmrcos iorl it poor ov puev 

1 i£] W omits. 

2 rvyxdvcjGLv (-at XiyPvW)] tv X coglv (-at X 1 V* I JK Zab M 2 . 

3 fJ-rjoe] firj G ac . 

4 avrovs] eavrovs De y 2 ? JK Zab M. 

6 avTm apapdXXaxJiv {-TT€pi- vw)] avrnrapafiaXwoiv R ac? y h 1 ? 
N M 1 Yfpq. 

120 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 540 

for fame, For just as those who can find no other 
food are compelled to feed unnaturally on their own 
persons, and this is the extremity of famine, so when 
those who hunger for praise cannot find others to 
praise them, they give the appearance of seeking 
sustenance and succour for their vainglorious appe- 
tite from themselves, a graceless spectacle. But when 
they do not even seek to be praised simply and in 
themselves, but try to rival the honour that belongs 
to others and set against it their own accomplishments 
and acts in the hope of dimming the glory of another, 
their conduct is not only frivolous, but envious and 
spiteful as well. For the proverb b makes of him who 
sets foot in another's chorus a meddler and a fool ; 
and self-praise that is thrust by envy and jealousy 
among praises of others should be most diligently 
avoided ; indeed we should not even endure such 
praise from others, but should give place to those on 
whom honour is conferred when they deserve it. If 
we hold them undeserving and of little worth, let us 
not strip them of their praise by presenting our own, 
but plainly refute their claim and show their reputa- 
tion to be groundless. Here then is something we 
clearly must avoid. 

4. In the first place self-praise goes unresented if 

a Cf. Mor. 1100 b. 

b Cf. Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroem. Gr. ii, p. 690, and 
Mor. 673 d. 

6 dfj.avpa)GovT€s] apav pa>aavT€S G 1 X*u I W Vvw. 

7 TiB4vra\ Kivovvra W. 

8 aTToheiKvvoi] oclkvvgi D. 

9 V7T. in. avrov (avrov S 1 M c p)] err. avr. vtt. D (cV, vtt. avrov c). 

10 d£ioi? ovglv G X lt ei; lt W JK M 2 : ay aftot coaw (-at, 
X^PvW ; av aW a^ot Zab). 

11 pi)] fJLr}0€ D 1 N. 

121 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(540) av 1 OLTroAoyoviJLevos tovto TTOtfjs 2 Trpos SiajHoXrjv rj 
KarrjyopLav, d>s 6 UepiKXfjs' " Kairoi ifiol tolovto) 
avopi opycQecrue 09 ovoevos rjcracov oiop,ai etvat 
yvcovat re ra Seovra /cat epfirjvevcrai ravra, <j>iX6- 
ttoXls r€ /cat xP 7 ]l J/ 4 Ta)V Kpct'croxov/' ov yap jjlovov 
D dAa£ovetav /cat Kevorrjra /cat c/StAoTt/xtav IkttI- 
(f)evy€ to* Xeyetv n 5 rrpfiKavra rrepl avrov* aefivov, 
dXXa /cat (fypovrjfia /cat fieyedos dperrjs StaSet/cvuat 
to) 7 /x^ TdTTeivovoOai Ta7T€ivovar]s /cat xetpovfjLevqs 
tov (jidovov. ov8e yap Kpivew en 8 tovs toiovtovs 
d^iovGtv, dAA' irraipovTai /cat ydVuvrat 9 /cat crwev- 
Oovglcogl rat? fJL€yaXav)(Lais , dvrrep alert jSejSatot 10 
/cat dXrjdeZs, cos 11 impLapTvpeL rd ytvd/xeva. 12 QrjftatoL 
yovv iyKaXov[JL€va)v rcov orparrjycov on tov XP°~ 
vov rrjs jSota)Tap^ta9 ££tJkovtos avrols ovk evdvs 
€7ravrjXdov dAA' ct? tt^v AaKQJViKrjv evefiaXov /cat 

E T(X TT€pl M.€GGTjVrjV OLWKTjGaV Il€Ao77tOaV jLt€V 

VTroTTiTTTovra /cat Sco/xcvov jjloXls aVcATjaav, 'E7ra- 
fxeivajvhov Se 77oAAa 7T€pt rcov TrerrpaypLevajv fxeya- 
Xrjyoprjoavros , reXos Se (jyrjoavros <hs eroifios iortv 
drroOvrjOKetv dv opLoXoyrjococriv on rrjv M.€oorjv7]v 
co/ctae 13 /cat rrjv AaKOJVLKrjv SierropOrjoe 1 * /cat crvv- 

1 dv] G ac omits. 

2 77017}? (ttoitjis X*[?] ; 7rot€ts Y 1 [?]) : 770177 G c i» I Vvw c 

(t701€1 G aC W ac ). 

3 dpyileode] opyt&odai PPul D a ° Rac Ji? N 1 l 2 . 

4 to] t<3 X 3 y 2 JK fpq. 

5 Aeyetv rl 3 (as Meziriacus had conjectured) : Xeyeiv. 

6 aurou (at)-)] iavrov G ; aurou (av- D ; eau- e) rt, (rl Zab) 
DeZab. 7 to>] to G 1 w ; rwv y ; to, v. 

8 en] In kclI hki ; Iti followed by an erasure of six letters 
in M. 
122 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 540 

you are defending your good name or answering a 
charge, as Pericles was when he said ° : 

" Yet I, with whom you are angry, yield to none, I be- 
lieve, in devising needful measures and laying them before 
you ; and I love my country and cannot be bought." 

For not only is there nothing puffed up, vainglorious, 
or proud in taking a high tone about oneself at such 
a moment, but it displays as well a lofty spirit and 
greatness of character, which by refusing to be 
humbled humbles and overpowers envy. For men no 
longer think fit even to pass judgement on such as 
these, but exult and rejoice and catch the inspiration 
of the swelling speech, when it is well-founded and 
true. 6 The facts confirm this. Thus when the generals 
were tried on the charge that they had not returned 
home at once on the expiration of their term as 
Boeotarchs, but had invaded Laconia and handled the 
Messenian affair, the Thebans came near to con- 
demning Pelopidas, who truckled to them and en- 
treated mercy ; but when Epameinondas expatiated 
on the glory of his acts and said in conclusion that 
he was ready to die if they would admit that he 
had founded Messene, ravaged Laconia, and united 

a Thucydides, ii. 60. 5. 

b The rhetoricians observe that the highest eloquence over- 
powers judgement: cf. Cicero, De Oratore, ii. 42 (178); 
Quintilian, Education of the Orator, viii. 3. 3-4 ; and the 
treatise On the Sublime, 1. 4. 

9 ydvvvrat € Ry : ydvvvvTai. 10 jStjScuoi] kolI jSejScuot D. 

11 <bs] (X>(J7T€p D. 

12 ywo\i€va (yiyv6fx€va Ss 2 )] y€v6(j,€va D y 1 ; Xcyofieva V 2ss w. 

13 tpKiae G° v 2 (-€v W) R c ySs hki JK Zab : <x>kt)0€ (wK^oai 

N 1 ; blU)K7)G€ X 3 c). 

14 TT)V fX. WK. K(Ll TTjV A. Sl€7TOp#.] TT]V A. Sl€7TOpO. {llTOpO. c) KOX 

/x. (ttjv fx. M 2 ; fx. M 3 ) u)K. (for /x. t5/c. X 3 c have Ta 7T€pl /x. 8ta>- 
k V o€) G XH; W 3 J l K Zab M 2 . 

123 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(540) earrjcrev 'ApKaSlav olkovtcov 1 eKelvajv, ovSe Tas i/jrj- 
<j)OVs dvaXafielv eir* clvtov VTrefxeivav , dXXd Oavfid- 
£ovt€s 2 tov dvSpa Kal x^lpovTes dfjua Kal yeXtovTes 
d7T7jXXdyrjaav . odev ovhe tov 'OfJirjpLKov UdeveXov 
rravrdTTaaiv alriareov to 

rjfJLeLS toi rrarepcov p,ey dfielvoves evxdfJie6 y elvai 

F fjLejjLvrjiJLevovs 3 tov* 

a> fioi, TvSeos vie Sa'typovos L7T7To8dpLot,o 

TL 7TTCOOCF€lS ; TL 8' 6tT17T€V€IS TToXejJLOLO y€(f)VpaS / 

ovSe yap avros aKovaas KaK&s dXX V7rep rod 
<f)LXov Xoihopr)9evTos rjfJLVvaro, rfj rrepLavToXoyla 5 
Trap prjo lav avyyvwfjLOva 6 rrjs atrias SlSovgtjs. dXXd 
fjLTjv Kal 'Pco/xalot J&LKepajvL p,ev ehvcrxepaivov iy- 
KOjfjudlzOVTL TToXXaKis eavTOV ras* rrepl K.artXcvav 
77 payees y YiKLTTiajvi he. elnovTL firj TrpeireLV avrols 
KpLveiv Trepl HklttIojvos, 8 Si' 6V ex oV(Jl to KplveLV 
ttolglv dvdpamois, ar€<f)ava)odfJL€Voi avvavefirjaav 9 els 
541 to K.a7TLTO)Xiov Kal avveOvoav . 6 fiev yap ovk 
dvayKalcos dXX virep ho^rjs exprJTO rots' enalvoLS, 
rod he d(/)rjpeL tov (f)96vov 6 kIvSvvos. 

5. Ov [jlovov he KpivopuevoLS Kal KLvhvvevovvLV , 
dXXd Kal hvGTVXovai fiaXXov dppio^eL fieyaXavxla 
Kal KOfjiTTog rj evTVXovoiv . ol pLev yap olov em- 

1 olkovtcov] iKovTtov X 1 M 1 Vvw ; drrovrcov $ l 1 ? olkovovtcov 

2 davfjid^ovres] davixdcravres G. 

3 fJL€/JLV7]lJL€VOVs] {JL€fjLV7)p,€V0lS Dt. 

4 tov G 4 W (rovD) JK : to (t€ R). 

5 rfj 7T€puivTo\oyiq (and so y 2ss ?)] rrjv 7T€piavro\oyia G 1 v Z ; 
tt)v TrepiavToXoytav X 1 Rj^Ss hki N M 1 Vvw Y 1 . 

6 avyyvcofiova] evyvcbfxova D. 

124 






ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 540-541 

Arcadia against their will, they did not even wait 
to take up the vote against him, but with admiration 
for the man commingled with delight and laughter 
broke up the meeting. Neither then should we alto- 
gether blame Sthenelus in Homer b for saying 

Far better men are we than were our sires, 

but remember the words c 

For shame ! Why dost thou, valiant Tydeus' son, 
Hang back ? Why peer about the paths of war ? 

For Sthenelus had not even received the insult him- 
self ; he was answering the affront to his friend, and 
the imputation gave a pardonable latitude to his self- 
praise. The Romans again were annoyed with Cicero 
for frequently vaunting his success with Catiline d ; 
but when Scipio said that it ill befitted them to sit in 
judgement over Scipio, to whom they owed the power 
to sit in judgement for all mankind, they put garlands 
on their heads, escorted him to the Capitol, and joined 
him in the sacrifice. For Cicero boasted not from 
necessity but for glory ; whereas the peril of the other 
did away with envy. e 

5. This holds not only of those on trial and in peril ; 
the unfortunate as well can boast and extol them- 
selves with better grace than the fortunate. For the 

a Cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap. xxv. 2-3 (290 e), and Mor. 
194 a-c with the note. 

6 II. iv. 405 ; quoted also in Mor. 29 a. 

c II. iv. 370-371. 

d Cf Quintilian, Education of the Orator, xi. 1. 17. 

e Cf. Mor. 196 f and Livy, xxxviii. 50. 12. 

7 CTfamWt X 1 . 3 u D R ac ? J 1 (-ovt)K N Yl : aiayirimvi. 

8 GKL7TLOJVOS X*U V 2 ? JK N V 1 ? Yl : OK7J7TLLDVOS. 

9 ovvavcprjaav (and so G 4 )} ovv£$ , r\oa.v G 1 v p 1 . 

125 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(541) SpoLTTtaOai ttjs ho£r]s /cat diroXaveiv x a P L &f JL€VOL 

TCp <f)lXoTipLCp hoKOVGLV, OL 8e TTOppCO cj>lXoTLp,iaS Sid 

tov Kaipov ovres i^avatfiepew TTpos rrjv rvyyp Kal 
virepeihtiv to cppovrjpia Kal cpevyecv oXcos to iXe- 
eivov Kal GW€7Tidpxjvovv roZs afiovXrjTois Kal tcl- 

7T€LVOVjJi€VOV. tOOTTtp OVV TOVS €V TCp 7T€pilTaT€lV 

B eiraipoplvovs Kal vifjav)(€VovvTas dvorjTovs rjyov- 
fjb€0a Kal Kevovs, av 8e irvKrevovres rj /xa^ojitevot 
Sieyeipcoai Kal dvdycooiv eavTOVs, eTraivodjiev, ov- 
tcos dvrjp vtto rvx^S crcpaXXopuevos 1 eavrov els opdov 
KaQiards Kal dvTiiraXov 

TTVKTTfS OTTOJS €LS X€LpaS 

€K rod raneivov Kal oiKrpov rfj /xeyaAat^ta /xera- 
cfiepcov els to yavpov Kal vifjr]X6v, ovk irraxdrjs ov8e 
dpaovs dAAa pieyas elvai ooKel Kal dr)TTr\TOS , cos 

7T0V Kal TOV HaTpOKXoV 6 7TOL7JT7JS pL€Tpt,OV Kal 
aV€7TL(f)9oVOV €V TCp KaTOpdoVV, €V §6 TCp TeXeVTCLV 

pLeyaXrjyopov 2 7T€7TOLrjK€ XeyovTa 

C tolovtol 8' eiirep pLOL eetKooriv* dvTef56Xr)aav 

Kal Qcoklcov raAAa npaos rjv, /xera 8e ttjv KaTa- 
8lkt]v dXXots T€ ttoXXoXs SieSetKvve ttjv pueyaXo- 
tf>poovvrjv, Kal rrpos eva tcov avvaTTodvrjOKovTCuv 
oSvpopcevov Kal Svaavaax^TovvTa, " tl XeyeLS," 
elrrev, " ovtos ;* ovk dyairas aTTodvrjGKCOV pb€TOL 
(&COKLCOVOS ; " 

6. "En tolvvv ovx rJTTOV dAAa Kal pbdXXov dSiKov- 
pievcp tco TToXiTiKcp Se'Sorai to XeyeLV tl irepl avTov 

1 a<f>aXX6fi€vos (<f>aX- M)] a</>aXX6jjL€vov G X 1 ^ W. 
2 /jLcyaXrjyopov X x u hi N 2 (from -opcov) M Yl : fieyaXtjyopov. 

126 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 541 

fortunate are felt to lay hands on glory, as it were, 
and take their pleasure of it in gratification of their 
pride, but the others, far removed from ambition by 
their plight, are looked upon as breasting ill-fortune, 
shoring up their courage, and eschewing all appeal to 
pity and all whining and self-abasement in adversity. 
And so, just as we regard those who strut on a walk 
and hold up their chin as fatuous and vain, but when 
in boxing or fighting men rise to their full height and 
hold the head erect, we applaud ; so the man cast 
down by fortune, when he stands upright in fighting 
posture 

Like a boxer closing in,° 

using self-glorification to pass from a humbled and 
piteous state to an attitude of triumph and pride, 
strikes us not as offensive or bold, but as great and 
indomitable. Thus in Homer Patroclus is moderate 
and inoffensive in success, but boastful in death, when 
he says b 

Had twenty faced me such as thou . . . 

Again Phocion, who was at other times of mild temper, 
gave after his condemnation many signs of his great 
spirit, notably when he said to one of those sentenced 
to die with him, who was lamenting and showing im- 
patience, " What's the matter, my good man ? Are 
you not content to die with Phocion ? " G 

6. Further, it is no less, nay even more, permissible 
for a statesman when wronged to make some boast to 

a Sophocles, Trachinian Women, 442. b II. xvi. 847. 

c Cf. Life of Phocion, chap, xxxvi. 3 (758 d) ; Mor. 189 a. 

3 €€lkoglv] cUlkoglv M ; Hkoglv (et- N 1 ; ct N 2 ) Ylfpq ; clko- 
glv Vvw. 

4 ovros (ovtws N 1 )] <L ovtos -3 ; &ovbi7TTT€ Wyttenbach. 

127 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(541) rrpos rovs ayvcofjuovovvras . wanep 6 'A^tAAeu? 
dXXcos /xev v(/)Uto rw deito rrjs 86£rjs /cat pberpios 

T \ / 1 

rjv Aeycov 

at K€ 7TO0L 2u€VS 

Scogl 7t6Xlv Tffotrjv 2 evrelx^ov e£aAa7ra£ar 

vfipiodels Se 7rap y dcft'av /cat TrpoTT^XaKiodels e<f>Lr)oi 
rrjv fieyaXavx^CLV rfj opyfi' 

D SaiSe/ca 817 3 gvv vrjval ttoXcls aXama^* avdpcjirojv 

/cat 

ov yap ijjifjs Kopvdos Aeuaouat 4 /zeramov 5 
iyyvdt XafiTTOfJLevrjs. 

Se^€Tat yap rj TrapprjOLa, fiepos ovoa* rrjs St/cato- 
XoyiaSy rrjv fjLeyaXrjyoptav. a/xeAct 8e 7 /cat Qejjuaro- 
kXtjs ov&ev irrl tcqv rrpd^eoju elircbv ov8e TToirjoas 

€TTax6£s, OTTTjVlKa TOVS ' A07]VaLOV£ 4d)pa fJL€(JTOVS 

ovras avrov /cat 7T€pi>optovTas ovk €<^et8ero Xeyecv 8 ' 

E " tl, to /xa/captot, /co77tar€ TroAAd/cts U7ro tcw au- 

tcov e5 TTaaxovres ; " /cat ort c< ^ettta^o/xevot /xev 

COGTTCp VTTO 0€VOpOV V7TO<p€Vy€T€ , y€VOJJL€Vr]S 0€ 

euSta? TtAAcrc Trape^iovres" 

7. 05rot /xev ow> aAAco? dSt/cou/xcvot raw Karojp- 
Oojfjievajv 11 ifJi€fivrjvro Trpos rovs ayvtofiovovvras* 6 

1 Aeycov] ran Acyciv W. 

2 Tpotrjv (and so G 4 ; rpoirjv S k J 2 ab N 2 f ; rpoiKv D ; i-pon? 
N 1 )] rpcotr)v G 1 X 1 Y*l ; rpdyqv Y»°\ 

3 S17 W and Homer : yap. 

4 Xevaovoi] Xevaoovat DekJKM 2 w with some mss. of Homer. 

5 fierwTTov] perwira X lss ? hki J X K with some mss. of Homer. 

6 ovaa] ovaav D. 

7 8c] s J l K Vvw omit. 

8 Acyciv] Aeycov 3 N. 

128 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 541 

those who deal hardly with him. Thus Achilles at 
other times yielded the glory to Heaven and showed 
his modesty by saying : 

If we by Zeus' high will 
Shall take at last the lofty walls of Troy a ; 

but when wrongfully affronted and outraged he let 
his anger give full course to vaunting : 

Twelve cities with my fleet have I made empty b 
and : 

For they see not 
The glancing light upon my helm draw nigh. c 

For the freedom of speech that is involved in a plea for 
justice gives scope for self-praise. Thus Themistocles 
neither said nor did anything invidious at the time of 
his successes ; but when he saw that the Athenians 
had grown weary of him and indifferent, he did not 
hesitate to say : " My innocent friends, why so tired 
of repeated benefits from the same hands ? " d And 
again : "In a storm you take shelter with me, as 
under a tree ; but in fair weather you pluck the 
leaves as you pass me by." e 

7. Now the wrongs of these men did not bear 
directly on the triumphs that they recalled to their 

a Homer, II. i. 128 f. ; quoted also in Mor. 29 a. 

b Homer, //. ix. 328. 

c Homer, II. xvi. 70-71. 

d Cf. Life of Themistocles, chap. xxii. 2 (123 a) ; Mor. 
812 b. 

e Cf. Life of Themistocles, chap, xviii. 4 (121 a) ; Mor. 
185 e. 

9 hivhpov] bevBpcov X}v W ; 8ev8pov p Kronenberg. 

10 y€vofji€V7]s] yivoficvrjs W 3 R Z N 1. 

11 KdTcopdcofjLevcov Stegmann (KaropOcofievcDv D) : KaTopdco- 
lidrcuv W h x k € ; KaTOpOovfidvcov (KarcopOovfidvcov N). 

VOL. VII F 129 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(541) Se 677' avrols ifjeyofievos ols Kara)p9a>K€ Kal 1 ttclvtol- 
Traoi ovyyvtooTOS 2 Igtl Kal dfiefJiTTros eyKa>/xia£coi> 
to, 77-€7rpay/xeVa * 8ok€l yap ovk z 6v€l8l%€lv dXX drro- 
Xoyelod ai. tovto yovv Xaparpdv toj ArjfjLocrOeveL 
TrappTjoiav e8i8ov Kal tov Kopov d(f)rjp€i tcov kiral- 
vojv ols rrapa TTOivra tov Xoyov ofxov tl tov vrrep tov 

F GT€(/)dvOV K€Xpy]Tai G€fXVVv6jJL€VOg OLS €V€KaX€LTO 

7repl tov TToXepiov 77/oe cr/ku/zacrt Kal ifj^iaixaatv. 

8. Ov TToppoj 8e tovtov* T€Taypi€vov ex €i riV ^ 
%dpiv to ttjs dvTideoeoJSy otolv e<^' a) tls iyKaXetTai 5 
tovtov TovvavTiov alaxpov diroheiKvvrf Kal <f>avXov. 
d)S 6 AvKovpyos iv 'Adrjvais errl tco 7T€7T€i,K€vai 
tov ovKO(f)dvTr]v dpyvpiov XoiSopopfxevos, ,' etra/' 

€(f)Tj, " TTOLOS TLS V\jlv 80KCO €LVat TToXlTTJS, Q$ TOGOV- 

tov xpovov ra 8rjpLOGLa rrpaTTOJV Trap* vpuv 8l8ovs 
fiaXXov doLKOJS r) XapLpdvojv €iXr)fjLfj,ai ; " Kal 6 
542 KiKepajv, tov McreAAou 77/009 avTov elrrovTos otl 
irXeiovas dvrjprjKe Acara/xaprf prjoas r) GvvrjyoprjGas 
aeaojKe, " tls he J* 61776V, " ov (frrjoLV iv ifjiol rrXeov 
elvat 8 7T6CTT6a)9 r) SeivoTrjTos ; " Kal Ta ArjpLo- 
adevovs TOtavTa' " tls 8' ovk av 9 drreKTeLve fie ol- 

KaLOJS €L TL TtOV TTJ TToXeL KoXdjV VTTapXOVTOJV Xoytp 

r 10 ' / \\ > / >> \ it r •* >/ a 

[XOVOV aLGXW€LV €7T€X€LpTJGa / ACGU TL aV OL€GU€ 

XeyeLV tovs piLapovs tovtovs dvdpojirovs el tot€ fiov 

1 Kal] 3 D RySs omit. 

2 TTavraTTaoi avyyvcoaros] TravrdiraoL yvmoros G 1 ^ ? TTavrdiraaLV 
dyvcjGTos W. 

3 ovk] D omits. 

4 tovtov] tovtojv G 4 W JK Z 1 (?). 

5 iyKaXetTai] -ijrai GXi»W3 S 2 ? i Z M 2 w Y. 

6 diroheiKvvri] aTroSeUvvTai 3 ; aTroheiKvvzi X x u D S 1 hki N 1 ? 
Yip. 

7 vfilv] rjfjuv v J ac ; D omits. 

8 ctvai] ivzlvai G X € v W J X K Z. 
130 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 541-542 

persecutors. But a man reproached for his very 
triumphs is entirely pardonable and escapes all cen- 
sure if he extols what he has done. For this, it is felt, 
is not recrimination a but self-defence. It was this, 
for example, that allowed Demosthenes to speak with 
full freedom and made palatable the self-praise with 
which he fills nearly the whole oration On the Crown, 
as he glories in the very charges brought against him : 
his conduct as ambassador and statesman in the war. 
8. Not far removed from this is the use of contrast. 
There is a certain graceful effect in showing that 
the opposite of what one is charged with would have 
been shameful and base. & Thus Lycurgus G said at 
Athens when abused for buying off an informer : 
V What do you think of my character as a citizen, 
when after all these years in office I am caught giving 
money dishonestly, instead of taking it ? " And when 
Metellus told Cicero d that his testimony had killed 
more men than his pleading had saved, he replied : 
" Who denies that I am more honest than eloquent ? " 
Such too are the words of Demosthenes e : " Who 
would not rightly have condemned me to death if 
even by word I had tried to sully any of our country's 
glories ? " And " What do you think these black- 
guards would have said if the cities had deserted us 

° For the word cf. Hermogenes, How to be Forceful, chap. 
25 : tva Sokoltj rov i\0pov Xvttclv, (jltj ' KO-qvaiois 6v€ihit > €iv. 

b Cf. Apsines, Art of Rhetoric, chap, vii (pp. 273. 18-274. 
20, ed. Hammer). c Cf Mor. 842 a-b. 

d Cf Life of Cicero, chap. xxvi. 6 (873 f), and Mor. 204 e— 
205 a. e On the Crown, 101. 

9 av (and so G 4 )l G 1 X 1 omit. 

10 flOVOv] fJLOVO) S N Vvw 1. 

11 aloxvvew (-rjv N) with ms. A of Demosthenes : KaTaioxvvtiv 
the rest of the mss. of Demosthenes. 

131 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(542) Trepl rovrcov 1 aKpL^oXoyovpievov anfjAOov al tto- 
Xecs ; " Kal oXcos 2 6 irepl rod arecpdvov Xoyos 
tvtftveordrais* avriOeoeoi Tats* 4 Xvoeai rcov alricov 

€7T€L(jay€L TOVS €7TCLlVOVS. 

9. Ov fJLrjv dAAot Kal rovro y^pr\ai\iov icrnv iv 

B €K€lvo) rep Xoyco Karapbadeiv, on payvvcov ip,- 

fjLeXearara rep irepl avrov Xoyco rov rrepl rcov 

OLKOVOVTCOV €7T<lLVOV dv€TTLcf)8oVOV ijToUl Kal dcpiXaV- 

rov, olovs {lev ILvfioevotv ol . Adrjvaioi irapioypv 
avrovs, 5 olovs 8e QrjftaioLS, 00a he Hv£,avriovs* 
dyaOd Kal XeppovrjOLras 7 iTToir^oav, avrcp he rrjs 
hiaKovtas fiereivai <f>doKcov. Xavddvei yap ovrcos 
6 aKpoarrjs* rots IS lots irraivois ovvvrrohvofievov 
rov rov Xeyovros rjhecos rrpoohe-^opievos , 9 Kal yalpei 

\ 10 >/> T / f\ \ 9 11 A J\ / 

p,ev etp ols Karcopucooe Aeyop,evois , rep be yaipeiv 
evOvs errer at to 6avpdl,€LV Kal dyarrav hi ov 12 
Karcopdcooev. odev Kal 'Erra fie ivcovh as MeveKXeihov 
C rrore yXevd^ovros avrov cos pLei^ov rod 'Ayape- 
pevovos cj>povovvra, " Si' vpuas ye," elirev, " co dvhpes 
Qrjftaioi, pied' cov fiovcov 13 iv rjpepa /xta KareXvaa 
rrfV AaKehatpbovLCov dpyrpr!' 

1 tovtojv] tovtov W. 

2 SXojs] 5Xos RySs 2? hki fp 2 . 

3 evcfrveoTOLTais (-cs D) RySs hkM K 1 * N : €v<f>v€orara tolls 
(ras Z 1 ) KW and the rest. 4 tolls Pohlenz : ko.1 

5 oi (and so G 4 ; G 1 D omit) ad. nap. avrovs (or avrovs ; 
avTols N)] Trap, oi ad. avrovs (avrovs Vv) M 1 Vvw. 

6 fivtavriovs G 4 S 1 Z N M 3 fpq : -ols. 

7 xeppovrjmras G X*u W N M 2 fq (x^povvrj- Z p) : xeppovrj- 
oiraLS (x^povvT)oirais X 3 i ; x € P ovr l a ^ TaLS n ^ !)• 

8 ovtojs 6 aKpoarrjs G 4 : ovtoj rov aKpoarrjV. 

9 OVVV7ToSv6lJL€VOV TOV TOV A. I^S. 7TpOo8€XOfl€VOS G 4 I O. TO (tOV 

W Z 2 ) rov A. rjS. rrpoohexo^vov G 1 X W Z 1 fpq ; ovv€7tl8vo~ 

fJL€VOV (owa7To8v6pL€VOS Vv ; -Ot W) TO TOV A. 77S. 7TpOoS€XOfJL€VOV V 

hkM JK N M Yl; o-uv€7rt8uo/Lt€^ov R (ovfiTTLBvo/jievov [-os y 2ss ], 
132 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 542 

while I was busy quibbling about that ? " a And in 
general the oration On the Crown uses the most feli- 
citous contrasts, as each charge is refuted, to intro- 
duce self-praise. 

9. There is in that oration a further point that it is 
useful to note : by most harmoniously blending the 
praises of his audience b with his own he removed 
the offensiveness and self-love in his words, praising 
the Athenians for their conduct toward the Euboeans 
and toward the Thebans, and for all the good that 
they had done the people of Byzantium and of the 
Chersonese, claiming for himself but a share in carry- 
ing out instructions. 6 For in this way the hearers, 
taken off guard, accept with pleasure the praise of 
the speaker, which insinuates itself along with the 
praise of themselves ; and their delight in the re- 
hearsal of their own successes is followed at once with 
admiration and approval of him who made them 
possible. Hence Epameinondas said when Mene- 
cleidas derided him as prouder than Agamemnon : 
" But it is your doing, men of Thebes ; with your 
help alone I overthrew the Spartan empire in a day." 

On the Crown, 240, also quoted in this connexion by 
Apsines, Art of Rhetoric, chap, vii (p. 274. 4-7, ed. Hammer). 

6 Cf. Cicero, On Invention, i. 16 (22) : " ab auditorum per- 
sona benivolentia captabitur si res ab eis fortiter, sapienter, 
mansuete gestae proferentur ..." 

c On the Crown, 80 ff., and especially 88. 

y 1 ; ovv€Tnbv6fjL€vos Ss) RySs, omitting the rest ; avvcnToSvofit- 

VOS OS TOLS V7T€p (LVTOV XcyOflCVOLS ^SeTCU D. 

10 xcupei fib a 2 Vvw : xtyv P*> G 1 X x u W D RySs Z N 1 M 1 
Ylfpq ; x a tp €LV pev G 3 hki K N 2 M 2 (xaipciv J 1 , omitting 

/A€y . . . TO> 8e X^Lp€tv) ; X ai ? ovra X 3 €. 

11 XcyofidvoLs] €x €l D ? RySs omit. 

12 ov] <Lv X 1 RySs hki J 2 . 

13 fJLOVCJv] flOVOV V W -3 R aC Z W 1 , 

133 



PLUTARCH'S MOTtALIA 

(542) 10. 'E7T€i Se tco fxev iavrov irraivovvTi 7roAe/xoi?- 
aiv ol ttoXXoI a<f)68pa /cat d^OovTai, tco Se erepov 1 
oi>x ofJLolcos, dXXd kcll ya' l ? ovai ttoXXolkis /cat avvem- 
fjiaprvpovai 7TpodvfJLtos, elcodaatv evtot tovs ravra 2 

TTpOCUpOVjJL€VOVS KCll TTpaTTOVTCLS aVTOLS /Cat SXcOS 
6{JLOLOTp67TOVS Z €7TCLlVOVVT€S €V KCLipLp <JVVOLK€LOVV 
/Cat GVV€7n<JTp€(f)€lV 77/009 iaVTOVS TOV aKpOaTTjV 

eTTiyivdjoKef yap evOvs iv tco XeyovTi, kcxv irepl 

D ctXXov Xeyrjreu, St' opLOLorrjra rrjv dperrjv 5 tcov 

avTtov d^iav erralvcov ovoav? cos yap 6 XotSopcov 

€T€pOV OLS 7 OLVTOS €VO)(6s icTTLV OV* X(ivddv€l XotSopCOV 

fiaXXov iavrov 9 rj £k€lvov, ovtcos ol dyadol tovs 
dyadovs nficovres dvafjLLfJLvrjGKovcrtv avrcov tovs 
avvetSoras' coore evOvs emcficoveiv " ov yap ov 
tolovtos ; " *AXe£av8pos fiev ovv 10 'Hpa/cAe'a Tipbcov 
Kal rrdXtv 'AXe£av$pov ' AvSpoKorros 11 avrovs 12 els 
to Ti\xaoQai 7Tporjyov lz drro tcov opioicov Alovvolos 
Se tov TeXcova oiaovpcov /cat yeXcora rrjs St/ceAtW 
a7ro/caAa>v iXdvOavev vrro <f>96vov Kadatpcov to jxeye- 
6os /cat to a£ta>/xa ttjs rrepl avTov Swdfiecos. 
E 11. Taura fiev ovv /cat aXXcos errioTaodai /cat 
Trapa^vXaTTeiv 1 * tco ttoXltikco 7rpoorjK€t t tovs Se 

1 ircpov] iripovs D ; iripoj RySs hki. 

2 ravra (or ravra) X 3 3 D c k JK Z N M 2 Vw fpq : ravra. 

3 ofiOLorpOTTOVs] 6 p.oior pottos W R(-orpo7ra>s y)Ss i ac v ; opuo- 
rpoTTOvs 3. 

4 imyiviboKti X 3 e D c (cu from o) S 2 s : iinyivtooK^iv. 

6 St' ojLt. ri]v aperrjv G 4 3 : o/x. dperrjs X 3 € ; rrjv qpu. rrjs dpcrrjs 
D ; hi* 6fx. dperrjs. 

6 rcov avr. d£Lav (-tov W ; hk x i omit) eV. (3 omits) ovoav] rcov 
avr. iir. a£tav ovoav J 1 K Z ; in. rcov avr. d^iav ovoav Vvw. 

7 oh] &/>' of? D ; W omits. 8 ov] D omits. 
9 iavrov] avrov W. ^ 10 ovv] yap X 3 €, 

134 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 542 

1 0. Since towards one who praises himself the gener- 
ality of men feel a great hostility and resentment, but 
do not feel so strongly against one who praises another, 
but often even listen with pleasure and voice their 
agreement, some, when the occasion allows, are in the 
habit of praising others whose aims and acts are the 
same as their own and whose general character is 
similar. In this way they conciliate the hearer and 
draw his attention to themselves ; for although they 
are speaking of another, he at once recognizes in the 
speaker a merit that from its similarity deserves the 
same praises. For as one who vilifies another in 
terms that apply to himself does not deceive the 
audience, which sees that he vilifies himself rather 
than the other, so when one good man commends 
another he reminds hearers conscious of his merit of 
himself, so that they at once exclaim : " And are not 
you one of these ? " Alexander by honouring Heracles, 
and again Androcottus a by honouring Alexander, 
won esteem for themselves for similar merit ; where- 
as when Dionysius b made sport of Gelon and 
dubbed him the jest c of Sicily, he unwittingly in his 
envy defamed the greatness and majesty of his own 
power. 

11. This the statesman must in any case under- 
stand and for this he must seize the proper occasions. 

a Cf Life of Alexander, chap, lxii (699 f). 

b Cf Life of Dion, chap. v. 9 (960 b). 

c Gelds in Greek. 

11 ' AvhpoKOTTos Xylander : avhpoKoiros (-okotos S 2 - J x ?K ; 

-OKOTTOS Yl). 

12 clvtovs or avrovs (avros X 1 )] iavrovs D c (from e-) RySs hki 
N M Ylfpq. 

13 nporjyov (and SO G 4 )] nporfyayov G 1 . 

14 Trapa<f>vX6.TT€iv\ 7Tapa<f>v\d<ja€iv G X J X K Z (<f>vAdcj<7€w W). 

135 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(542) avayKCLodevras erraLvelv avrovs 1 iXa^pordpovg *nap- 
€^€t KCU TO (JLTj TTaVTa TTpoorroLeZv iavTols y dAA' 

<JL)G7T€p (f)OpTLOV 2 T7]S 86£r]S TO pL€V €LS TTJV TVyT)V TO 

Se els tov deov o\ttot id eod at, 8lo kclAcos p^kv 6 
'A^tAAeus' 

€7T€t 8r) twS' 3 dvSpa deol 8apidoaodaL eStu/cav 
kolAws Se TcfioAecov iv HvpaKovoous* AvTopuaTtas 

ficopLOV l8pVodfl€VOS €7TL TOLLS 7Tpd^€OL KOLl TTJV OIKIOLV 

'Ay ad to AaipLovi Kadiepojoas* dpiOTa Se HvOojv 6 

AIvlos, €Tr€t8rj Kotw drroKTeivas rjKev ecV 'AOrfvas 

F kcll tcov 8rjpLaya>ya)v Sia/ziAAco/zeVcov tols iyKco- 

fJLLOLS OLVTOV 7TpOS TOV 8rjpLOV rjodtTO pOLOKaLVOVTOLS 

eviovs koll fiapvvopLevovs, TrapeAOcov, " TavTa," ecVrev, 
4 dv8pes 'AOtjvollol, 6eos tls €7rpa£ev rjpLels Se ra? 
X^i-pas ixptfvapiev ." d(f>rjp€L Se /cat 5 SuAAas 1 tov 
(f>66vov del ttjv Tvyr\v eiraLvcbv, Kal TeAos 'E7ra^po- 
8ltov iavTOV dvrjyopevoe. 6 /xaAAov yap evru^tas' rj 
dp€T7)s rjTT&odaL fiovAovTaL, to pu€V dAAoTpLov ay a- 
06v rjyovpievoL, to Se olk€lov eAAet/x/xa /cat Trap 
543 avTovs 1 yevofievov. 8 ovx rJKiOTa yovv Aeyovoiv 
dpeoaL AoKpols ttjv ZaAeu/cou vopuodeolav otl ttjv 
'Adrjvav €(f)aoK€V avTip (/)OLTO)oav els oiJjlv €KaoTOT€ 
tovs vopiovs vc/irjyeLadaL Kal StSacr/cetv, avTov Se 

1 avrovs or avrovs] iavrovs Wei. 

2 <f)OpTLOV X 3 € D S 2 S Z c?2? : <j)OpTLKOV (<f>OpTLKtjS R ; <f)pOVTU<OV 

3 rovK G (tov 8' W D) : TOV. 

4 HvpaKovaais] ovpaKovooais G 3 D ; ovppaKOVoats G 1 X aras 3. 

5 8e Kal] Kal 3 J 1 M Vvw ; Se h. 

6 av-qyopevcre (~ev Y 1 ^ avri ss *] 7rpocravrjy6p€VCT€ (-a- D) RySs 
h(-€v k x )i (-€V \ 1(avr l ss^fKaioj ss)p . TTpodvrjyopevoe N ; Trpoorj- 
yopevoev Y lt l lt (-e f u ) ; npoavrjorjyopcvoe q. 

136 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 542-543 

But those who are forced to speak in their own praise 
are made more endurable by another procedure as 
well : not to lay claim to everything, but to disburden 
themselves, as it were, of honour, letting part of it 
rest with chance, and part with God. For this reason 
Achilles did well to say 

Since I by Heaven's will have slain this man," 

and Timoleon did well to erect an altar at Syracuse 
to the Goddess of Accidents in commemoration of his 
acts, and to consecrate his house to the Good Daemon. b 
Best of all is what Python of Aenos did. c After killing 
Cotys he had come to Athens and the speakers were 
outdoing one another in extolling him to the assembly. 
Noticing that some persons were jealous and dis- 
affected he came forward and said : " This, men of 
Athens, was the doing of some god ; I did but lend 
my arm." Sulla too got rid of envy by always praising 
his luck, eventually proclaiming himself the Fortu- 
nate. d For men would rather be bested by luck than 
by merit, feeling that in the first event another has 
had an advantage, in the second, that the failure lies 
in themselves and is their own doing. Thus the code 
of Zaleucus e found favour with the Locrians not 
least, it is said, because he asserted that Athena had 
constantly appeared to him and had in each case 
guided and instructed him in his legislation, and that 

° Homer, II. xxii. 379. 

b Cf. Life of Timoleon, chap, xxxvi. 6 (253 d) ; Mor. 816 e. 
c Cf Mor. 816 e, 1126 c. 

d Felix in Latin, Epaphroditos in Greek. Cf. Life of 
Sulla, chap, xxxvi. 6 (253 d) ; Mor. 318 c. 
e Cf. Aristotle, Frag. 548 (ed. Rose). 

7 olvtovs or avrovs] clvtols or clvtols Ry?Ss hki N M (au- Y) 
lfpq. 8 y€v6fi€vov] yivo\izvov X 3 € D (yv- y) 1. 

137 



PLUTARCH 'S MOR ALI A 

(543) pirjoev elvai hiavorjpLa pbrjoe ^ovXevpua rwv ela(f>epo- 
fievcov. 

12. 'AAAa ravra fiev laws rrpos rpvs TravrdrraoL 
xdXerrovs Kal paaKOLVOVS dvdyKrj ra (f)dpjJLaKa Kal 
rot 1 rraprfyopriiiaTa yjqyavaodai- rrpos ok rovs /xc- 
rpiovs ovk drorrov eon xprjoflai Kal rats erravop- 
dwoeai rwv eiraivwv, el ns ws Xoyiov fj ttXovolov 
B rj hvvarov erraLVoirj, KeXevovra p,rj ravra rrepl 
avrov Xeyeiv dXXd /jl&XXov el xprfaros Kal dfiXafirjs 
Kal wcfreXcpLos . ov yap elcr<f)epei rov enacvov 6 rovro 
7tolcov aAAa, ixeraridiqaiv, ovSe xalpeiv hoKel rots 
eyKwpad^ovoiv avrov dXXd puaXXov on psr) rrpoar]- 
kovtws [JirjSe ecf) y ols Set Svax^patveiv, Kal arroKpv- 
7rreiv ra (f>avX6repa rols fieXriooiv ovk erraivelodai 
f}ovX6{ievos dXX erraivelv ws 2 XPV SiSdoKwv. ro 
yap tl ov XlBols ereiyioa rrjv ttoXlv ovSe ttXlvOols 
eyw' dAA' eav rov epcov reix^opiov {SovXrf OKOTrelv, 
evpiqaeis oVAa 4 Kal Ittttovs Kal avpLfiaxovs ' roiov- 
rov nvos eoiKev dirreoQai. Kal ro rov HepLKXeovs 
C en fjL&XXov oXo^vpofievot yap, ws eoiKev, rjSrj 
Karaorpe(f)ovros avrov Kal 8vacf)opovvres 5 ot em- 
rrjSeiOL rtov orparrjyiwv epLepLvqvro Kal rrjs Swdpue- 
ws Kal . oca $rj rpoiraia Kal viKas Kal iroXeis 
'AOrjvalois KrrjcrdjjLevos drroXeXoiTrev 6 Se fiiKpov 
erravauras efiepa/jaro avrovs ws Koiva ttoXXwv Kal 
rfjs rvy?]S eVta fJL&XXov fj rrjs dperrjs eyKwpaa 
Xeyoyras, to Se KaXXiorov Kal \xeyiorov Kal ISiov 
avrov TfapaXeiTTovras ? on Si avrov ovSels 'A6rj- 

1 rd <f>. Kal ra] to. <f>. ra Stegmann ; <f>. koI Wilamowitz. 

2 <Ls] a(aD) RySs. 

3 #?t% G 2 W3sM 2 w fq ; jSoi^t (ei' ^ov'Aei Y 2 ) f 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 543 

nothing he proposed was of his own invention or de- 
vising. 

12. But it is perhaps for the altogether intractable 
and envious that such medicines and palliatives must 
be invented. With the fair-minded it is not amiss to 
use another device, that of amending the praise : 
when praised as eloquent, rich, or powerful, to request 
the other not to mention such points but rather to 
consider whether one is of worthy character, commits 
no injuries, and leads a useful life. He that does this 
does not introduce the praise, but transfers it ; and 
he leaves the impression not of delighting in encomi- 
asts but of being displeased with them for praise that 
is unbecoming and bestowed for the wrong reasons, 
using his better points to draw attention from the 
worse, not from a desire for praise, but to show how 
to praise aright. Indeed the words " Not with stone 
did I encircle Athens nor with brick ; survey the wall I 
built and you will discover arms, cavalry, and allies " a 
appear to reflect such a procedure. Still more does 
the saying of Pericles. His friends, we are told, 
lamented as he lay dying and were disconsolate, 
recalling his commands and power and the many 
trophies, victories, and cities he had won and left 
to Athens. Rallying a moment he rebuked them for 
extolling what many others had done as well and 
what was in part the work of fortune rather than of 
merit, while they passed over the noblest and greatest 
encomium and his alone, that no Athenian for any 

° Demosthenes, On the Crown, 299 ; cf, Hermogenes, 
How to be Forceful, chap. xxv. 

4 o77Aa (and so Demosthenes)] koX onXa M. 

5 8vo<f>opovyT€s G 2? X 3 e D JK N Y 2? l : hvo<j>opovvros. 

6 7TapaX€iiTovras Dc hki : TrapaXnrovTas (7repi- R). 

139 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(543) vaicov fieXav IpbaTLOv dveLXrf(f>e. tovto Srj 1 to irapd- 
Sety/xa /cat pyyropi SlScoolv, dvirep fj xP r ] (TT ^> 
D eTTaivovfievo) 7T€pl Xoyov heivoTTjTa jjLeradeLVcu tov 
erraivov eirl tov fiiov /cat to rjdos* /cat Grparrjya) 
OavpLa^ofjievcp St' euTTeipiav TToXepaKr^v rj St' 2 ev- 
rvyiav 7T€pl Trpaorrjros rt 3 /cat hiKaioovvqs olvtov 
TrapprjotdoaodaL' /cat rovvavriov av 7rdXiv, vrrep- 
cf)VU)V tlvojv Xeyofxevcov eTralvajv, ota 77oAAot /coAa- 

K€VOVT€S €7TL(f)doVa XeyOVOLV, €L7T€LV 

* OV TLS TOL OeOS elfJLL' TL jit' adoLVaTOLOlV €LOK€LS ; 

aAA' el pie yivchoKeis dXrjOcos erraivei to dScopoSoKrj- 
rov tj to oaxfrpov rj to evyvojpbov fj to <j>iXdvdp(x)7Tov. y> 
6 yap <j)66vos ovk drjStos ra> ra pueltpva napacTOV- 
jiteVa) tol fieTptcoTepa SlSojol, /cat to dXrjdes ey- 
E KcofJLtov ovk d^atpctrat Ttov ra ifjevSfj /cat Kevd 4, pur) 
Trpoohexopievcov. Sto /cat tcov fiaoiXeojv tovs pur] 
deovs pLTjhe nralhas 6ea>v dvayopeveodai QeXovTas* 
dXXd <&iXa8eXcf)ovs fj ^iXopaqTopas rj QvepyeTas rj 
®eo<f>iXels ovk r\yQovTO rats' kclXoXs p<ev dvdpcoTTiKals 

1 8-q] Set y ; Set N 1 ; W omits. 
2 St'] D RySs hki omit. 

3 rt] re D RySs hki M (re V)vw 1. 

4 i/j€vbfj koX K€va] Kcva /cat ipevSij W. 

5 OeXovras] fieXXovras X 3?ss S 2 M Vvw. 

a Cf. Life of Pericles, chap, xxxviii. 3-4 (178 b-e) ; Mor. 
186 d; Julian, Or. 3 (128 d) ; and Eclogae Vaticanae, 15 
(ap. Stobaeus, vol. iii, p. ix Hense). He had not caused the 
death of political opponents : see H. N. Couch in Classical 
Journal, xxxi (1935-36), pp. 495-499. 

b Homer, Od. xvi. 187 ; also quoted in Mor. 81 d. 

c Among the Seleucids Antiochus II, IV, and VI and 
Demetrius II and III bore the title " god " ; and of course 
all deified rulers were " gods." 

HO 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 54,3 

act of his had put on mourning. a This precedent 
allows the orator, if meritorious, when praised for 
eloquence, to transfer the praise to his life and char- 
acter, and the commander admired for skill or success 
in war to speak freely of his clemency and justice ; 
and again, when the praise runs on the contrary to 
extravagance, as with the invidious flattery used by 
many, it permits one to say : 

" No god am I ; why likenest thou me 
To the immortals ? b 

If you know me truly, commend my probity, temper- 
ance, reasonableness, or humanity. ,, For to him who 
declines the greater honours envy is not displeased to 
grant the more moderate, and does not cheat of true 
praise those who reject what is false and vain. Hence 
those kings who were unwilling to be proclaimed a 
god c or son of a god, d but rather Philadelphus e or 
Philometor f or Euergetes 9 or Theophiles/* were un- 
grudgingly honoured by those who gave them these 

d Thus Alexander was called " son of Zeus " (cf Life of 
Alexander, chap, xxvii. 9, 680 f), Demetrius Poliorcetes " son 
of Poseidon " (cf Athenaeus, vi. 62, 253 c, e). 

e That is " lover of his (her) brother (sister)," a title of the 
Seleucids Demetrius II, Antiochus XI, and Philippus, of the 
Parthian Artabanus I, of Iotape, queen of Commagene, of 
Mithridates IV of Pontus, of the Egyptian monarchs Arsinoe 
I, Ptolemy II, X, and XIII, Arsinoe II, and Berenice III, of 
the Cappadocian king Ariarathes X, and of Attains II. 

1 That is, " lover of his (her) mother," a title of Ptolemy VI, 
VII, X, and XI, Cleopatra II and III, and Berenice III ; of 
Ariarathes VII, Paerisades IV, and Attalus III. 

9 That is, " benefactor," a title of Alexander Balas, Anti- 
ochus VII, and Ptolemy III, VI, and VII. 

h That is " dear to God (a god) " ; we have found no such 
royal title. 

141 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(543) Se Tavrais Trpoarjyopiais TifAcovres . wonep av /cat 
Ttov ypa<f>6vTQ)v /cat Xeyovrcov /3apvv6fJL€voL tovs to 
rfjs 1 ao(f)ias eTnypa^ofievovs ovojjlcl 2 xatpoucrt T °^ 

c/)lXoGO(/)€LV Tj TTpOKOTTTtlV 7] TL TOIOVTO* 776/H OLVTOJV 

av€Tri<f)9ovov /cat pberpiov Xeyovaiv. ot Se prjTopLKol 
oxxptorat to u€LO)s /cat to oclihovlojs €V 
Tat9 €7rtSet'£ecrt TrpocrSe^o/xevot /cat to " fxerptajs " 
/cat to " avdpcoirivojs " 7Tpocra7ToWvovcriv . 

13. Kat /x^v a>(j7T€p oi tovs 6cf)daXjjLi6jVTag iv- 
o^Aetv (f>vXaTr6jJi€VOL tols ayav XajxirpoZs cr/ctaV Ttva 
7Tapajjuyvvovcriv , ovrtos evtot tou? auTa>v enaivovs 
firj TravreXcos XapbTrpovs /xrySe aKparovs 7Tpoo(f>e- 
povrzs, dXXd Ttva? iXXeiifjecs rj ol7tot€v^€ls r) dpbap- 
rlas €.Xa<j)pas epLpaXXovres d^atpovai to irraxOeg 
avrcov /cat vefjLearjrov. cboirep 6 'E^to?, oi) /zeVpta 

77€/9t T^ 5 7TVKTLK7JS €L7T<jbV /Cat OpaOVvdfJLeVOS* CO? 

dvriKpv XP° a T€ Pv£ €L vvv t dare apa£et, 7 
t) ou^ aAts, 

tfyqalv* 

OTTt pbdx^S ezriSevo/xat; 

544 aAA' outo9 10 /xev tcra>9 yeAotos" 11 ddXrjriKTjv dXa- 
£,oveiav SetAta? /cat dvavhpias e^ojxoXoyrjoei Trapa- 
jjLvdovfJLevos' ifjbjjieXrjg Se /cat ^aptet? o Xrjdrjv nvd 
/ca#' avrov 12 Xeyojv r) ayvoiav r) </>tAoTtp,tav 13 ?} 77po9 

1 to ttJ? W X 3 D v : rrjs. 2 6Vo/*a] rovvofia Pohlenz. 

3 TOLOVTO] TOLOVTOV G Ss M VvW. 

4 haifjLovtcos] SaijAOvltoS /cat to /xcyaAcos X ; /zeyaAcos' v^P. 

5 tiJ?] Xe omit. 

6 dpaavvdfievos G 2 X 3 e W D Ry hi N Vv Ylfpq : Opaovvo- 
fievos. 

7 prjiei avv r oari* apd£ €t (-Tea paf €t D) Homer and D : p^€t 
(p-qi-rjc W). 8 ^ Bern, from some mss. of Homer : *}. 
142 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 54>3-5M 

noble yet human titles, So again, while men resent 
the writers and speakers who assume the epithet 
" wise," they are delighted with those who say that 
they love wisdom a or are advancing in merit, or put 
forward some other such moderate and inoffensive 
claim. Whereas the rhetorical sophists who at their 
displays of eloquence accept from the audience the 
cries of " how divine " and " spoken like a god " lose 
even such commendation as ' ' fairly said ' ' and spoken 
as becomes a man." 

13. Again, as those who would spare the suscepti- 
bilities of sufferers from sore eyes temper with shade 
whatever is unduly brilliant, so some do not present 
their own praise in all its brilliance and undimmed, 
but throw in certain minor shortcomings, failures, or 
faults, thus obviating any effect of displeasure or dis- 
approval. Thus Epeius says after his extravagant 
talk about boxing and his vaunt that a blow from him 
would rip clean through the skin and smash the bones b : 

Nay is it not enough 
That I am slack in war ? c 

But he indeed is perhaps ridiculous for mitigating his 
athlete's bragging by a confession of cowardice and 
unmanliness. There is tact, however, and grace in one 
who tells of some slip of his own or some mistake or 

° Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 278 d. 
6 Homer, II. xxiii. 673. 
c Homer, II. xxiii. 670. 

9 <f>r)alv is put after /Lta^s in W. 

10 ovros (ovros M 1 )] ovtcos X x u N 1 . 

11 yeXolos] yeXolcos W. 

12 avrov W (au- D ; aurou h 2 ; iavrov X 3 e) : avrov or avrov 
(avrov y). 

13 </>LXoT(,filav] <f>i\ov€LKiav D. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(544) rcva \iadr\\iara /cat Xoyovs aKpaaiav 1 cog 6 'OSucr- 

G€VS % 

avrap i/jiov Krjp 
7]0eX 9 aKovefJLCvat,, Aucrat S' e/ce'Aeuov iracpovg 
6<f>pvoL vevora^tov , 

/cat TT&XlV 

B aAA' iyd) ov iriQ6\xr\v — rj 2 r dv ttoXv KepSiov 
rjev — 
o(pp avrov re idoifjii, /cat et /xot fetwa oovrj. 

/cat oXojs ocrat fir) iravrdiraGiv alay^paX /x^S' 5 dyev- 
V€is a/zaprtat, 7raparc6ejjL€vaL 6 rot? iiTaivois rov 
(f)06vov a$>aipov<jiv . ttoXXoI Se /cat ttcvlcls /cat aVo- 
ptas" 7 /cat V17 Ata Svayevecas e^ofJLoXoyrjcriv k'ariv ore 
Tot? iyKcajjLLOLS TTapepbfiaXXovTes* dfJL^Xvrepco rw 
(f>66vcp xpcovrai. Kaddrrep 'AyadoKXrjs ^pvcrd 9 770- 
rrjpia /cat ropevrd rols veois rrpoirivodv eKeXevae 
/cat KepajJLea KOfjuauTJvou, /cat tolovtov eoriv, 
€(/>rj, " to evScAc^es 1 /cat <J)iX6ttovov /cat dvSpetov 
C rjfJLeZs 7raAat n ravra, vvv Se e/cetva 7ToiovfJL€V." 
i8oK€i yap iv Kepafieico 12 reOpd^dat Sta ot> ayevetav 
/cat rreviav 6 'Aya^o/cA^s, €tra ovpmdcrqs dXiyov 
Sctv ipaalXevcre Zt/ceAtW. 

14. Kat ravra fxev eijwdgy ianv eTreiodyeadai 

1 aKpaaiav Meziriacus : atcpoaoiv (aKpoaoiv oXiycapiav D). 

2 ij] 7} G 1 X 3 ? Yl. 

•oW^ T€ (-ov rat N 1 )] aMv Ti G 4 XuWD hki JK Z Ylfpq ; 
aurov G 1 . 

4 £eiW] fetv^i'a G Xu with mss. GP 2 U of Homer ; £cW JK. 

5 /^8' Gk 3 JK : filj ok. 

6 TTapaTLOc/jLevai (-01 v J X K)] TT€pvTiQ£yiZvai D R(-atvat y)Ss. 

7 dTToplas Wyttenbach : aireipias. 
144 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 544 

feeling of ambition or weakness for some piece of 
instruction or information, like Odysseus : 

But my heart 
Was fain to hear, and nodding with my brows 
I bade my mates unbind me a 

and again : 

I hearkened not — far better had it been — 
For I would see the man himself, and hoped 
To have from him some hospitable gift. b 

And in general when faults not altogether degrading 
or ignoble are set down beside the praise they do 
away with envy. Many also blunt the edge of envy 
by occasionally inserting into their own praise a con- 
fession even of poverty and indigence or actually of 
low birth. Thus when Agathocles c at a banquet was 
presenting the young men with cups of enchased gold 
he ordered earthen cups also to be brought and said : 
" You see what perseverance, diligence, and courage 
can do ; I once fashioned cups of clay ; I now fashion 
them of gold.'' For Agathocles was believed to have 
been brought up in the potter's trade because of his 
low birth and poverty ; and from this state he rose 
to become king of well-nigh the whole of Sicily. 
14. These antidotes for self-praise we can introduce 

a Homer, Od. xii. 192-194. 

6 Homer, Od. ix. 228-229. 

c Cf. Mor. 176 e. 

8 irapefipaXXovrcs (and SO G 4 )] 7TapapdAAovT€s G 1 ; napafi- 
f$d\ovT€s N 1 . 

9 xpvoa\ xpvod X 1 ^? W D 1 y. 

10 K€ P afjL€a X 3 c D RySs hki J 2 Z : Kepdfiea G X 1 ?^ Ji?K 
N M 2 Ylfpq : Kcpdfiia u ac W M 1 w ; /cepacia Vv f. 

11 7raAai] 7raAai fiev M 3 . 

12 K€pafJL€LCp] K€pafjLl(x) G 1 X 2 U W. 

145 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(544) (fxipfxaKa rrjs TrepiavToXoyias' erepa Se clvtols rpo- 

7TOV TLVOL TOLS €TT aiV OV [llv O IS ZVeOT IV OLS KCU* K.OLTCOV 

eXpfJTO <j>Qovelo6 at Xeycov otl tcov ISloov d/xcAct Kal 
Ta? vvktcls dypvTTvel^Sia rrjv rrarplSa' koli to 

77609 S' av (f>povoirjv y cS Traprjv air pay fiov cos 
iv toZgi ttoXXoZs rjpiOpLyjfJLevoo arparov 

LVOV pL€TCLGX € W TOO aO^OOTOLTCO TVX^S > 

KCU TO 

OKVOOV 2 8e fJLOxOoOV TCOV TTplv €KX€CU x^-? lv 
KOX TOVS TTCLpOVTaS* OVK OLTTCodoVfJiaL TTOVOVS . 

D oos yap oiKtav Kal x°°p' lov > ovtco koX S6£av ol 
ttoXXoI Kal apeTTfV toZs rrpoZKa Kal paSioos ^X eLV 

SoKOVGLV, OV TOLS TTpiapbeVOlS TTOVOOV TToXXcOV Kal 
KLvSvVOOV (j)0OVOVGLV, 

15. 'E7766 §£ OV fJLOVOV dXvTTCOS Kal aV€7Tl(j)66vCOS , 

dXXd Kal xP r ) a ^l Ji00S KaL (^^Xifjbcos rrpoaoiGTeov 
€OtI tovs irraivovs, tva jjltj tovto upaTTZiv aSX 

€T€pOV TL 8l(X TOVTOV* SoKCOfJLeV, Opa TTpCOTOV el TTpO- 
TpOTTTJS 5 €V€Ka* Kal t^XoV Kal (j)lXoTllliaS TCOV o\kov- 

ovtoov avTov av tls enaiveoeiev , cos 7 6 Neorcop tcls 
eavTov 8L7]yovfJi€vos dpaoTeias Kal /za^a? tov re 
JQarpo/cAov napoo pfJL7]ae 8 Kal tovs ivvea Trpos ttjv 

1 Kal] W omits. 

2 okvcov Cobet : okvco. 

3 TTOLpovTas D : ttLtttovtols {ttitvovvtcxs Valckenarius). 

4 hia TOVTOv] SldTOUTO G (Sl(Z TOVTO k) 1 ? 3 OmitS. 

5 TrpoTpoTTrjs] irpoKOTrrjs D. 

146 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 544 

from outside ; others are in a way inherent in the 
very content of the praise. Such Cato used when he 
said that he was envied for neglecting his own affairs 
and spending sleepless nights to serve his country. a 
So too with the lines 



and 



I wise ? I could have rested at my ease 
Unmarked among the mass of those who served 
And shared an equal fortune with the wisest 

Since I would not my former credit lose 
So hardly won, I take upon myself 
This present task as well. b 



For it is with reputation and character as with a 
house or an estate : the multitude envy those thought 
to have acquired them at no cost or trouble ; they do 
not envy those who have purchased them with much 
hardship and peril. 6 

15. It is not enough, however, to praise ourselves 
without giving offence and arousing envy ; there 
should be some use and advantage in it as well, that 
we may appear not merely to be intent on praise, but 
to have some further end in view. Consider first, then, 
whether a man might praise himself to exhort his 
hearers and inspire them with emulation and ambi- 
tion, as Nestor by recounting his own exploits and 
battles incited Patroclus d and roused the nine cham- 

a Cf Life of Cato the Elder, chap. viii. 15 (340 f). 
6 Euripides, Philoctetes, Frags. 787 and 789 (Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag. pp. 616-617). 

c For this chapter cf. Cicero, Be Orator e, ii. 52 (210). 
d Homer, II. xi. 655-762. 

6 €V€Ka] €LV€Ka W. 

7 ws G Xu W 3 JK Z : axjirep. 

8 7TapcopfjL7)(j€] 7rapcopfXLa€ X 1 N M 1 Yl ; i^d)ppL7]G€ hk 1 (lacuna 
of 16 letters followed by ae i). 

147 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(544) jJLOvofjLaxlav 1 dvearrjaev. rj yap epyov ofiov /cat 
E Xoyov exovcra TTpOTpoirr] /cat rrapdheiypia /cat £,fj- 
Xov oIk€lov epafjvxds 2 eon /cat /ctvet /cat Trapo^vvei 
/cat fied' opjjifjs /cat irpoaipeoeajs eArn'oas* chs e</>t- 
ktcov /cat ovk dSvvdrcov rrapLarrjcn, Sto /cat rcov £v 
Aa/ccSat/xovt ^opcov aSovatr ot /xev tcov yepovrwv 

dfi€s z 7Tor >4 rjjJies 5 d'A/ct/xot veaviai, 
oi be rcov 7ratSa>i>* 

ajites 6 Se y' eaaojieada 1 ttoXXoo Kappoves* 
ol 8e rcov veavlaKcov 

ap.es be y eipies • at be Arjg, avyaabeo, 

F /caAcus" /cat TroAtrt/ca)? tou vopboderov rd ttX^glov 
/cat ot/ceta TTapaSeLy/jiaTa rots veois St* aura)j> rcov 
elpyaafxevoov eKridevros. 

16. Oi) /x^y dAAd /cat /caTa77A^ea)9 eviaxov /cat 
crvoToAT]? eVe/ca /cat row ra7retvcoaat /cat Xaftelv 
U7TO^€t/>tov rov av6d8r) /cat IrapLov ov ^etpov cart 

1 /iopo/ia^tav] [xovapxtoLV W ; avfifjax^v 3 ; //.ova^iav N 1 . 

2 €(jLipvxos] €vi/jvx6s D. 

3 d/zes Bergk : d^c? X M 1 Ylfq (d/^ G 1 u JK M 2 ) ; d^e<r 
(and so G 3 and ivi/^ of Lycurgus, chap. xxi. 3 [53 b]). 

4 710-7-' (7tot D ; nor Vvw fp)] 770^' (nod* k Y) RySs hki N 
M 1 Yl ; 7Torj X*(?) ; rrorj v ; ttok Life of Lycurgus, ibid. 

5 foes S^ ss s lss M Y (^€? Ry ; fats N 1) : ^fiev (rjfiev D ; 
elfxev fq). 

6 d^€s Bergk : dfj.es M 1 Y r lfq (d^es G 1 Xu JK M 2 p) : 
dfifies (and so G 3 ; dfifies Y ar ). 

7 ioaofieada DM 2 : iaoofxeOa (iaofieda G v Ry Z Vvw 1) ; € 
followed by a lacuna in hkM. 

8 Kappoves (xappovTes v ; Kapoves S hk 1 Z ; Kapooves J*K)] 
Kappojves N M 1 Y (fcdpcoves" 1). 

9 d/x€? Bergk : d/i€? M 1 Ylfpq (dfj.es G 1 Xu JK M 2 ) : dfifj.es 
(and so G 3 ). 

148 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 544 

pions to offer themselves for the single combat. a For 
exhortation that includes action as well as argument 
and presents the speaker's own example b and chal- 
lenge is endued with life : it arouses and spurs the 
hearer, and not only awakens his ardour and fixes his 
purpose, but also affords him hope that the end can 
be attained and is not impossible. Therefore in the 
Spartan choruses the old men sing c : 

Time was when we were valiant youths ; 

the boys sing : 

So we shall be, and braver far ; 

and the young men : 

So now we are : you need but look. 

Here the legislator acted well and like a statesman in 
proposing to the young examples close at hand and 
taken from their own people, employing as spokes- 
men the very men whose actions were to be their 
model. 

16. But there are also times when in order to over- 
awe and restrain the hearer and to humble and sub- 
due the headstrong and rash, it is not amiss to make 

° Homer, //. vii. 123-160 ; cf. Aristides, Or. xlix. 35 
(p. 153. 6-10, ed. Keil). 

b Cf. Aristides, Or. xlix. 141 (p. 186. 23 f., ed. Keil). 

c Carm. Pop. 1 7, ed. Diehl ; cf. Life of Lycurgus, chap, 
xxi. 3 (53 b), and Mor. 238 a. 

10 clfxcs Bergk : el/xev (et/xev G 1 D ; €i/xev i ; €/jl€v h ; cfxcv k) ; 
€?^ev X 1 !/ N M 1 Yl. 




#»IJJ /ICC-l^U.* l\\J.tJ*Z J-^ JLlJkJ U illV IVAb Vt /»»#3 Ileitis 1VHV n vu ^V «* 

lacuna i) ; tjv deA-qs irelpav Xdfe (fle'Acis W R3na &) J X K M 2 YP ; rjv 
QeXrjs iTtipav Aa^e* at §e Xrjs avydahzo fpq. 

J 49 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(544) Ko/JLTrdaai, n rrepl avrov /cat peyaX^yoprjaai, kol6- 
drrep av ttoXlv 6 Necrrcop* 

rj8r] yap ttot eycb /cat dpeioaiv rj€7T€p vplv 

50/ e /\ \>/ /></»>/)/j» 

avopaoiv ajpiArjaa, /cat ov rrore p, oi y auepL^ov. 

545 ovtco St} 1 /cat rrpos 'AXe£av8pov o 2 ' AptororeXrjs 
ov ptovov €(f)rj rots' 7To\\a>v Kparovoiv e^elvai peya 
<f>povelv y dXXd /cat toZs 7T€pl 6etx)v z Solas' dXr]9els 
exovai. xprjcnpa Se /cat 7rp6$ noXeptovs /cat 7rpos 

exOpOVS TCL TOiaVTCL' 

hvoTTjvayv 8e re iraZSes epLtp pevei dvTLocooiv 

/cat 7repl rod Tlepotov jSacrtAea)? peydXov Se 4 /ca- 
Xovpevov 6 'AyrjalXaos, " ri S' epbov 5 ye pel^cov 
£k€lvos, el par] /cat hiKaiorepos ; " /cat 77/009 tous* 
Aa/ceSat/xovtous" tojv Qrjfiaicuv Karrjyopovvrag 6 
'E77a/xetva>vSas > * " rjpeZs pevroi vpcas fipaxvXoyovv- 
ras enavoapev." 
B 'AAAa ravra pev Trpos ex^povs 1 /cat TroXepiovs* 
T(x>v he (jyiXcov /cat 8 TroAtrcov ou povov earl rovs 
dpaavvopievov9 Karaoropeoat /cat 7TOirjaai Tomei- 
vorepovSy aAAa /cat rows' irepicfiofiovs /cat Kara- 
TrXrjyas e^dpai TrdXiv /cat 7rapopprjoai x? r \ a ^ L \ L€VOV 
ev Seovri /zeyaAair^ta. /cat yap o Kudos' 7rapa ra 
0€tva /cat ra? /xa^as" ep,eyaAr)yopei, aAAore be 
ov pLeyaXrjyopos fjv." 9 /cat 'AvTtyovos 1 o Sevrepos 

1 3^)] 8e M ; e Vvw omit. 2 o] 3 D J N omit. 

3 dccov (dalcov y)] deov W ac N. 4 8^] D omits. 

5 5' ifJLOV (Se efiov N)] Bd /xou G X*u W 3. 

6 fievrot] /zeV yc D ; /xeV t€ RySs. 

7 e^flpous] tous" ixOpovs W. 

8 /cat] /cat tcDv G. 

9 ficyaXrjyopos (so N M Y ; -lyyopos) rjv\ JK Zab omit;. 

150 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 544-545 

some boast and extol oneself. To quote Nestor once 
more : 

Time was I served 

With better men than you, and never these 

Disdained my counsel. 

So too Aristotle b said to Alexander that not only the 
rulers of a great empire have a right to be proud but 
also those with true opinions about the gods. Useful 
too against public and private enemies are such re- 
marks as these : 

Unhappy they whose sons oppose my power, c 

and Agesilaiis^ saying about the King of the Persians 
(who w r as called " Great ") : " Wherein greater than 
I, if not more just ? " And Epameinondas' 6 reply 
to the Lacedaemonians when they denounced the 
Thebans : " We have at any rate put a stop to your 
Laconic speech." 

These however are against enemies public and 
private ; among friends and countrymen we can not 
only calm and chasten the overbold, but also restore 
and rouse the spirits of the terrified and timorous by 
a seasonable recourse to self-praise. Thus in danger 
and in battle Cyrus " boasted, but at other times was 
not given to high talk. ' ' f And Antigonus the Second 9 

a Homer, II. i. 260-261. Cf. Dio Chrysostom, Or. lvii. 4. 

b Frag. 664 (ed. Rose) ; cf. Mor. 78 d, 472 e. 

c Homer, II . vi. 127, quoted also by Aristides, Or. xlix. 108 
(p. 176, ed. Keil). 

d Cf. Life of Agesilaiis, chap, xxiii. 9 (608 f) ; Mor. 78 d, 
190 f, 213 c. : 

e Cf. Mor. 193 d. 

f Cf. Xenophon, Cyropaedeia, vii. 1. 17, also referred to 
by Aristides, Or. xlix. 105 (pp. 174-175, ed. Keil). 

9 Cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap. ii. 4 (278 d), and Mor. 183 d. 

151 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(545) roEAAa fjuev rjv oltv^os 1 kcli (JLerpios, ev 8e rfj Trepl 
KcD 2 vav[Layia twv (f>iXwv tlvos elrrovroSy " oi>x °~ 
pas' Saw TrXelovs* elcrlv at iroXe puai vfjes ;" " epue 
oe ye awov, enrev, irpos novas avrLrarrere ; 
kcli tovto Se eoLKev ovvihelv "OfJLrjpos' tov yap 
'OSucrcrea ne7Tolr]Kev aTroSeiXiwvTWV twv irat- 

pOJV TTpOS TOV lfjO(f>OV Kol kXvScOVCL TOV 776/06 TTJV X<X~ 

pvfiSiv avafjuiJLvrjcrKovTa ttjs clvtov SetvoTrjTos Kal 
avopetas* 

OV fJL€V 07] TOO€ fJbei^OV €776 KCLKOV 7] OT€ \\VKAWlfJ 

etXei ivl gtttjl yXa</)vpw KpaTepfj(f)i 9 Pirj(f)t' 
dXXd kcli evdev ififj dpeTrj fiovXfj t€ vow t€ 
eKc/yvyofiev. 

ov yap ecjTi SrjfjLaywyovvTos ov&e ao<f)ioTiwvTOS 6 

TOLOVTOS €7TaiVOS Ol>8e KpOTOV Ol)8e TTOTTTTVOpLOV al- 

tovvtos, aAAa ttjv apeTrjv Kai ttjv €7TiaTrjjjirjv eve- 
D x v P ov T °v dappelv tols </>lXois 8l$6vtos. fxeya yap 
ev Kaipols £mijij>(tkiai irpos crwTrjpiav So£a Kal 
ttlgtis avopos rjyejjLovLKrjv IjnreipLav Kal Svvafiiv 
exovTos. 

17. "0x6 fJL€V OVV TO TTpOS &T£Uv6y dXXoTpiOV Kal 

§6£av avTiTTapafiaWeiv 11 eavTOv r\KiOTa ttoXitikov , 
eipyyrai irpoTepov ov fJLrjv aAA' Sttov j8Aa77T£6 Kal 

1 a.TV<f>os] dra^os G c y ; dvTV<f>os X 1 . 

2 K&(k<oi G aras X aras W J 1 ? M 1 Y ac )] kwv M 2 . 

3 7t\€lovs] irXiovs W. 

4 novas] ndoas D RySs hkM N M Vvw Y 1 . 

5 /jl€v Stj k 2 and Homer : prpr. 

6 TO§€ fJL€ll,OV €7TL (e7T€l, €7T€l) HlOSt MSS. of Homer : t68c /JL€l£,OV 

ol W N (oi M) Vvw (fid- N Y)lfpq ; totc Se fxi^ov (r. Se fie£ov v) 
ol X*u ; tovto ye /jlci^ov G X 3 ; ol t68c fxei^ov D RySs hk 1 ! ; 
ToBe h€l£ov J x K Zab. 

152 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 545 

was ordinarily sober and moderate, but in the sea- 
fight off Cos, when one of his friends said, " Do you 
not see how greatly the enemy's ships outnumber 
ours ? " he replied, " Yes, but against how many do 
you, my friends, set met" This too Homer appears 
to have understood, for he represents Odysseus, when 
his men were dismayed at the noise and raging waters 
of Charybdis, as recalling to them his own skill and 
stout heart : 

No greater peril this than when by force 
The Cyclops penned us in his hollow cave ; 
Yet from that cave my manhood and my wit 
Availed to save us. a 

This is not the self-praise of a demagogue or would-be 
sophist or of one who courts plaudits and cheers, & but 
of a man who offers his virtue and understanding to 
his friends as security against despair. For at critical 
moments a successful outcome may depend largely 
on the regard and confidence that are placed in some 
man who possesses the experience and talents of a 
leader. 

17. That it is most unstatesmanlike to pit oneself 
against the praise and fame of others was said earlier c ; 
yet where mistaken praise injures and corrupts by 

° Homer, Od. xii. 209-212. 

b Literally " tongue-smacking." 

c Chapter 3, supra. 

7 t? ore X 3 D RySs (lacuna in h)k x (. ... ore i) M 2 : tj 
6tt6t € G ; Trore X*u W N M 1 Ylfpq ; olov rrore J X K Zab Vvw. 

8 KvkXoji/j {kIkXohJj y ; KVKXcoi/fe N ; kvkXco w)] W omits. 

9 KpaT€pfj(f)L G 1 Xeu Vvw Homer : Kparepfj ye (and so G 4 ; 
Kapreprji ye M). 

10 alrovvTos] ttoiovvtos RySs hk {ttolovv followed by a lacuna 
i) J 2 ™g Zab N M 1 Vyw Yif 2 v.°p. 

11 avTiTTapafiaXXew] avn^aXXeiv D Ry 2 (from -dXeiv) Ss c hkM. 

153 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(545) 8ia<j)6eipei ^rjAov Iparoidov rrpos ra (f>avAa Kal rrpo- 
aipeoiv Trovrjpav iv Trpayjiaoi pteydAoLS rjfJLaprr)- 
pievos erraivos, ovk dxprjOTOv 1 eKKpovaai,, pidAAov 8e 
anoarpeifjai tov dKpoarrjv irrl ra KpeuTTO) ttjv 8ta- 
cfyopav ivSeiKvvpievov. dyamrjaeie yap dv tls olpuai 

E AocSopovpLevrjs kclkicls Kal ifjeyopLevrjs ideXovras 
diriyeoQ ai tovs rroAAovs opcov el 8e 7rpooAdfioL 
86£av r) Aca/cta Kal tcq kcl8' r)8ovas avrrjs rj 3 rrAeov- 
e^ias dyovn rrpooyevoiTO riper] 4 koli to evSoKtpLelv, 
ovk eoriv evrvxrjs ovtojs* ov$e laxvpa envois rjs 
ovk dv Kparrjaeiev . 8lo Set 6 per) rots tcov dv6pcx)7TO)v 
irraLVOLS, dAAa toZs tcov Trpaypbdrajv, dvirep 1 fj 
c/)avAa, TToAepbelv rov ttoAltlkov ovtol yap Staarpe- 
(f)ovai Kal TovTois to pupLeZoOat ra aloxpd Kal 
t.rjAovv (hs KaAa ovveioepx^rat. 

F M-dAiara 8e e^eAeyxovrai toZs dArjOtvoZs Trapari- 
depievois' olov 6 tcov rpaytp8id)v VTTOKpirrjs 0eo- 
8wpos elrreZv ttotz rrpos rov KoopuKov Aeyerai Saru- 
pov cos ov davpLaarov eon to yeAav ttoiziv tovs 
Beards dAAa to 8aKpveiv Kal kAclUw dv 8e ye of/xai 8 
rrpos tovtov avrov eunr\ cfriAooocfros dvrjp, " dAX ov 
to rroielVy cZ jSeArtcrre, KAaieiv Kal 8aKpvetv, to 8e 
rravetv Avrrovpiivovs Kal KAaiovras orepivov eOTLV," 
irraivcov iavTOV 9 ojcpeAeZ tov aKovovra Kal pbeTari- 
drjoL tt)v Kpioiv. ovtoj Kal 6 TjTjvojv rrpos to rrArjOos 
tcov Qeocppdorov p.adrjTd)v, " 6 €K€tvov x°pos>" ^4 >r ]» 

1 dxprjorov G D RySs hkH : axp^orov iorw. 

2 a7rooT/oet/rcu] aTrorpiijmi € M 1 Vvw. 

3 rj] Kal D ; eV RySs hkM. 

4 tl/jlt)] to fir) M 1 ; fir) Vw ; v omits. 

5 evTvxys ovtojs] ovrtos €vrvxr)s De RySs hki. 

6 Set (and so G 4 )] Srj G 1 ? X 1 ?*, Za ac N 1 . 

7 avnep] dv D RySs i N Vvw. 

154 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 54,5 

arousing emulation of evil and inducing the adoption 
of an unsound policy where important issues are at 
stake, it is no disservice to counteract it, or rather 
to divert the hearer's purpose to a better course by 
pointing out the difference. One would be well 
content, I think, to see the multitude, when vice is 
denounced and censured, willing to abstain from it ; 
but if vice should acquire good standing, and if honour 
and reputation should be added to its temptations in 
the way of pleasure or profit, there is no human nature 
so fortunate or strong as not to succumb. It is not 
then with the praise of persons, but with that of acts, 
when they are vicious, that the statesman must wage 
war. For this sort of praise perverts ; it brings with 
it the imitation and emulation of what is shameful as 
if it were noble. 

Such praise is best shown for what it is when true 
praise is set beside it. For example the tragic actor 
Theodorus a once remarked, it is said, to the comedian 
Satyrus that there was nothing wonderful in making 
the audience laugh, but in making them weep and 
lament. Now I think if a philosopher replies to this 
same Theodorus : " Sir, it is not making men lament 
and weep, but putting an end to sorrow and lamenta- 
tion that is admirable," this self-praise b benefits the 
hearer and corrects his judgement. Thus Zeno c said 
of the great number of Theophrastus' pupils : " His 

° Theodorus and Satyrus were celebrated actors of the 

fourth century. The story is apparently not told elsewhere. 

6 Consolation was a recognized function of a philosopher. 

c Cf. von Arnim, Stoicorum Vet. Frag. i. 280 ; cf. Mor. 

78 d. " 

8 av he. ye oifMCu] ap^eivov 8' ot/Ltat, av D. 
9 tavTQv G X x et> W J X K : yap (yap a)s y) iavTov. 

155 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

546 '* fiet^coVy ovjjlos 8e avfAc/xovoTepos ." /cat 6 Oa>/cta>v 
en rod Aecoodevovs evrjfjLepovvTos 1 vrro twv prjropa>v 
epcDTcbpLevos tl rrjv ttoXlv olvtos dyaOov tt€7Toij]K€v, 
ovoev, €ltt€v, aAA 77 to vjAas efiov arparrj- 
yovvros €7nrd(f)Lov Xoyov fjurj elTrelv, dXXd tt&vtols iv 
toZs Trarpcaois pLV^fiaai daTrrevdai tovs diroOvr]- 
GKovTas." tt&vv he ^apieVrcos' /cat 6 Kpar^s" irpos 

r 
TO 

ravr* e^co ocrcr' ec/xiyov /cat ec/>u/3ptcra 3 /cat jLter' 

epo)TOS 
repTTV errauov 

dvreypaipe to 

to\vt eyix> ocrcr' epcadov /cat €<f>povTioa /cat fierd 
Movotbv 
B oe\xv* iSdrjv. 

kolXos yap 6 tolovtos eiraivos /cat (bcfreXipbos /cat 
SiSdaKcov Ta xprjoLfJLa /cat ra ovpLcfrepovTa OavpLa^ecv 
/cat dya-Trdv aVrt ra)y /cevcov /cat TrepiTTOJV. Sto 
tovto [lev avyKarareraxOaj rot? €lpr)pLevois ets to 

TT/OOjSA^jLta. 

18. AetVerat Se rjpuv, 5 rod Xoyov to €(/>€% fjs 
dTraiTovvTOS /cat TrapaKoXovvTOS , elrrelv ottcos 6 dv 
(ekolgtos ii«f)vyoL to erraivelv aKatpcog iavTOV. /xe'ya 
yap ?5 TTepiavToXoyLa ttjv (frtXavTcav dp\iv)Tr\piov 
eypvoa /cat rot? 7rdVu So/couot pL€Tpia)s e'^ctv 77-009 

1 ev-qfiepovvros (and so G 1 ^)] €v$oKifiovvTos G 1 *. 

2 dAA' 77 to D : dAAd tovto (dAA* 77 tovto G 4 € ; dAA' 17 tovto 
to JK). 

3 tyvfipioa W D RySs hki JK : ivvfipioa (-770a N 1 ). 

4 /cat /act' epouTos (fJ>*0' epcoTos W ; /ier' IpcoTa S 2 YP) Tepirv* 

156 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 54>6 

is the larger chorus, mine the more harmonious." And 
while Leosthenes still prospered in his campaign 
Phocion replied when the speakers asked what service 
he had done the state : " Only that when I was 
general you speakers delivered no funeral oration, as 
all who died were buried in their family graves." a 
And the lines 

This have I : what I ate, what with high hand 
I seized, the lover's soft delight b 

were very happily answered by Crates c when he wrote 

This have I : what I learned, what with deep thought 
I grasped, the Muses' stern delight. 

Such praise as this is good and helpful, teaching ad- 
miration and love of the useful and profitable rather 
than of the vain and superfluous. So let this point 
take its place with the others in our discussion of the 
subject. 

18. As the discussion now requires and invites us 
to proceed to the next point, it remains to state how 
we may each avoid unseasonable self-praise. Boast- 
ing has in self-love a powerful base of operations, and 
we can often detect its assaults even against those 

a Cf Life of Phocion, chap, xxiii. 2 (751 f). The dead in 
war were buried in a public grave : cf. Thucydides, ii. 34. 5. 

b Cf G. Kinkel, Epicorum Graec. Frag. i. 308-311, and 
Mor. 330 f with the note (where read Philology for Philo- 
sophy). The lines passed for the epitaph of Sardanapalus : 
cf. Cicero, Tusc. Disput. v. 35 (101). 

c Frag. 8 (ed. Diels). 

cnadovG Xu W S 2 W JK Z M 2 : fjSk (el Se h ; rj Se M 1 V ; Kal 

W) fJL€T* epOJTOS (/JL€T€pOUTOS D) T€p(/>6r]V (r4p<f>7jV V ; €T€p(f>07]V w). 

5 r)fuv] v/juv JK N. 

6 07rcx)s] ttu)s Wilamowitz. 

157 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(546) oo^av ifjL^aiveraL 1 ttoAXolkls imTiOepLevr]. Kaddrrep 
yap rcov vyietvtbv ev eon TrapayyeXpLarajv to tcl 
C voacoSrj yjuopia (jyvXarreodai TravrdrraoLV fj Trpocr- 
eyeiv fidXXov avTto yivopuevov ev avrols, ovtcds e^et 
rivets' rj TrepiavroXoyia Kaipovs /cat Xoyovs 2 SXiodr]- 
povs /cat 7T€pi(f)€povTas et's" 3 avrrjv e/c Traces rrpo- 
<j>doeojs. 

Uptbrov pcev ydp ev rots aXXorplois erraivoiSy 
ajcnrep euprjrai, to (f)iX6ripiov e^avdel rrjv irepiavTO- 
Xoyiav /cat tls clvto /caraAa/x/3dVet Sa/cvo/xevov 4 /cat 
yapyaXt^opuevov olov vtto Kvqopiov SvcrKapreprjTOS 
€7Ti0vpLLa /cat oppurf TTpos 86£av, clXXojs re /caV em 
rot? taots* erepos rj* rols eXdrrooiv erraivrfrai? 
KaOdrrep yap ol rreivcovres erepojv eodtovrajv ev 
D oifjei pb&XXov epeOt^ovrai /cat irapo^vvovrai rrjv ope- 
£iv, 8 ovtojs 6 rcov 9 ttXtjolov €7TaiVOS €KKaUt rfj 
t^XoTVTT La rovs TTpos $6£av a/cparco? 10 e^ovras. 

19. IXevrepov at tojv evrvxojs /cat Kara vow 
7T€7rpaypL€va)v 12 StrjyijoeLS Xavddvovoi 13 ttoXXovs eis 
pueyaXavxiav vtto papas' eK<f)epovoai /cat KopLTrov 
ipL7T€oovT€s yap €19 to Xeyeiv viKas rivds 1 * avrcov 15 rj 
Karop6a)0€is ev TToXirevpLaotv r] Trap* rjyepLOOL 
Trpd^ets /cat Xoyovs evhoKipaqoavras ov Kparovaiv 
ov8e pLerpid^ovGLV. cS yevei /zaAiora rfjs Trepiavro- 
Xoyias to avXiKov 16 ISeuv ion /cat orpanajriKov 

1 ifKfyalverai (-(/>€- N 1 )] efx^verat M 2 . 

2 Xoyovs] T07rovs Reiske. 

3 els] D RySs omit. 

4 SaKvojjLevov (and so G 2 )] yiyvo\xevov G 1 ; yivopuevov u 1 "^ $. 

5 6 Pi ir) (-rj i)] Spy!) G 1 (6- X> W J 1 ? 

6 y] $ G 1 (fji X> RySs. 

7 eTraivrjrai] cVcuWitcu G 1 X x u S 1 N M 1 V 2 V YL 

8 t^v 6pe£iv] W omits : 7r/>o? ope&v hk. 

9 rcov G Xeu W JK Z : rod. 

158 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 546 

who are held to take but a modest interest in glory. 
For as one of the rules of health is either to avoid 
unwholesome places altogether, or being in them to 
take the greater care, so with self-love : there are 
certain treacherous situations and themes that make 
us blunder into it on the slightest occasion. 

First, when others are praised, our rivalry erupts, 
as we said, a into praise of self; it is seized with a 
certain barely controllable yearning and urge for 
glory that stings and tickles like an itch, especially 
when the other is praised for something in which he 
is our equal or inferior. For just as in the hungry 
the sight of others eating makes the appetite sharper 
and keener, so the praise of others not far removed 
inflames with jealousy those who are intemperate in 
seeking glory. 

19- Second, in telling of exploits that have been 
lucky and have turned out according to plan, many 
are so pleased with themselves that before they know 
it they have drifted into vainglorious boasting. For 
once they come to talk of some victory or political 
success or act or word of theirs that found favour 
with leading men, they get out of hand and go too 
far. & To this sort of self-glorification one may observe 
that courtiers and the military most readily succumb. 

Chapter 3, supra. b Cf. Mor. 630 b ff. 

10 oiKpaTCJs] aKpdrcos W. 

11 at] oe at Vvw. 

12 7T€7Tpayfi€va)v] TTerrpaxoTCOv W. 

13 Xavddvovai X 3 e D hki : Xafipdvovai. 

14 nvas] G omits. 

15 glvtojv or olvtlov G Xu W JK Vvw : iavrcov. 

16 to avXiKov G 4m * X x u D RySs hki J 2 N M 1 Yl : to olvXtjtikov 
G 1 ; to vavXiriKov X rec mg ; to volvtikov J x K Vvw ; to volvtiXikov 
M 2 W R2 fpq ; W is wanting. 

159 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(546) aAicrKOfjLevov. ovpu^alveL Se Kal toZs e/c ttotcov 1 

E rjyefJLovLKCjov Kal TrpayfiaTcov fieydXcov eTravrjKovoL 

tovto iraoyziv €7ri€iKa)S' fjLefjLvrjfjLevoL yap dvSpcov 

€7ri(f)ava)v Kal fSaoiXiKuov avyKaraTrXeKovoi Trepl 

avTcov evufrytfUas tlvcls vtt* eKelvoov elprjpLevas > Kal 

VO/JLL^OVGLV OVX aVTOVS €7TaiV€LV CxAA' €T€pO)V €77ai- 

vovs SirjyeladaL Trepl avrcov yevopuevovs. ol oe oXoos 
olovrai XavddveLV tovs aKovovras orav ftaaiXecov Kal 
avroKparopoov Se^LoooeLS Kal TTpoaayopevoeLS Kat 
(f)iXocf)poGvva9 aTrayyeXXoooLV, cos ovx clvtcov Itt- 
alvovs, aTroSel£eLS oe rfjs eKelvoov eTTLeLKelas Kal 
F (f)iXav8 pumias hie^iovres . odev ev pcdXa oeZ Txpoo- 
eX €LV tavTols Trepl tovs erepoov eTralvovs, ottcos 
Kadapol Kal avviroiTTOi (jyiXavrias Kal irepiavTO- 
Xoylas ooolv Kal per) SoKoofiev " HdrpoKXov rrpo- 
fyaoiVy' &(/)&$ 8' avTOVs St' eKelvoov 2, enaivelv. 

20. 'AAAa pirjv Kal to Trepl tovs ifjoyovs Kal tcls 
KaTaiTidoeis yevos eTTLocj^aXes eoTi Kal Trape^ov 
eKTporras toZs Trepl 86£av vogovolv. cS /xaAtara 
TTepiTTLTTTovoiv ol yepovTes oTav els to z vovdeTeZv 
eTepovs Kal KaKL^eLV edrj <^>auAa Kal irpd^eLS rjfJLapTT]- 
puevas TTpoaxOoooL, fieyaXvvovTes avTovs cos Trepl 
547 Taura 4 davpiaolovs 807 TLvas yevojievovs* tovtols 5 
fiev ovv, av purj piovov excooLV r}Ai/aav dXXd Kal 86£av 
Kal dpeTTjv, SoTeov (ov yap dvcocf)eXes dXXd jxeya, 6 
^rjXov epLTTOLovv a^,a Kal ^XoTLpulav tlvcl toZs ovtco 
1 TToruiv D u : tottcov (and so D lss ; W is wanting). 

2 €K€lVO>v] €K€LVOV C G 1 . 

3 €is to] el (cl R?) to RySs ; 3 omits. 
4 ravTa Pohlenz : ravra. 

160 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 546-547 

But it may also attack those who have returned from 
a governor's banquet or from handling affairs of state. 
For with the mention of illustrious and royal perso- 
nages they interweave certain gracious remarks that 
these personages have addressed to them, and fancy 
that they are not praising themselves but recounting 
praise received from others. Some even suppose that 
the self-praise is quite unobserved by their audience 
when they report the greetings, salutations, and 
attentions of kings and generals, feeling that what 
they recite is not their own praise but proofs of the 
courtesy and affability of others. We must therefore 
look warily to ourselves when we recount praise re- 
ceived from others and see that we do not allow 
any taint or suggestion of self-love and self-praise to 
appear, lest we be thought to make Patroclus our 
excuse, a while we are really singing our own praise. 

20. But the topic of censure and reproof also has 
its dangers and offers opportunities of deviation to 
those who suffer from a morbid craving for glory. 
Here old men especially go astray : once they have 
been drawn into admonishing others and rating un- 
worthy habits and unwise acts, they magnify them- 
selves as men who in the like circumstances have been 
prodigies of wisdom. These indeed, if not merely dis- 
tinguished by years but by reputation and merit as 
well, must have licence. What they do is not un- 
profitable — far from it — : it arouses emulation and a 
kind of ambition in the persons so rebuked. But the 

a Cf. Homer, II, xix. 302, where the slave women lament 
ostensibly the death of Patroclus, but in reality their own 
woes : see Eustathius ad loc. and Leutsch and Schneidewin, 
Paroem. Gr. i, p. 294. 

6 tovtols] tovtovs X}v 3. 6 /xe'ya vSDR hki N : fidyav. 
VOL. VII G 161 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(547) KoXa^o/JLevoLs) • ol ok dXXoi G(f)68pa (jyvXarreoOai /cat 
SeSteVat tyjv €KTpo7T7]v ravrrjv d0€t'Ao/xev. aviapov 
yap ovtos 1 aAAco? /cat /xoAcs* dveKrov tov toov ttXyj- 
glov 2 iXeyxov /cat oeofievov 7roXXfjs evXafieias d 
payvvoov eVatvov loiov aXXorpioo ipoyco /cat St' 
aSo^ia? irepov oo^av avrto drjpoojjievos iiraxO^js 

TTCLVTCLTTaGL KCLI (fropTLKOS €GTLV , COS ivevSoKLfJLetv* 
CLGX^P'OVOVGLV dXXoi$ pOvX6fA€VOS . 

21. "Ert toivvv rots /xev upos tovs yeXojras* 

B €VKCLTa(f)6pOLS (f)VG€L Kdl TTOO^CtOOtS 1 fJLaXlGTCL (f)€V- 

yeiv rrpoGiqKei /cat (frvXarreoOai tovs yapyaXiGfiovs 
/cat ras 1 ifjyjXacfyrjGeLS €V at? ra Aetdrara rou Goopbaros 
oXiGOdvovra 5 /cat Gvppeovra Ktvel /cat Gvve^oppia to 
TrdQos- ogol he rrpos S6£av epbTraQeorepov eppvrj- 

KdGlVy TOVTOLS* dv TLS OU^ TjKLGTa 7TapaiV€G€L€V 

direx^Gdat rod o<f>as avrovs erraivelv orav vrr* dXXoov 
eir aiv cjvt at . Set yap epvdpiav eir aiv ov p,ev ov , ovk 
direpvOpLav, /cat KaracrreXXeiv tovs fieya Tt Trepl 
avroov Xeyovras, ovk eXeyx^v 1 obs evheeorepov eirai- 
vovvras' orrep ol ttoXXol ttolovglv, VTropapLV^GKovres 
C awrot /cat TrpoGefKpopovvres dXXas rtvas rrpd^eis 

\»^ /)/ # T8~9 > * ~ 10 N * 11 

/cat avopayaoias a^pt ou rco 7rap avroov /cat tov 
7rap 5 erepcov enaivov hia<j)deipcooiv. evioi /zev ow 

1 ovtos] ovtlos C ac X aras N. 

2 tt\t]glov (and so G 4 )] ttXtjolcov G 1 X*u R 1ss N. 

3 eVcuSo/a/ictv] cvBoKifielv RySs hkM v. 

4 ye'Acora? C (yeXcoras X r ) D S 2 VP hki JKW M 2 Y 2 lfpq : 
yeXcjvras (and so K u ). 

5 dAtcr^avovTa Bern. : ohoOaivovTa (o- C 1 ; -at- in an erasure 
in Y). f 

6 TOUTOtc] TOVTOVS G 1 . 

7 iXeyxeiv (cx €LV s 5 iXiyxoiv N)] ineXeyx^tv C. 

8 dfcpi oS G 1 Xu W : ax/us oS (oS from o0 C) G 3 JK Z M 2 Vvw 
fpq ; a^pts aV Dc RySs hkH ; axpis N M 1 Yl. 

162 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 547 

rest of us must carefully avoid and be wary of this 
deviation. For to point out the faults of our neigh- 
bours in any case gives pain, can hardly be borne, 
and requires great tact ; but when a man inter- 
mingles praise of himself with censure of another, and 
uses another's disgrace to secure glory for himself, he 
is altogether odious and vulgar, as one who would 
win applause from the humiliation of another.® 

21. Again, as those who are naturally prone and 
prompt to laugh should take special care to avoid being 
tickled or so handled that the smoothest particles b of 
the body glide and flow together and thus bring on 
and precipitate the fit, in the same way those with a 
too ardent weakness for fame should especially be 
advised to abstain from praising themselves when 
they are praised by others. For you should blush 
when praised, not be unblushing c ; you should re- 
strain those who mention some great merit of yours, 
not find fault with them for doing you scant justice, 
as most do, going on themselves to recall and gorge d 
themselves on other actions and feats of prowess until 
by thus commending themselves they undo the com 
mendation of others. Now some e tickle these men 

° The word eneudohimein may have been suggested by- 
Demosthenes, On the Crown, 198. 

b An atomistic explanation : cf. Mor. 765 c, 766 e for a 
similar explanation of love. 

c Demosthenes, On the Crown, 128 ; Menander, frag. 527 
(vol. ii, p. 176 Korte). 

d Cf, the comparison of the appetite for praise with hunger 
(540 a-b and 546 c-d, supra). 

e Cf. Be Garrulitate, chap. 20. 

9 r<SX 3 €D: r6v(ra>vC M 1 ). ^ 

10 nap* avrojv Xylander (nap* iavrcov X 3 e) : irepl avrcov or 

7T€pl OLVTCOV. 

11 /cal rov] /cat t^DJN Y ac lfq (/cat K 1 ). 

163 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(547) koAolk€vovt€s dVTovs co(777€/) yapyaXi^ovai Kal (f)V- 
oojoiv, €vlol Se KaKorfdojs olov rt SeXeap piKpov 
tvXoylas V7To^dXXovr€S CKKaXovvrai rrjv Trepiavro- 
Xoyiav, ol Se 1 TrpocnjvvOdvovTai Kal 8i€pa>TO)GLV y o>9 
77apa rep MevdvS/oa> rov GTparicorrjv, Iva yeXdaaxiLV 

77C09 2 TO TpaVfJLCL TOVT 6^669 / 

— jjLeaayKvXa). — 770)9 77^09 decov ; — em AcAt/xa/ca 
77^09 Ttlxos avafSaivojv . . . eytb pkv SeiKvva) 
icnrovSaKcbs , ol Se irdXiv eTrepv KTTjptaav . 

D 22. 'Ev asnaoiv ovv tovtois evXafirjreov a>9 evi 
pudXiara preps avv€K7ri7TTOVTa rots eiraivois prryre 
rals z ipcoTijaeotv eavrov Trpo'Cepevov. evreAeararry 4 
Se tovtcjv evXd^eta Kal (f)vXaKrj to irpoaiyeiv 
irepocs eavrovs 5 erraivovai Kal pvrjpovevetv a>9 
d^Ses" to TTpaypba Kal Xvnrjpov dVaat 6 Kal Xoyos 
dXXos ovh^W ovtojs i7raxdrj? ovSe fiapvs. ov8e yap 
€)(ovt€s ei7T€iv 6 tl ndaxopev dAAo KaKOV VTTO TCJV 
avTOVs eiraivovvTOJV coorrep (f>va€L fiapvvopievoi to 
TTpaypa Kal <f>€vyovT€s aTraXXayrjvai Kal dvairvzvoai 
GTrevSopLev' OTTov Kal 8 KoXaKt Kal TTapaGLTCp Kal 

E Seopevco SvaoLaTov iv XP € ^ a KaL 8vaeyKapT€prjTOV 9 
eavTOV iyKOjpudl^ojv ttXovglos tls r\ GaTpaTrrjs rj 
fiaoiXevs, Kal ovppoXds TavTas arroTLveiv /xeytcrTas" 
1 ol Bk] ot W. 

2 7T<x)s] ttws Brj D. 

164 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 547 

as it were by flattery and puff them up ; others 
maliciously throw out a little tribute as a kind of bait 
to elicit self-praise ; still others press for details and 
interrogate them for the fun of it, as with Menander's a 
soldier : 

— What made this scar ? — A javelin. — O please 
Tell us the story. — I was on a ladder 
Scaling a wall ... I in all seriousness 
Proceed to demonstrate ; and then once more 
They sneered at me. 

22. In all these circumstances we cannot be too 
cautious, not allowing ourselves to be drawn out by 
the praise nor to be led on by the questions. The 
surest precaution and safeguard is to attend closely to 
the self-praise of others and to remember the distaste 
and vexation that was felt by all : no other kind of 
talk is so odious or offensive. For although we can 
point to no further harm than the mere hearing of 
the self-praise, yet as though instinctively irked by 
the performance and uncomfortable we are eager to 
escape and breathe freely again. Why even a flat- 
terer, a hanger-on, a man in need, finds it hard in his 
necessity to stomach and endure a rich man or satrap 
or king bestowing praises on himself, and calls it 
the most exorbitant reckoning he ever paid. Wit- 

a Frag. 745 (vol. ii, p. 234 Korte). 

3 Tats] €V TOLLS W S . 

4 ivTcXcoTaTTi (and so G 4 )] eVreAearara r) v I W s (evTtXeoTOTOv 

1 iavTovs] iavTols C 1 X*u I W s . 

6 ottooi] iv airaoi W s Z. 

7 aXXos ovoels] ovoels dXXos G ; ouSeis R. 

8 o7tov Kal D and Reiske : ottcos RySs ; ottov. 

9 ovoeyKapTeprjTOv C G aras ? Xu I W s : ovoKapTCprjrov. 

165 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(547) Xeyovoiv, <bs 6 Trapd MevdvSpor 

Gcfxirrei 1 fie, Xenros yivop! evoj^ovpievos' 
tcx GKcofjifiad^ 2 oia to, oro(f)a /cat OTparrjyiKa 3 ' 
olos* S >5 dXal^cov eariv aXiriqpios? 

ravra yap ov npos orrpartajras puovov ovSe veo- 
ttXovtovs ev7rdpv(f)a /cat ooftapd OLrjyrjpLara TTepai- 
vovtcls, 1 dXXd /cat Trpos oo(f>iOTas /cat (f>iXocr6(f)ovs 
/cat GTparriyovs ojyKOjpievovs 8 €(/>' iavrols /cat pie- 
yaArjyopovvras elojOores 7Taa)(€W* /cat Xeyeiv, av 
pLvrjpLovevojpiev on rols lolols enaivois dXXorpios 
F €7Terai ifjoyos del /cat ylverac reXos dSo^t'a rrjs 
k€voSo£lcls ravrrfSy /cat to Xvirelv tovs (xkovovtcls , 
ojs 6 ArjpiooBevrjs (frrjotv, nepUoTLV, ov to 10 So/cetv 
elvai tolovtovs , dcfye^opieOa rod Xeyecv rrepl avTtov, 
av per) tl pueydXa 11 pueXXojpLCv axpeXelv eavrovs rj tovs 
aKovovras . 

1 CT</>arr€t] Gcfxxrei Xu I W s ac. 

2 CTAco6/>i/Aa0' (and so G 4 )] oKcvfiad* C 2 (a> from w) G 1 X x u I 
W s S w YL 

3 rd vo<j>a /cat oTparrjyLKa] tol 0Tparta>Tt/cd /cat oocfrd G. 

4 ofo? (otos C 2 )] oto C 1 ; of? RySs hkM N. 

5 8H Xe omit ; St- N. 

6 dAmjpto? v 2 - I W s (d dAtTTyptos N ; dArjTrjpLOS X 1 ) : dAtT^/nos 1 
(-At;- R ac ? J v ac? ). 



166 



ON INOFFENSIVE SELF-PRAISE, 547 

ness the character in Menander a : 

He murders me. The feasting makes me thin. 
Good God ! The wit ! The military wit ! 
What airs he gives himself, the blasted windbag ! 

These are the feelings and language to which we are 
prompted not only by soldiers and the newly rich 
with their flaunting and ostentatious talk, but also by 
sophists, philosophers, and commanders who are full 
of their own importance and hold forth on the theme ; 
and if we remember that praise of oneself always in- 
volves dispraise from others, that this vainglory has 
an inglorious end, the audience being left, as Demo- 
sthenes b says, with a feeling of vexation, not with any 
belief in the truth of the self-portrait, we shall avoid 
talking about ourselves unless we have in prospect 
some great advantage to our hearers or to ourselves. 

° Frag. 746 (vol. ii, p. 234 Korte). 
b On the Crown, 128. 

7 7T€paivovTas (and so G 4 ; irai- N ; -€s X 1 ? w ; -os s)] 

TTOLpaiVOVVTCLS G 1 . 

8 (hyKcofxivovs nos (oyKtofjuevovs N ; oyKovojxdvovs W s ) : oyKov- 
(jcevovs. 

9 irdox^iv W 8 : <f>daK€iv. 

10 ov to] ov to) X x u I ; OVTCO tPK. 

11 rt fitydXa] nva fieydXa De ; rt fxeya Z and Reiske. 



167 



ON THE DELAYS OF THE 
DIVINE VENGEANCE 

(DE SERA NUMINIS VINDICTA) 



INTRODUCTION 

This is perhaps the most admired of Plutarch's philo- 
sophical writings. Proclus a transcribed and adapted 
large portions of it in antiquity. In modern times 
it has received high praise from Christians as diverse 
in belief as Joseph de Maistre 6 and A. P. Peabody. c 
In an American edition we find this note d : 

a In " The Ten Objections Brought Against Providence " 
(nepl ra>v Se/ca TTpos rrjv irpovoiav aTTOprjfjLdrcov), preserved in the 
translation of William of Moerbeke, and published in Victor 
Cousin, Prodi Philosophi Platonici Opera Inedita . . . 
(Paris, 1864), second edition, coll. 76-145. The borrowings, 
confined to the eighth and ninth " objections," were appar- 
ently first pointed out by A. Chassang in the Nouvelle Bio- 
graphie generate edited by Dr. Hoefer, Paris, Didot, vol. xl, 
p. 509, s.v. " Plutarque." 

b Cf Joseph de Maistre, Sur les delais de la justice divine 
. . . (Paris, 1858), pp. ii-iii : " Enfin je ne vois pas trop ce 
qu'on pourrait opposer a cet Ouvrage, parmi ceux des anciens 
philosophies. On trouvera sans doute ga et la, et dans Platon 
surtout, des traits admirables, de superbes eclairs de verite ; 
mais nulle part, je crois, rien d'aussi suivi, d'aussi sagement 
raisonne, d'aussi fini dans l'ensemble." 

c A. P. Peabody, Plutarch on the Delay of the Divine 
Justice (Boston, 1885), p. xxvi : " The most remarkable of 
all Plutarch's writings, the most valuable equally in a philo- 
sophical and an ethical point of view, and the most redolent 
of what we almost involuntarily call Christian sentiment, is 
that ' On the Delay of the Divine Justice,' ..." 

d Plutarch on the Delay of the Deity in Punishing the 
Wicked, Revised Edition, with Notes, by Professors H. B. 
Hackett and W. S. Tyler, New York, 1868, p. 66, note. 

170 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE 

It is within the knowledge of the writer that the 
reading of this very treatise of Plutarch, which we 
are about to examine, had a salutary effect on the 
mind of Professor Tholuck, at a time when he was 
inclined to scepticism, and was among the provi- 
dential means of leading him to find the best solu- 
tion of his doubts in the teachings of the Bible. 

To the translations listed in the Preface may be 
added, apart from others that we have not seen, a those 
of Bilibaldus Pirckheymerus, & Joseph de Maistre, c 
Charles W. Super, d and Georges Meautis. e 

Quietus/ to whom the dialogue is addressed, is 
presumably the same as the Quietus of the De 
Fraterno Amore (478 b), where a brother Nigrinus is 
mentioned, and of the Quaestiones Convivales (632 a), 
where it is implied that he had administered a pro- 

a J. G. Berndt, Zwei Abhandlungen, 1) Axiochus. 2) Vom 
Verzuge der gottlichen Strafen. Stendal, 1784. 

Dialogo di Plutarco del tardo gastigo della Divinita, 
tradotto dall' Ab. Sebastiano Ciampi. Florence, 1805. 

Plutarchus over het Verwyl der goddelyke straffe : uit het 
Grieksch vertaald, met aanteekeningen door C. Groen, 
Dordrecht, 1826. 

b Plutarchi . . . de his qui tarde a Numine corripiuntur 
libellus. Nuremberg, 1513. 

c Sur les delais de la justice divine dans la punition des 
coupables ; ouvrage de Plutarque, nouvellement traduit, avec 
des additions et des notes . . . Lyons and Paris, 1816. 

d Between Heathenism and Christianity : Being a transla- 
tion of Seneca's De Providentia, and Plutarch's De Sera 
Numinis Vindicta, together with Notes, Chicago, New York, 
Toronto, 1899. 

6 Des delais de la justice divine par Plutarque. Traduc- 
tion nouvelle, precedee d'une introduction et accompagnee 
de notes explicatives. Lausanne, 1935. 

' Here and in the De Fraterno Amore the restoration of 
the name is due to Patzig. In our dialogue the archetype had 
kvvl€ ; in the De Fraterno Amore, kvvtc. 

171 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

vince. Perhaps he is the T. Avidius Quietus, senator 
and sometime proconsul of Achaia, a mentioned by 
the younger Pliny in a letter assigned to the year 102 
(Ep. vi. 29. 1) b in language that implies he was no 
longer living. If the Jetter is correctly dated, and if 
this identification of Quietus is right, we could infer 
that the dialogue was written before 103. There 
was, however, a second T. Avidius Quietus, who was 
consul in 111 and proconsul of Asia shortly before 
127. c Pohlenz d identifies Plutarch's friend with this 
younger man on the ground that the essay De Fraterno 
Amove is subsequent to the essays De Amicorum Multi- 
tudine and De Adulatore et Amico ; but the date of 
none of the three essays is known, 6 and the friend- 
ship of Plutarch's addressee with Sosius Senecio is 
chronologically more appropriate to the older man/ 
Plutarch's mention of a brother named Nigrinus also 
favours this identification. There appear to have 
been an older and a younger Avidius Nigrinus, gener- 
ally taken to be father and son. The father was 

Cf Groag and Stein, Prosop. Imp. Rom. Saec. I. II. III. 
Pars I 2 (1933), no. 1410, pp. 288 f. 

6 Cf A. von Premerstein, " C. Julius Quadratus Bassus," 
in Szb. d. bayr. Ak. 9 Phil.-hist. Kl., no. 3 (Munich, 1934), 
p. 84, note 4. 

c Cf Groag and Stein, op. cit. no. 1409, pp. 287 f. ; Groag 
in Pauly-Wissowa, Suppl. vi, col. 18, s.v. " Avidius " 7a ; 
J. and L. Robert, Hellenika, vol. vi (Paris, 1948), pp. 82 f. 

d Plutarchi Moralia, vol. iii recc. et emendd. W. R. Pa ton, 
M. Pohlenz, W. Sieveking (Leipzig, 1929), p. 221. Pohlenz 
accepts Brokate's view of the chronological relation of the 
three essays involved : cf. K. Brokate, De Aliquot Plut. 
Libellis (Gottingen, 1913), pp. 17 if. 

e Cf G. Hein. Quaestiones Plut. (Berlin, 1916). 

f Cf. Mor. 478 b, 632 a. Sosius Senecio was consul in 99 : 
cf. Groag in Pauly-Wissowa, vol. iii A, coll. 1180 ff., s.v. 
" Q. Sosius Senecio." 
172 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE 

probably the brother of the elder Quietus, the son 
the cousin of the younger.* 1 

Thespesius, the hero of the myth, is doubtless a 
fiction of Plutarch's. The name was chosen for its 
meaning, thespesios being often used of things divine 
and strange. 5 " Aridaeus," the name borne by 
Thespesius before his vision, may be none other than 
the Ardiaeus of Plato. c His people, the Cilicians, 
enjoyed no favourable reputation, and to a Greek 
ear the very name of his city, Soli, suggested per- 
versity. d 

The scene of the dialogue is Delphi (cf. 552, f, 
553 e, 556 f, 560 c), where Plutarch was for many 
years one of the two priests of Apollo.* The speakers 
are Plutarch himself, his son-in-law Patrocleas, his 
brother Timon, and Olympichus. 

The dialogue was evidently not written before 
a.d. 81 . In the myth the Sibyl foretells the eruption of 
Vesuvius (24-26 August 79) and speaks of a " good " 
emperor " of those days " who is to relinquish his 

° Cf. Groag and Stein, op. cit. nos. 1407 and 1408. 

b Cf. G. Soury, La Demonologie de Plutarque (Paris, 
1942), p. 213, note 2 : " Ce mot [that is, thespesios] qui signifie 
divin, merveilleux, s'applique bien a celui qui par une vraie 
faveur divine, une ' grace,' a pu ' se convertir.' " 

c Cf. Wyttenbach's note on 564 c. In quoting Republic, 
615 e f., Justin Martyr (Coh. ad Gent. chap, xxvii, 25 d), 
Clement (Strom, v. 14. 90), and Eusebius (Praep. Ev. xiii. 5, 
669 d) give the form Aridaeus. 

d Cf. the use of ooXoikos in Mor. 817 b. 

e Cf. K. Ziegler in Pauly-Wissowa, vol. xxi. 1 (1951), col. 
660. 3-39, who argues with Pomtow that Plutarch became 
priest in the middle or late nineties. It is perhaps not too 
fanciful to suppose that Plutarch refers at 559 b to his own 
experience of seeing Athens after a lapse of thirty years. As 
he was a student there in 66/7 (Mor. 385 b), we might feel 
justified in dating the dialogue at least thirty years later. 

173 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

imperial power by dying of disease (566 E). a At the 
time of Thespesius' vision Nero was already dead 
(567 f). " Those days " must then refer to some time 
between Nero's death and the eruption. Of the five 
emperors who reigned in this interval only Vespasian 
and Titus b died a natural death. It is not likely that 
Vespasian is intended, as he expelled from Rome all 
the philosophers except Musonius (Dio Cassius, lxvi. 
13), and revoked Nero's grant of freedom to Greece 
(Philostratus, Fit, Ap, v. 41 ; Pausanias, vii. 17. 4), 
acts which might well have kept Plutarch from be- 
lieving he could be called " good." c Titus, who died 
13 September 81, was much beloved.^ The dramatic 
date of the vision of Thespesius would fall between 24 
June, the date of Titus' accession, and 24-26 August, 
when the eruption of Vesuvius took place, in a.d. 79- 
The dialogue itself has two parts, the logos or argu- 
ment, and the myth (563 e fF.). 

a In Mor, 398 e, Plutarch mentions the " recent disasters 
in Cumae and Dicaearcheia " and the " bursting forth of 
mountain fire " as foretold long before the event in the 
Sibylline verses. There is no other evidence that Dicae- 
archeia (Pozzuoli) and Cumae were destroyed in the eruption 
(cf, R. Flaceliere, Plutarque Sur les Oracles de la Pythie, 
Paris, 1937, p. 8, note 3). Some Sibylline verses doubtless 
mentioned such a disaster — catastrophes were a favourite 
subject with prophets — and the prediction came close enough 
to the truth to satisfy Plutarch. 

b It is clear from Mor, 123 d that Plutarch did not accept 
the rumour that Titus was poisoned. 

c In Mor, 771 c, Plutarch expresses his abhorrence of 
Vespasian's execution of the faithful Empone, and says he 
was punished by the extinction of his line. 

d Cf, Suetonius, Divus Titus, chap. i. A reference to 
Titus would be particularly apt as he had begun his career 
with many violent and vicious acts (cf, Suetonius, ibid. 
chapters vi-vii ; Dio Cassius, lxvi. I 3) 

174 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE 

When the conversation opens, " Epicurus," a who 
had inveighed against divine providence, has just 
disappeared. Plutarch is left with his brother, his 
son-in-law, and Olympichus, all firm believers in the 
gods. The ensuing discussion is confined to one of 
the many objections raised by " Epicurus " : the late 
punishment of the wicked. 

Plutarch's three interlocutors present each a diffi- 
culty involved in such delay ; and the logos ends with 
Plutarch's reply to Bion's objection that it is as 
absurd for God to punish the children for their fathers' 
sins as for a physician to treat a descendant for the 
diseases of an ancestor. 

Patrocleas finds that late punishment fails to check 
further crimes or to comfort the victim (548 d). 
Olympichus adds that the delay promotes disbelief 
in providence and makes the punishment of no profit 
to the culprit. Timon is ready with a third objection, 
but is diverted for the moment (549 d-e). 

In reply Plutarch disclaims any dogmatism ; he 
pretends to do no more than establish a probability 
or likelihood (549 e). Four reasons are first given for 
God's delay : 

(1) God is our model ; he is slow to punish so that 
we may imitate his slowness and thus escape error 
(550 c). 

(2) God allows the offender who is not incurable a 
certain period in which to recover ; incurables he 
does away with at once (551 c). 

(3) Some offenders are capable of eventually pro- 
ducing great benefits. It is better that their punish- 

a Cf. Cherniss in Mor. xii, p. 6. The name may hint that 
a book of Epicurus (the Tltpl Oewv ?) has just been read 
aloud. 

175 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

merit should wait until the benefits have been 
received (552 d). 

(4) The manner and time of punishment should be 
appropriate ; hence punishment is often deferred 
(553 d). 

At this point Plutarch indicates that heretofore the 
company has assumed that punishment is postponed ; 
but it can be argued that punishment is actually con- 
temporary with the crime, and consists in the anguish 
of the guilty soul (553 f). 

Timon now comes forward with the third objec- 
tion : it is unjust to punish a descendant for an 
ancestor's crime (556 E). a 

The answer falls into two parts, separated by a 
discussion of the survival of the soul. In the first 
three points are made : 

(1) Many of Timon's stories of late punishment 
are fabulous (557 e ; Plutarch as much as admits that 
this answer is made merely to gain time). 

(2) Timon approves the rewarding of descendants 
for services rendered by their ancestors ; he must 
also approve the punishment of descendants for their 
ancestors' crimes (557 f). 

(3) A city counts as an individual, and has the same 
sort of continuity ; it is right, then, that it should 
suffer for its past misdeeds (558 f). What holds for 
a city holds for a family as well (559 c). 

Olympichus interrupts to point out that Plutarch 
assumes the survival of the soul (560 a). Plutarch 
justifies the assumption, and says that punishments 

a Contrast the explanations of Hermias (Hermiae Alex- 
andrini in Platonis Phaedrum Scholia, pp. 96-97, ed. 
Couvreur). 

176 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE 

are inflicted after death through the medium of 
descendants for two reasons : that the living may see 
them and be deterred, and because such punishment 
is especially ignominious and painful (561 a). 

Bion had said that God was more ridiculous in 
punishing a descendant for the crimes of an ancestor 
than a physician who treats a descendant for an 
ancestor's disease (561 c). Plutarch's reply is that 
the analogy holds when the punishment is preventive, 
and saves a descendant from succumbing to an 
inherited vicious bent. 

The myth now follows (563 b). The " intelligent 
part " (to cj>povovv) a of the soul of a certain Aridaeus 
(who is renamed Thespesius in the course of his adven- 
ture) leaves his body (563 e), the rest of the soul 
remaining behind as an anchor (564< c), and preventing 
it from ascending very far (566 d). Four different 
scenes are visited : the place of emergence, where 
Thespesius sees the pure and impure souls, the latter 
showing certain colours due to the passions, and 
receives an explanation of the three kinds of punish- 
ment ; the chasm of Lethe ; the crater of dreams ; 
and the place of punishment. b 

The scene of the emergence is at the confines of 
the sublunary region, where the atmosphere of air 
gives way to one of fire or aether. Thus the souls of 
the dead " make a flamelike bubble as the air is dis- 
placed " (563 f) and the stars appear larger and more 
distant from one another than when seen from the 
earth. Thespesius is next taken to a vast chasm 
(565 e) extending clear through to the earth. This 

° For Plutarch's views on the relation of the rational and 
emotional parts of the soul cf. Mor. 1025 d-e, 1026 c-d. 

5 Cf. Norden, P. Vergilius Maro Aeneis Buck VP, pp. 
43 f. 

177 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

" place of Lethe " is doubtless the earth's shadow, 
ending at the upper limit of the sublunary region (cf. 
Mor. 591 a and note). It represents the pleasures 
of the body which cause the soul to lose its buoyancy 
and sink down to another birth. A second journey, 
of equal length with the first, takes him to a mirage- 
like crater, which turns out on closer view to be a 
chasm in the ambient. Here he is close enough to 
the moon to be caught in its wash, but cannot rise 
high enough to behold the oracle of Apollo. Pre- 
sumably, then, the crater is also at the confines of 
the sublunary region and of the empyrean ; it is 
probably the shadow of the moon. Next he views 
the punishments of wicked souls, including that of 
his own father. The punishment of ancestors whose 
crimes have been visited on their descendants is 
especially noted, as is the punishment that would 
have awaited him if he had persisted in his covetous 
way of life. No journey to this scene is mentioned, 
nor is its situation indicated ; perhaps it was thought 
to be in the southern hemisphere of the earth a or 
of the sublunary region. The final spectacle, which 
doubtless makes part of this scene, is that of the souls 
being reshaped for birth in the forms of lower animals 
(567 e). The Platonic doctrine of reincarnation is 
here assumed. 5 

As Thespesius is about to turn back, he is snapped 

a Cf Axiochus, 371 a-b, and Cumont, " Les Enfers selon 
l'Axiochos " in Comptes-Rendus, Academie des Inscriptions 
& Belles-Lettres, 1920, pp. 272-285. 

b Cf. Plato, Republic, 617 d. It had been objected that 
the souls of men could not be incarnated in lower animals, 
as the bodies of brutes could not provide the proper organs 
for a human soul (cf. Aristotle, Be Anima, i. 3 [407 b 20-26], 
and Nemesius, chap, ii [pp. 119 f. Matthaei]). Plutarch 
meets this objection by letting artisans reshape the souls. 

178 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE 

back to his body in a great rush of wind, opening his 
eyes again, like Er in Plato, at his grave. 

The essay is No. 91 in the catalogue of Lamprias. 

The text is based on GXFZI DRy(SK)hki N 
M(avf)Vv Y(J) CW(W R qf lp). mss. only occasionally 
cited are here enclosed in parenthesis. 



179 



(548) nEPI TON YnO TOY 0EIOY 

BPAAEQ2 TIMQPOYMENfiN 1 

1. Totavra fxev 6 'J^TTLKovpos 2 eiTrcov, c5 K.vfjre* 
B kclI TTplv aTTOKpivavdai riva, rrpos ra> Trepan rfjs 
aToa? yevofjidvcov rjfjicov, tpxero dmcov rjfiels Se 
oaov tl Oavpudaai tov dvdpcLirov rrjv arorrtav 
imardvres Gicorrfj kcll rrpos olAAtjAovs StapAeifjavTes 
dvearp€(f)Ofji€v ttolAiv cjarrep eTvyydvo\xev ircpma- 
Tovvreg. 

Etra 7rpcoTOS 6 HarpoKAeas* " tl ovv; " etrrev. 
" idv 8ok€l rrjv ^rjrrjatv, rj ra> Aoyco KaOdrrep 
rrapovros /cat prr\ rrapovTos 5 a77OKpivto/xe0a 6 tov 
€itt6vtos; " 

c Y7roAaj8cbv Se 6 Tljjlojv, " aAA' ouS' el PaAtbv," 

elTrev, " a7rr]AAdyr], kolAcos ef\;e irepiopdv to fieAos 

C iyK€LfJL€vov. 6 fji€V yap BpaatSa? cbs eoLKev i^eAKv- 

aag to Sopv tov crco/xaros' aura) tovtcq tov /JaAoVra 

TraTa^as dveiAev rjfJLcov Se dpuvvaodai /xev ovSev 

1 tt. r. vtto t. 6. Pp. rt/x.] 7T€pl ppaSecos KoXa^oixivcav VTTO TOV 
detov Lamprias ; [jrepl tcov vtto rod] Oeiov [fipaSecos AcoAajfo/zeVoiv 
F 1 K 1 at the end (the bracketed letters are lost in F) ; on 
Ppdhiov ol deoi TipicopovvTai Sopater (Photius, Bibl. 104a40). 

2 i-rrUovpos (cf. p. 175 note, supra)] 'EtriKovpeios Fabricius. 

3 Kvqrc Patzig : kvvlc (/cu/ne Vv). 

4 UarpoKXeas] Vv have narpoKXeT]? and its cases everywhere 
(at 549 b V lss has -as) ; Y 2 has -fys here and at 548 c ; G X 1 * 

180 



ON THE DELAYS OF THE 
DIVINE VENGEANCE 

1. When he had made this speech, my dear Quietus, 
Epicurus did not even wait for an answer, but made 
off on our reaching the end of the colonnade. The 
rest of us, pausing only long enough to exchange mute 
glances of astonishment at the fellow's singularity, 
turned about and resumed our walk. 

Patrocleas was the first to speak. " Well, what 
shall we do ? " he asked. " Shall we drop the ques- 
tion, or answer the arguments of the speaker in his 
absence as we should have done in his presence ? " 

Timon replied : " Why, if he had escaped after 
striking us with a real shaft , a we could not have left 
it sticking in us. We are told, indeed, that Brasidas 
plucked the spear from his body and with that very 
weapon struck and killed the thrower. 6 It is, how- 

° Cf. the proverbial expression jSaAcov fcvgeadai 0U1 (do you, 
having cast your weapon, think to get off scot-free ?), Leutsch 
and Schneidewin, Paroem. Gr. i, p. 52, ii, p. 18, and Plato, 
Symposium, 189 b. 

5 Cf. Mor. 190 b and 219 c. 

F Z 2 I have -e& at 549 b ; G 3? F have -e« at 553 d. The error 
spread from 549 b, where all except D W 2 have -covs for -iov. 

5 TTapOVTOS KCLI fJLT) TTapOVTOs] TTdpOVTOS G 1 hki. 

6 dnoKpivcoficOa X 3 K 2 M Vv Y 2 : vnoKpivcofieQa (so N 2 ) or 

VTTOKpw6fJ.€0a (v7TOKpi,v6{JL€da N 1 ). 

181 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(548) epyov eort Stfrrov rovs cltottov rj i/jevhrj Xoyov els 
rjlJLas acfrevras, dp/cet Se avrois irplv aifjaadou rrjv 
$6£av av eV/JdAoj/xev." 1 

It ovv, €(pr)v eyco, {jLaALora k€klvt)K€v vjjlols 
tcov elprjjjLevcov; ddpoa yap 7roAAd /cat /caret rdijiv 
ovSev, dXXo Se aXXa^odev avdpamos 2 tooTrep opyfj 
rivi /cat AotSopta aTrapdrrcov ajita /care^opet 3 rfjs 
TTpovoios." 

2. Kat o ^aTpo/cAe / as , , " rj Trepl tcls TipLOopLas," 

€L7T€, " TCOV TTOVqpCOV ftpa8vTr)S TOV bdlfJLOVLOV KCU 

D fJLeXXrjois e/zot So/cet /xaAtara Setvov elvac /cat v£v 
v77o rcov Adyojv tovtcov tooTTtp TrpoacjyaTos yeyova 
rfj 86£r) /cat /catvoV e/C7raAat Se rjyavaKTOW aKovcov 
Eupt7rtSot> Ae'yovTOS' 

jiteAAet, to OeXov 8* eort tolovtov (/>va€L. 

/catVot 77^09 ovdev, 4, tJkigtcl Se Trperrei irpos rovs 
TTovripovs pddvfjiov efvat tov #edv, ou padvpuovs 
ovras avrovs ov8e ' ajifioXizpyovs ? tou /ca/cco? 
TTOieiVy aXX d^vrdrais oppicus vrro tcov Tradcov cf)€po- 
fjuevovs 77009 Ta? aSi/ctas\ /cat /xt^v ' to apLVvaodai 
too 5 TTadelvJ cos QovkvSlStjs <f>rjGLV, ' otl iyyvTaTCo 
E Kelfxevov ' evdvs dvTL<f>pdTT€i ttjv 686v toZs irrl 
rrXeiaTOV evpoovarj ttj /ca/cta ^poj/xeVo t?. ovOev 
yap ovtco XP*°s* <*>$ T ° T V S St/c^s* VTTepr\\L£pov 
yivd/xevov dadevrj /xev Tai? eArn'ox iroiel /cat Tarretvov 

1 eV£aAco/*€v] c/cjSaAAa^cv Ry N 2 (-o- N 1 ) M Y. 

2 avOpcDTTos 1 and Dtibner (o avOpconos D Ry K) : avdpamos. 

3 Kare<f>6p€l\ KaT€<f>pOV€t, G 1 X lmg F lm s. 

4 ou0eV] ouflcV Capps. 

5 to a^ivvaoBai (dfivveadat, hki) to)] to dfivvaaOai tov D Ry 

182 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 548 

ever, no business of ours to strike back at those who 
have let fly at us an absurd or false argument ; for 
us it is enough to get rid of the doctrine before it 
becomes lodged in us." 

" What did you find most disturbing in his speech ? " 
I asked. " For it was with a jumble of disordered 
remarks, picked up here and there, that the fellow 
pelted providence, lashing out at it the while as if in 
an outburst of scurrilous fury." 

2. Patrocleas replied : V The delay and procrastina- 
tion of the Deity in punishing the wicked appears to 
me the most telling argument by far, and at this 
moment these words of his have made me fresh and 
new, as it were, in my old feeling of exasperation. 
Yet that feeling dates from long ago, when it would 
chafe me to hear Euripides a say : 

Apollo lags ; such is the way of Heaven. 

But God should be indolent in nothing b ; least of all 
does it become him to be so in dealing with the 
wicked, who are not indolent themselves or * post- 
pones of their work ' c of doing wrong ; nay, their 
passions drive them headlong to their crimes. Further- 
more, as Thucydides d says, when * requital follows 
closest on the injury ' it at once blocks the path of 
those who are carried farthest by their successful 
facility in vice. For no debt as it falls overdue so 
weakens the cheated victim in his hopes and breaks 

a Orestes, 420. b Of. Plato, Laws, 901 e. 

c Hesiod, Works and Days, 413. d iii. 38. 1. 

g2mg k 1ss . The mss. of Thucydides are divided between 
dfjivvaaOai to> and afjivveodcu ra>, both anarthrous, Cf. also 
551 a, infra. 

8 XP* 0S ] XP €CUJ D 1 v Y 1 . 

183 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(548) tov dStKovfievov, au^et Se dpaavrrjTL Kal roXfJurj 
tov [loyQr^pov at S' vtto X € ^P a ro ^ ToXpLcofievois 1 
arravrcjoai Tijicopiai Kal tcov /xeXXovTCOv elalv 
€7nax€a€LS aStK^ixdrcov kcu /xaAtara to Trapyyyopovv 
tovs Trerrovdoras eveanv avTals. cos e/zotye kcu 
to tov HiavTos ivoyXel iroXXaKis dvaXa^dvovTi 
F tov Xoyov €(f>rj yap, cos eot/ce, Trpos tivcl irovrfpov 

COS OV 0€OL€V fJLTJ OV OCp OlKTJV, aAAa JJL7] OVK OLVTOS 

iTTihrj. tl ydp MeaarjviOLS o^eAos rots' Trpoavaipe- 

0€LGI T7JS 'AplOTOKpaTOVS TlfJLCOpLCLS, OS TTpoSoVS 

Trjv irrl KdVoaj 2 [xayrpt kcu Xadcbv vnep €lkoglv 

€TTj ACat TT&VTCl TCLVTCL fidOlXeVOClS ' ApKCtScOV VGT€pOV 

€§cok€v SiKTjv cfrcopaOets, ol Se ovk€t rjcrav; fj rtVa 
'OpxojJievLCov tols dirofiaXovGi TTcuSas Kal (f)tXovs 

KCU OLK€LOVS VTTO AvKLGKOV TTpoSoOeVTOLS 7]V€yK€ 

Trapapvdiav rj xP°* vol S varepov ttoXXoZs di/ja/Jbivrj 
549 voaos /cat 3 KaTavepLrjdeiGa tov gcojjlcltos, o? 4 aet 

{SdlTTCOV KCU ^p^COV €t? TOV TTOTafJLOV COfXOGe KCU 
KaT7]pCtGaTO GOLTTrjVCU, TTpoSoVTOS OLVTOV Kal dSiKrj- 

GavTos; tcls ftev ydp 'AdrjvrjGi 6 tcov ivaycov gco- 
jjiaTCOV pii/j€ts Kal veKpcov itjopiGfjLovs ov8e iraihcov 
TraiGlv eTTtSctv 6 VTrfjptje tcov a7T0G(j>ayivTC0V eKelvcov. 

1 toXijlcoiacvols] yivofievoLS G F 1 * v Y lmg . 

2 Ka7rpa) Reiske (from Pausanias, iv. 19. 3) : Kv-rrpco (Td<f>pa> 
Aid. 2 ). 

3 vooos Kal G c X 3 F D Ry K k Vv : voaos. 

4 os] ooov D. 

5 d0rjvr)<n X 3 D S K M Y 3 : iv adrjvrjai. 

6 iTTiSeiv G X F Z Vv : ISctv. 

a Cf. Proclus, On Providence, col. 126. 12-16 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

6 Plutarch has apparently confused the treason of Aristo- 
crates at the " trench " (for which cf. Polybius, iv. 33. 5-6 % 
and Pausanias, iv. 17. 2, viii. 5. 13) with the victory of Aris- 

184 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 548-549 

his spirit, and so strengthens the wrongdoer in con- 
fidence and boldness, as the debt of merited pun- 
ishment a ; whereas the chastisement that at once 
confronts audacious acts both serves as a check to fu- 
ture crimes and is of greatest comfort to the injured. 
Hence, as I consider the argument, I am repeatedly 
plagued by the saying of Bias. We are told that he 
remarked to a certain scoundrel : * I do not fear that 
you will fail to get your deserts, but that I shallnot 
live to see it. ' For what did the punishment of Aristo- 
crates profit those Messenians who were already slain, 
when, after betraying them in the battle at the Cairn 
of the Boar & and escaping detection for over twenty 
years (during all which time he was king of the 
Arcadians), he was later found out and paid the 
penalty — but his victims were no more ? Or what 
comfort did those Orchomenians who had lost chil- 
dren, friends, and kin through the treason of Lyciscus 
derive from the disease that attacked him long after 
and spread over his body, when he was always dipping 
and wetting it in the river, and with an oath called 
down a curse that it should rot — after he had be- 
trayed them and done the wrong ? c As for the casting 
out at Athens of the polluted dead and banishment 
of corpses beyond the borders, these were acts that 
not even the children's children of the slaughtered 
victims lived to see. d And so Euripides e is absurd 

tomenes at the Cairn of the Boar (for which cf. Pausanias, iv. 
19. 3). 

c Lyciscus and his fate are otherwise unknown ; both text 
and translation are doubtful. Perhaps the destruction of 
Minyan Orchomenus in 364 b.c. is meant, for which cf. 
Diodorus, xv. 79. 5. 

d Cf. Life of Solon, chap. xii. 3-4 (84 c), and Thucydides, 
i. 126.' 12. e Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. t Eur. 979. 

185 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(549) o6ev JLvpL7TL§y]s cltottos €ls aTTOTpoTTrjv KaKias rov- 
tols ^pd>ix€vos' 

OVTOl TTpOOeXOoVO* 7) AlKT) G€, pjT] TpeGTjS, 

TTolaei rrpos rjircip ovSe rtov dXXcov fipoTcov 
tov aStKov, aAAa olya /cat j3pa§€t 7roSt 
B GTtiypvoa [idp\\sei x tovs kolkovs orav 7vyr\. 

ov yap aAAa otjttov, tclvtcl Se aura tovs kolkovs 2 
cIkos euTiv iavTots oLCLKeAevopLevovs /cat rrapey- 
yvcovTas i7Ti)(€ipeXv 3 tols napavoprcwLaoiv y cos ttjs 

CLOLKLCLS TOV [JL€V KCLpTTOV €l)6vS (hpCLLOV KCLl TTpOVTTTOV 

aTToSiSovarjs, ttjv Se Tifxajptav oifje /cat 7toXv ttjs 
airoXavaecos KaOvorepovaav." 

3. Taura rod HarpoKXeov 8ieX96vTOS emfiaXchv 

O UAi;/X77t^OS', 6K6LVO 0€, €L7T€V, CO LlaTpOKA€a, 

7T7]Xlkov at rrepl ravra rod delov Siarpipal /cat 
fAeXArjoeLS drorrov e^ovoiv, on rrjv ttlgtiv rj jSpaSu- 
ttjs acfxiipel 5 ttjs TTpovoioSy /cat to firj Trap* e/caorov 
C aSt/aj/xa tols Trovrjpols irraKoXovdovv kclkov, dAA' 
varepov, els arv^rniaros x°^P av Ttde/jievoL /cat avft- 
(fropdv, ov ripujopLav, ovopbd^ovres ovdev cbfieXovvrai, 
rols /xev ovfJLpaivovoiv d)(d6(JL€voL, toZs Se TTeirpa- 
ypbivois fJLrj fjierafxeXofjievoL. KaOdnep ydp lttttov rf 
7rapa^p^jLta to TTTalcrpia /cat rrjv dpbapriav Slcokovgcl 
TrXrjyr) /cat vv^is eiravopdoZ /cat /xeTayet irpos to 
Seov, ol Se vorepov /cat fiera xpovov orrapayfiol 
/cat dvaKpovoecs /cat Trepafjo^rjaets irepov twos 
eVe/ca pL&XXov yiveodai hoKovoiv 1 rj StSaovcaAta?, 
St' o to Xvttovv dvev tov Traiheveiv e^ovaiv, ovtojs 

1 fidpi//€i] ixdpTTT€i Stobaeus. 

2 kolkovs] kclkws G X 1 F Z 1 k ac N. 

3 €Tnx€ip€LV M 2 : eVt^atpetv. 

186 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 549 

when he would deter us from evil with thoughts like 
these : 

Not to thy face, fear not, nor any villain's 
Will Justice deal the fatal blow ; but soft 
And slow of tread, she will, in her own season, 
Stalking the wicked, seize them unawares. 

Why, these and none other are the very thoughts 
with which the wicked are likely to encourage and 
incite one another when they set out to do wrong — 
that injustice yields at once a timely and certain 
harvest, while punishment comes tardily and far too 
late to prevent the enjoyment.' ' 

3. When Patrocleas had done Olympichus added : 
" But there is another absurdity, Patrocleas — and 
how great it is ! — involved in all this procrastination 
and delay of the Deity : that his slowness destroys 
belief in providence, and the wicked, accounting the 
ill that does not follow close upon each separate mis- 
deed, but comes later, ill luck, and naming it not 
punishment, but mischance, derive no profit : they 
are to be sure distressed by the consequences, but 
feel no regret for the act. For just as the blow or 
prick that at once follows a misstep or fault serves to 
correct a horse and put him in the right path, whereas 
if you belabour the animal, pull at the reins, and crack 
the whip later, when time has elapsed, such action, 
being felt to have some other purpose than that of 
training, torments without instructing, in like manner 

4 '0\vijl7tlxos Bern, (from Mor. 654< b) : oXv/jlttlkos (oXv/jlttlclkos 
is found at 561 b in X 1 F v ; at 563 b in X*v F S). 

5 acfxupet] d(f>atp€LTai F D. 

6 ittttov 7] Reiske : rj iroivr) rj {ttolvt] r) X 3 ). 

7 yiveaOai Sokovctiv nos : hoKOvot (-v N) yiveodai (from yeve- 
oBai G 4 ). Pohlenz suggests that the hiatus might be removed 
by deleting fj 8i8a<7 KaXtas. 

187 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

' _J Tj Kdd* €KOLGTOV COV TTTdUl Kol TTpOTTLTTrei 1 paTTL^O- 
jJL€V7] KCLL OLVaKpOVOjJL€V7] Tip KoXd^eoO ai KOLKLa [JLoXtS 

dv yevoiro ovvvovs Kal raTrecvr) Kal Kardcfrofios 
rrpos rov dedv cos ecpearcora roZs avdpcoTTtvois Trpd- 
yfjLaoi Kal rradeoiv 6v)( VTrepiqpLepov oiKaicorrjv r) 
oe arpe\xa Kal [ipaoeZ ttoSI kclt HvpLTTiSrjv /cat cos 
ervyev erriTTLTrTOvaa Alky) roZs TrovrjpoZs rep clvto- 
fjbdrcp /xaAAov r) rep Kara irpovoiav opioiov eyei ro 
TreTrAavrjpLevov Kat VTreprjfjLepov Kal draKrov. chore 
ovx dpco ri xprjoipiov eveariv rols oipe Srj rovrois 
E aXeZv Xeyopuevois jjlvXols rcov Oecov Kal ttolovol rrjv 
Slktjv dfiavpav Kal rov cf)6j3ov e^trrjXov rrjs KaKias." 
4. 'PrjOevrcov ovv rovrcov /ca/xou TTpos avroZs 2 
ovros, o 1 tpbcov, Trorepov, eiTrev, eTnoco Kai 
avros rjSrj rep Xoyco 3 rov KoXotpcova rrjs aTTopias, rj 
TTpos ravra edaco Trporepov avrov oiaycovloaodai ; " 
:t TY yap/' etprjv eyco, ■ Set ro rpirov erreveyKeZv 
KvpLa Kal TrpocTKaraKXvoat rov Xoyov, el rd rrpcora 
pbrj Svvaros ear at oicooaodai purjSe aTrocfivyeZv ey- 
KXrjfJbara; '■ 

Yipcorov ovv, coarrep a<£' ear las apypp^evoi 
rrarpepas rrjs TTpos ro deZov evXafieias rcov ev* 

1 TTpOTTL7TT€L F 1 hki N M 1 Y 1 : 7TpOa7TL7TT€L. 

2 avrols Reiske (c/. Mor. 1100 e) : avrov or avrov (iavrov 
S). 

3 Xoycx) G X F Z I M ac : Xoyiafjucp. 

4 eV X 3 hki Vv : fiev iv. 

a Cf. 549 b, supra. 

b A reference to the proverb 

oipe 0€a>v aXeovoi /xuAoi, aXiovoi ok Xeirrd 
" The mills of the gods are slow in grinding, but grind fine," 
188 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 549 

a viciousness that at every stumble and plunge is 
whipped and pulled up by punishment might at last 
become circumspect and humble and fearful of God 
as one who in his government of the affairs and pas- 
sions of men is no procrastinating justicer ; whereas 
the Justice that falls upon the wicked with soft tread 
and slow and in her own season, as Euripides a says, 
resembles the fortuitous rather than the providential 
in the want of certainty, of timeliness, and of order. 
I accordingly fail to see the good in that proverbial 
slow grinding of the mills of the gods, & which obscures 
the fact of punishment and allows the fear of wicked- 
ness to fade." 

4. I was pondering these remarks when Timon 
said : " Shall I now speak in my turn and burden the 
argument with the crowning difficulty, or shall I first 
allow it to fight it out with these objections ? " 

" Why bring on the ' third wave,' " c said I, " and 
swamp the argument further, if it proves unable to 
repel or escape the first charges ? " 

" First, then, beginning as from our ancestral 
hearth d with the scrupulous reverence of the philo- 

or in Longfellow's version of Friedrich von Logau : 

V Though the mills of God grind slowly, yet they grind 
exceeding small ; 
Though with patience he stands waiting, with exactness 
grinds he all." 
c The " first wave " is the speech of Patrocleas, the 
M second " that of Olympichus, and the " third " the speech 
of Timon (556 e — 557 e, infra). For the expression " third 
wave " cf. Plato, Republic, 472 a ; the personification of the 
argument is also Platonic. 

d 'A^' iarias dpxofievoi (" beginning with the hearth ") is 
a proverbial expression for beginning with first things first. 
Cf. Mor. 93 e, 948 b, 1074 e, and Leutsch and Schneidewin, 
Paroem. Or. i, pp. 14. 9, 385. 14, ii, pp. 62. 3, 321. 5. 

189 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(O^y; 'AKaSrjfita </>iAocro(/>cov , to puev ojs elSores tl rrepl 
tovtojv Xeyeiv 1 d(f)oaiojo6pLe6a. rrXeov ydp eon 
tov rrepl /jlovglkcov dpiovoovs Kal rroXepuKcov aorpa- 
revrovs hiaXeyeoOai to ra dela Kal tcz 2 SatpiovLa 
rrpdypbara hiauKorrelv dvOpojrrovs ovras, olov are- 
Xvovs reyyirajv Scdvoiav drro 86£r]s Kal vrrovoias* 
Kara to etKos pLenovras. ov ydp larpov puev 
ISiojTrjv ovra au/xjSaAciv 4 XoytapLov, ojs rrporepov 
ovk erepuev, aAA vorepov, ovo eypes eKavcrev, 
dXXd orjfJLepov, epyov earl, rrepl OetJov 8e dvrjrov 
pdSiov rj /3ej3aiov elrrelv dXXo rrXr)v otl tov Kaipov 
550 elhojs aptora rrjs rrepl ttjv kolkiclv larpeias ojs 

(fcappLCLKOV tKaOTCQ 7TpOO(j)€p€L TTjV KoXcLOLV, OVT€ 

pueyeOovs puerpov kolvov ovre y^povov eva kolI tov 
avrov errl rravrajv eyovaav. 1 otl ydp rj rrepl ifjvx?}v 8 
larpela, Slktj 8e kclI Sikcuoovvt) rrpooayopevopbevrj , 
rraorcov eari Teyyojv pLeyLorrrj, rrpos puvpiois erepois 
kolI HlvSapos epLaprvpTjcrev, ' dpiGToreyyav ' dva- 
KaXovpievos tov dpypvra koX Kvpiov drrdvTcov deov, 
ojs $r) Slktjs ovra Srjpaovpyov, fj rrpoar]Kei to rrore 
koX rrcos Kal p^eypi rroaov KoXaareov eKaarov rcov 
rrovrjpcjv opit.eiv. Kal Tavrrjs (f)7]crl rrjs Teyyrjs 6 

1 rrepl tovtcjv Xeyeiv G X F Z I : Xeyeiv rrepl tovtojv. 

2 Kal ra, G X F Z I : /cat. 

3 viTovoias Meziriacus : hiavolas (ayvoias Post). 

4 ovfJLpaXcTv] GVfx^dXXeiv G 1 X 1 F Z I. 

5 ouS' e X des Bern. : ovoe x 6es (ovoe X des X 1 F k N 1 ). 

6 eKavcrev Klostermann : eXovaev (eXvaev K C). 

7 e X ovaav G 3? X 3 hki M 1 Vv Y 2 : e X ovaa. 

190 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 549-550 

sophers of the Academy for the Deity, we shall dis- 
avow any pretension to speak about these matters 
from knowledge. For it is presumptuous enough for 
those untrained in music to speak about things musi- 
cal, and for those of no military experience about 
war ; but it is more presumptuous for mere human 
beings like ourselves to inquire into the concerns of 
gods and daemons, where we are like laymen seeking 
to follow the thought of experts by the guesswork 
of opinion and imputation. It cannot be that while 
it is hard for a layman to conjecture the reasoning 
of a doctor — why he used the knife later and not 
before, and cauterized not yesterday but to-day — it 
should be easy or safe for a mortal to say anything 
else about God than this : that he knows full well 
the right moment for healing vice, and administers 
punishment to each patient as a medicine, a punish- 
ment neither given in the same amount in every case 
nor after the same interval for all. a For that the cure 
of the soul, which goes by the name of chastisement 
and justice, 6 is the greatest of all arts, c Pindar d has 
attested with countless others, when he invokes the 
god who is ruler and sovereign of the world as him 
* of noblest art,' intimating that he is artificer of 
justice, which has the task of determining for each 
evil-doer the time, the manner, and the measure of 
his punishment. And of this art Minos son of Zeus 

° Cf. Proclus, On Providence, col. 128. 8-14 ; 127. 16-20 ; 
132. 7-19 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

b Perhaps an allusion to Plato, Gorgias, 464 b. 

c Cf. Proclus, On Providence, col. 127. 38-40 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

d Frag. 57 (ed. Schroeder), quoted also in Mor. 618 b, 
807 c, 927 b, and 1065 e. The god is Zeus. 

8 *A U X 1 7*' G X F Z hki Vv : t^v ^XW* 

191 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(550) UXdrojv vlov ovra rov Aids yeyovevai rov Mivco 

B jJLaOrjrrjv, cos ov Svvarov ev rols Slkcllois Karopdovv 

oi3S' aloddveodai rod Karopdovvros rov jjltj fxadovra 

firjSe KTrjordfievov rrjv eTnarrjjjirjv. ov8e yap ovs 

dvOpconoc vofjiovs ' ridevrai ro eiiXoyov drrXcos 

hyOVOl KCLl TTdVTOTC (fxUVOpieVOV, dXX €VLCL KOLl SoK€L 

KopuSfj yeXola rcov irpoorayiidrcov. olov ev Aa/ce- 
haipiovi KrjpvTTOvaiv oi e<f>opoi iraptovres evOvs els 
rrjv dpxY)v iir) rp€(/)€LV puvoraKa koX TreideoOai TOLS 
vojJLOLS cos fir) -^aXeTrol ooolv clvtols' c Pco/xatot 8e, 
ovs dv els eXevdepiav dcfyaipcovrai, Kapcfios avrcov 
Xerrrov emfidXXovoi rols aoopbaoiv orav 8e 8ta- 
OrjKas ypdcfxxiOLVy erepovs piev diroXeiTrovGi KXrjpo- 
C vopiovs, erepots 1 8e ttcoXovgl rds ovolcls* o SoKei 
TrapdXoyov elvai. TrapaXoycorarov 8e to rov 2d- 
Xcovos, drifjiov elvai rov ev araaet rroXecos pbrjSerepa 
pbepcSi TTpoadepbevov pLT]8e avaraaidaavra. /cat 
b'Xcos 770 A Act? dv tls e^eiiToi vopuov droTTias firjre 
rov Xoyov eyoov rov vopboderov pscyre rrjv alrlav 
ovviels eKaarov rcov ypa^opuevcov. ri 8r) Oavfia- 
gtov, el, rcov dvOpcorrivcov ovrcos rjfuv ovrcov 8va- 
OecoprjTOJV, ovk evrropov eon to rrepl rcov decov 
elirelv cotlvl Xoyco rovs piev varepov, rovs 8e npo- 
repov rcov dfiapravovrcov KoXd^ovoiv ; 

1 erepois Amyot : ercpoi. 

° Cf. Pseudo-Plato, Minos, 319 b-e, and Plato, Laws, 
624 a-b ; cf. also Mor. 776 e. 

b Cf. Aristotle, Frag. 539 (ed. Rose), and Plutarch, Lives 
of Agis and Cleomenes, chap. xxx. 3 (808 d) and Coram, on 
Hesiod, Frag. 72 (vol. vii, p. 88 f. Bern.). 

c The stalk is the festuca, for which cf. Gaius, Inst. iv. 16. 

192 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 550 

became a student, as Plato a says, who suggests by 
this that it is impossible to succeed in questions of 
justice or to recognize success in another if one has 
not studied and mastered the science. For even in 
the laws set up by man the reasonableness is not 
immediately and at all times apparent ; indeed, some 
human ordinances appear downright absurd. Thus 
in Lacedaemon, as soon as they take office, the ephors 
make a proclamation forbidding the wearing of mous- 
taches and enjoining men to obey the laws, that the 
laws may not be harsh with them b ; while the Romans 
on emancipating a slave touch him with a light stalk, c 
and again, when they write their wills, appoint one 
set of persons as heirs but sell their property to 
another, a procedure which appears absurd. d Most 
absurd of all is Solon's law, that anyone who does not 
take sides and join in the quarrel when the city is 
rent by factions shall be disfranchised/ And in 
general, many oddities in laws could be brought up 
by one who did not know the principle that guided 
the lawgiver and did not see the cause of each enact- 
ment. What wonder, then, when we find it so hard 
to account for human rules, that it should be no easy 
' matter to tell in the case of the gods on what prin- 
ciple they punish some wrongdoers later and others 
earlier ? 

d Gaius (Inst. ii. 102 f.) explains that in one kind of Roman 
will the testator designated in addition to the heirs an emptor 
or purchaser, who by a fictitious sale received the estate as 
his own property (mancipio), with full authority to dispose 
of it according to the wishes of the deceased. The " pur- 
chaser " would therefore act as an executor, protecting the 
interest of the heirs, and deriving his legal authority from 
the " sale." 

e Cf. Life of Solon, chap. xx. 1 (89 a-b), and Mor. 823 f, 
965 d. 

VOL. VII ii 193 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(550) 5. " Taura 8e ovk aTToSpdoecos Trpocfxivis ioTiv, 
dXXd ovyyvcopbrjs airrjcrLs, ottcos 6 Xoyos olov els 
Xipueva kclI Kara(/)vyrjv dTTofiXenojv evdapoeoTepov 
i£avacf)epr) ra> ttiOclvcq rrpos rrjv diroplav. 

D ' 'AAA(Z GK07T€LT€ TTpiOTOV OTL KCLTO. IlAaTCOVa 

rrdvTOJV kclXwv 6 deos eavTOV iv pbecrop 7rapdSeLyp,a 

dlfJLCVOS T7]V dv9pC07TLV7]V dp€TTjV, i^OfJLOLWGLV OVOCLV 

dfJLOjayeTTCjos rrpos clvtov, iv8tSa>otv tols eireodai 
deep hvvapbevois . Kal yap rj Trdvrojv <f>vois y draKros 
ovgol, ravrrjv €(?x e T W Q-PXV V T °^ ^Ta^aXXetv kclI 
yeveodac 1 Kocrpios, opboionqri kclI pcede^ei tlvl rrjs 

7T€pl TO 0€LOV ISeaS KCLI dpeTTjS' Kol TTjV Ol/jlV aVTOg 2 

ovtos dvrjp 3 dvdipat (f)7]alv rrjv <f>vaiv iv rjpuv oiroos 
vtto deas tcov iv ovpavcp (j)epopieva>v koX BavpLaros 
doTrd^eodai* Kal dyarrav iOt^opbevr] to €voyy)p.ov rj 
ifjvX*) Kat T€Taypi€vov aTTexOdvTjTCU tols dvappio- 
E gtois koX TrXavrjTols rrdOecri Kal (fyevyrj to elKjj kclI 
cbs eTVftev ojs KaKias kclI 7rXrjpipLeXelas aTrdorjs ye- 
veoiv. ov ydp ioTiv o tl piel^ov dvdpojrros diroXav- 
eiv deov 7T€cf>vK€v rj to pupLrjoei /cat Scoj^ei tcov iv 
iKeivcp KaXcov koX dyadcov els dpeTrjv KadtOTaaOat. 
" At' 8 Kal tols 7Tovr]poLS iv xpovop kclI axoXatojs 

1 fjLtrapdMeiv Kal yeviodai G 1 X 1 Z I N M 1 Vv Y CW 1 : 
/xerajSaAetV Kal yeveoOai G 3 X 3 F D Ry M 2 W 3 (fierapdWciv 
Kal yiveaOai hki). 

2 avros nos (o avros Wyttenbach) : avros. 

3 dvrjp] 6 avrjp K (avrjp Diibner). 

4 aoTrd&odai G 1 X 3 F D N 2 Vv Y 2 : doTrd^rai (doirdt,r)rai 
G 4 Ry hki M C). 

° Cf. Theaetetus, 176 e. 

6 Republic, 613 a-b, Theaetetus, 176 b. 

c The maxim " follow God " was attributed to Pythagoras 
(cf. Stobaeus, vol. ii, p. 29. 16 Wachsmuth) ; cf. also Plato, 
Laws, 716 b, and Phaedrus, 248 a. 

194 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 550 

5. " These remarks are not a pretext for evasion, 
but a plea for indulgence, that the argument, as 
though with a haven and refuge in view, may the 
more boldly in its bark of plausibility keep head 
against the difficulty. 

" Consider first that God, as Plato a says, offers 
himself to all as a pattern of every^'exeeltenee, thus 
rendering human virtue, which is in some sort an 
assimilation to himself, 6 accessible to all who can 
' follow God.' c Indeed this was the origin of the 
change whereby universal nature, disordered before, 
became a ' cosmos ' d : it came to resemble after a 
fashion and participate in the form and excellence of 
God. e The same philosopher says further that nature 
kindled vision in us / so that the soul, beholding the 
heavenly motions and wondering at the sight, should 
grow to accept and cherish all that moves in stateli- 
ness and order, and thus come to hate discordant and 
errant passions and to shun the aimless and hap- 
hazard as source of all vice and jarring error g ; for 
man is fitted to derive from God no greater blessing 
than to become settled in virtue through copying 
and aspiring to the beauty and the goodness that 
are his. 

" Hence it is that he is slow and leisurely in his 

d That is, " order." Cf. Life of Dion, chap. x. 2 (962 b), 
and Plato, Politicus, 273 b. 

e Cf Plato, Timaeus, 29 e — 30 a, and Plutarch, Mor. 
1014 b-c. 

/ Cf. Mor. 958 e. Plato does not use the word " kindled " 
(for which cf. Timaeus Locrus, chap, xi) in describing the 
framing of the eyes (Timaeus, 45 b ; cf. 39 b) ; further, he 
assigns the framing of the eyes to the lesser gods and not to 
nature. 

9 Cf. Plato, Timaeus, 39 b, 47 a-c, and Proclus, On Pro- 
vidence, col. 130. 27-36 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

195 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(550) rrjv 8lkt]v imrfflrjaLV, ovk avros riva rov ra^u 

/coAa£etv ajxapriav hehiojs r) /xeravotav, aAA' y]jxcx)V 

to rrepl ra? TLfiajpLas drjpicoSes /cat Xdfipov acfxiipcov 

F /cat SiSduKajv jjirj ovv opyfj 1x778' ore /xaAtora <f>Xe- 

yerau /cat cr<£a8a£et ' 

7rr)8a)V 6 dvpuos Ttov cf>p€va)v avojrepa) 

Kaddirep Siipav rj rrelvav aTTOTTipLTTXavTas irriTTrjSav 
rots XeXvTTTjKoaiv, aAAa jJupLOVfjievovs rrjv €K€lvov 
Trpaonqra /cat ttjv 1 jjLeXXrjaLV, iv rdtjei /cat pucr 
ifjLjjLeXelas, 2 rov rJKLara /xeravota 7TpoaoLa6fjL€vov 
Xpovov exovras gvjjl^ovXov, arrreadai rrjg St/079. 
vSoltl yap rerapayfievq) TrpooireGovra xprjaOat St' 
d/cpaatav rjrrov eart /ca/cov, ojs HojKpdrrjs eXeyev, 
551 tj doXepov ovra /cat StdVAeaj rov Xoyiapiov opyrjs 
/cat piavias y rrplv rj KaraarrjvaL /cat yeveodai 
KaOapoVj ifji^opetaOai ripLCopiag ovyyevovs /cat 
6fio(f)vXov aebpLCLTOS. ov yap ' iyyvrdra) to dp,v- 
vaodai rov z TradelvJ cos ®ovkv8l8t]s eXeyev, aAAa 
fi&XXov aTTCordra) * Ketfievov ' aVoAa/xjSdVet to irpoo- 
rJKov. cbs yap 6 dvpios Kara rov MeXdvOtov 

t<x Setva TTpdrret rds (frpevas /xerot/c terns, 

ovtojs /cat 6 XoytapLos rd St/cata Trpdrrei /cat /xerpta 
rrjv opyrjv /cat rov dvpuov eKirohojv Oepievos. odev 
rjixepovvraL Kal rols dvOpcoTrivois rrapaSeiypLaoLV, 

1 /cat T77V D : t^v (t€ /cat G c Ry). 

2 ji€T y ifjijjLcXeias X 3 : /xera/zcAeta (e/zitcActa D). 

3 to dfivvaadat rod G X F Z I Ry : rov dfxvvaadai to (to 
ajjivvaoQai tcu D). 

a Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespota, 390. 
b Cf Proclus, On Providence, coll. 130. 34-131. 7 (ed. 
Cousin 2 ), and the Life of Pericles, chap, xviii. 2 (163 b). 

196 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 550-551 

punishment of the wicked : not that he fears for 
himself, that by punishing in haste, he may be in- 
volved in error or remorse, but because he would 
remove from us all brutishness and violence in the 
infliction of punishment, and would teach us not to 
strike out in anger at those who have caused us pain, 
or when in its fiercest fever and convulsion 

Our rage o erleaps our wits, ° 

as if we were appeasing thirst or hunger, but to 
imitate his mildness and delay and resort to chastise- 
ment with all due order and propriety, with Time as 
our counseller, who will be least likely to involve us 
in regret. 5 For to precipitate ourselves upon troubled 
water and from lack of self-control to drink it, is less 
of an evil, as Socrates c said, than while we are turbid 
and clouded in our judgement with rage and fury, 
before becoming settled and clear, to glut ourselves 
with vengeance on a being of our own kindred and 
race. d For it is not true, as Thucydides e said, that 
[ when requital follows closest on the injury ' it then 
receives its due ; it rather does so when farthest 
1 removed. ' For as anger, in the words of Melanthius/ 

Drives prudence from her seat, then does his worst, 

so reason likewise acts with justice and meo^ration 
only after putting r-agfe and anger out of the way. 9 ' 
For this reason even human patterns and examples 

c The source has not been identified. 
d All men are akin : cf. Mor. 601 b, and note. 
e iii. 38. 1 ; quoted 548 d-e, supra. 

1 Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Melanthius, I ; quoted also 
in Mor. 453 e. 

9 Cf Frag. On Anger (vol. vii, p. 138. 4-6 Bern.). 

197 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

' ij clkovovt€£ ojs TlXdrcov re rrjv fiaKTrjplav avareiva- 

fJL€VOS TO) 7Tai8l TToXvV eOTTf XpOVOV, OJS dVTOS €(/)rj , 
TOV 0VJJLOV KoXd^COV, KClX 'Ap^Ta?, OLK€TCOV TIVOL 

ttXt] fifjieXe tav iv dypcp Kal dra^tav Karajxadcov, 
elra iavrov avvaLouavopievos ipLTradeoTepov e^ovTOS 
Kal TpayvTtpov 7rpos avrovs, ov8ev iiroir\oev dXX 
tj tooovtov, aTTiajv, ' eurir^etre/ elrrev, ' on opyi- 
£o/xat vpuv.' eirrep ovv dv8po)v Xoyoi pbvrjpiovevo- 
fievoi Kal Trpd^eis Xeyofievai to Tpa^y Kal o<f)o8p6v 
6,rrapvTOVOL rfjs opyrjs, ttoXv pu&XXov €lkos rjpLas 
tov deov opojvras, a) 8eos ov8ev ov8e /xcTavota 
TTpdyjiaros 1 ovSevos, Spews iv rep pueXXovTi rrjv 
C Tijxcopiav KaraTidepLevov Kal Trepifievovra tov XP°~ 
vov, evXafiels ire pi rd rocavra yiveadai Kal detov 
rjyeXodai puopiov dperfjs rrjv Trpaorrjra Kal rrjv 
jjLeyaXoifjvxLav 2 rjv 6 deos evSeLKwrac, rep puev 
KoXd^eiv oXtyovs iiravopdovoav, rep 8e jSpaSecos" 
ttoXXovs dxfieXovoav Kal vovderovaav. 

6. ' Aevrepov roivvv tovto 8 tav or] 9 copuev, a>9 at 
pcev 8iKaid)oeis at Trapa dvdpojirojv, puovov e^ovoaL 
to dvTiXvTTovv , Kal iv rep KaK&s tov 8e8paKOTa 
nadelv coTavTac, irepavripa) 8e ovk i^iKvovvTai, 
8l o toIs rjfJLapTrjKoori* kvvos 8lk7jv i<f>vXaKT0voai 

1 it pay pharos (and SO G 4 )] Trpayp^drcov G 1 X. 

2 {i€ya\oif/vx£a.v nos (or pL€yaXo<j>poovvrjv 9 cf. Pohlenz ad loc.) : 
fjieyaXoTrddetav (a variant drtdQ^iav expelled -tfivxlav). 

3 r^fxapriqKOGi Paton : dfiapTTjixaai (-v N ; dp.apTr\aaai G 1 X d 
[in an omission in X 1 ] ; dfiaprdvovcrLV yJKaai R ; dpbaprdvovaiv 
fiixaoi y). 

a Cf. Seneca, Be Ira, iii. 12. 5. In Mor. 10 d and 1108 a 
Plato turns the slave over to Speusippus for punishment ; 
Diogenes Laert. (iii. 38) has the same story, but substitutes 

198 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 551 

serve to make men gentle, when they hear that on 
raising his staff to strike his slave, Plato long remained 
motionless, * chastening ' his anger, as he said himself , a 
and that Archytas, finding the servants on his farm 
guilty of misconduct and insubordination, and there- 
upon becoming conscious that his feeling toward 
them was unduly passionate and savage, did no more 
than say on leaving : ' It is your good fortune that 
I am furious with you/ h If, then, the recollection 
of human sayings and narration of human acts can 
allay the harshness and intensity of anger, it is far 
more likely that when we see that God, who knows 
no fear or regret in anything, yet reserves his penalties 
for the future and awaits the lapse of time, we should 
become cautious in such matters, and hold the gentle- 
ness and magnanimity displayed by God a part of 
virtue that is divine, which by punishment amends 
a few, while it profits and admonishes many by the 
delay. 

6. " In the second place, let us reflect that chastise- 
ments proceeding from man do no more than requite 
pain with pain, and stop in consequence when the 
suffering has been returned upon the doer, but go no 
farther, and hence, like curs, bark at the heels of the 

Xenocrates for Speusippus. Cf. also Gnomologium Vati- 
canum 436 ab, ed. Sternbach (Wiener Studien, xi, 1889, 
p. 201), E. Zeller, Gesch. d. gr. Phil., vol. ii. I 5 , p. 434, note 
1 ; Galen, De Affectuum Dignotione, v. 21, and Proclus, On 
Providence, col. 131. 16-20 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

b Cf. Mor. 10 d ; Cicero, Tusc. Disput. iv. 36 (78), 
De Re P. i. 38 (59); Valerius Maximus, iv. 1, ext. 1 ; Lac- 
tantius, De Ira Dei, chap, xviii. 4 ; Iamblichus, De Vita 
Pythagorica, chap. xxxi. 197 ; St. Jerome, Ep. lxxix. 9 ; 
Proclus, On Providence, col. 131. 20-25 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

c Cf. Proclus, On Providence, coll. 131, 29-J32. 4 (ed. 
Cousin 2 ), 

199 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(551) KaraKoXovOovcri Kal tols npa^eis €K ttoSos imSicb- 

D kovgl' tov deov Se eiKos rjs dv icfxxTTTrjrai rfj oLKrj 

ifruxffs voaovorjs rd re Trddr] ouopav el 7777 tl /ca/z7rrd- 

jji€va irpos fierdvotav eVSi'Scocri kcu xpovov ye, ols 1 

OVK ClKpCLTOS OV§€ ' aTpeiTTOS rj KCLKia 7T€cf)VK€, 

7Tpoorop[^€iv. 2 are yap elochs ocrrjv fiolpav dperrjs 
an avrov cfrepopLevau 77/509 yeveoiv at ifsvxcd /3aSi- 
t.ovai, Kal to yevvaiov cos laxvpov avrals Kal ovk 
i^trrjXov i finely Kev, e^avOet Se tt)v Aca/a'av 770:0a 
<j)voiv, z vtto rpocf)7Jg Kal opuXlas cf)avXrjs (f)6eipo- 
\ievov, eira depairevdev eviois KaXcos aVoAa/zjSdVet 
E rrjv TrpoarjKovaav e^iv, ov iraoi KaTeireiyei rrjv 

TipLOipLaV 6/JLOLCOS, dXXd TO fJL€V dvTjKeUTOV €l)9vS 

e^elXev rod filov Kal direKoifjev cos eTepois ye Ttdv- 
tcos [iAapepov, avTCp 4 ' t€ jSAajSeocoraroi/ del avvelvai 
/xera TroviqpLas, ols Se vrr* dyvouas tov koXov 
fjiaXXov rj rrpoaipeaei tov alaxpov to dfiapTrjTLKov 
eiKos eyyeyovevat, 5 SlScool /xera/JaAAeaflai 6 xpovov, 
edv Se eTrtfxevcoac, Kal tovtols aWSoj/ce tt)v Slktjv 
ov yap rrov SeStev pur) 8ta(f)vycocnv. 

" Hkott€l Se ocrai pceTaftoXal yeyovaaiv els rjdos 

avoptov Kal fiiov fj Kal Tporros covopbdodrj to /xera- 

jSaAAov avTov Kal rjdos, cos rrXeloTOV 1 eVSuerat to 

F edos Kal KpaTei /xaAtara KaOanTOfievov. olfiai puev 

1 ye, ols] ols ye ? 

2 irpooopi^eiv Pohlenz (from " determinare " in Proclus, 
col. 132. 15 Cousin 2 ) : irpooilaveiv. 

3 TT)V KCLKLOLV TTapCL <f>VOlV GX F Zi TTGLpa <f>V(7lV TTjV KdKiaV. 

4 avrq>] aM X 1 F Z N M 1 V X V Y 1 CW 1 . 

5 eyyeyovevat] enyeyovevai G X 1 F 1 Z. 

6 fiera^aXXeadat G X 1 F 1 Z : jxera^aXeoOai (tov fxera^aXeodai 
W c ). 7 avrov is omitted by Stegmann after TrXeloTov. 

200 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 551 

offender and set out at once in pursuit of the offence ; 
whereas God, we must presume, distinguishes whether 
the passions of the sick soul to which he administers 
his justice will in any way yield and make room for 
repentance, and for those in whose nature vice is not 
unrelieved or intractable, he fixes a period of grace. a 
For inasmuch as he knows what rich endowment of 
virtue the souls carry away from him when they pro- 
ceed to birth, and how strong and indelible is their 
innate nobility — that it breaks out into vice against 
its nature, 6 corrupted by poor nurture and evil com- 
pany, but on receiving careful treatment is in some 
restored to its rightful condition — he does not ex- 
pedite punishment for all alike, but at once removes 
from life and amputates what is incurable, as constant 
association with wickedness is certainly harmful to 
others, and most harmful of all to the sufferer him- 
self c ; whereas to those whose sinfulness is likely to 
have sprung from ignorance of good rather than from 
preference of evil, he grants time for reform, but if 
they persist, these too he visits with condign punish- 
ment d ; for he need hardly fear they will escape. 

" Consider how many changes have occurred in the 
characters and lives of men ; this explains why the 
changeable part of a man's life was termed his * bent ' 
(tropos) and again his ethos (character), since habit 
(ethos) e sinks very deep, and taking firm hold, wields 
power that is very great. I fancy indeed that the 

a Cf. Philo, Be Prov. ii, p. 54 (ed. Aucher), quoted by 
Eusebius, Praep. Ev. viii. 14. 386. 

b Cf. Life of Pompey, chap, xxviii. 5 (633 d). 

c Cf. Plato, Laws, 862 e. 

d Cf. Proclus, On Providence, col. 131. 7-12 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

e This etymology of ethos is also found in Mor. 3 a and 
443 c. Cf. Aristotle, Eth. Nic. ii. 1. 1 (1103 a 17 f.). 

201 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(551) ovv kcll tov VLeKpoTTa Si(f>vd 7Tpoorayopevoai tovs 
iraXcuovs ovx, ojs evLOL XeyovoLV, €K xprjorov j8a- 
uiXecjg dyptov koX SpaKovTcoSr] yevopuevov rvpav- 
vov, dXXd tovvclvtlov ev dpxfj okoXlov ovtcl /cat 
<f)0p€p6v, effi voTepbv dp^avra TTpdcos kcll <f)i\av- 
6pa)7rcos. el Se tovt dSrjXov, dXXd TeXcova ye 
lop.ev kcll 'leptova tovs HiKeXidbras kcll UetorL- 
arparov tov ^Ittttokp&tovs otl Troviqpia KrrjoaLievoi 
552 TvpavviSas exprjoavTo TTpos dperrjv clvtclZs kcll 
TTCtpaVOLUJOS €7TL to dpx^LV eXdovTes, eyevovTO LLerptoi 
kcll SrjLLOJ(f>eXeLs dpxovres, ol Liev evvoLLLav re 
ttoXXt)v koX yrjs imLieXeiav TrapaoxovTes clvtovs re 
adxfrpovas tovs ttoXltcls koll faXepyovs £k ttoXv- 
yeXojv 1 kcll XdX(x)v KCLTCLGKevdocLVTes , TeXcuv Se 
koI TrpoTToXeLirioas 2 dpiora kcll Kparrjoag l^dxj} 
LieydXr] K.apx^]SovLCov , ov irpoTepov elprjvrjv euoLTj- 

OCLTO TTpOS CLVTOVS SeOfJLeVOVS Tj KCLL TOVTO TOLLS 

ovvOrjKCLLS TTepLXafieiv y otl ttclvoovtcll rd reKva rco 
VLpovcp KaradvovTes . ev Se MeydXr) TloXeL Av^LaSas 
B rjv Tvpavvos, etr ev clvtcq tco rvpavvelv LLera^aX- 
X6pLevos z kcll Svox^pdvas rrjv dSiKiav direSajKe fiev 
rovs vollovs toZs ttoXltclls , LLaxoLievos Se rrpos TOVS 
TToXejjLLOvs* VTrep Trjs TTCLTplSos eTTL(j)avd)s eneaev. 
el Se tls r) rvpavvov aTreKreLvev MtArtaS^v ev 
Xeppovrjcroj TTporepov, rj Ki/xcova ovvovtcl rfj dSeX(/)fj 

1 TToXvycXcov nos {ttoXvtcXojv Cobet) : iroXvyeXcov. 

2 npoTToAefi'qoas X 3 M c ? : 7Tpoo7ToX€fjii]aas» 
3 fi€TaPaXX6fji€vos] fJL€rapaX6fji€vos X 3 F M 2 v Y 2 . 

4 7TpOS TOVS 7T0XefXL0Vs] Tots 7ToX€jJLlOlS M 1 . 

° Cecrops, the first king of Attica, was half man and half 
serpent : cf, Eusebius, Chronicon, ii, p. 24. 27 (ed. Schoene), 
and Apollodorus, iii. 14. 1, with Frazer's note (in the L.C.L.). 

202 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 551-552 

ancients called Cecrops twy-formed a not, as some 
say, because from a good king he changed into a 
savage and snakelike tyrant, but on the contrary 
because he began with devious and fearsome courses 
and ended by ruling with mildness and humanity. 
Yet if this is uncertain, we at all events have know- 
ledge of Gelon and Hieron the Siceliots, and Peisis- 
tratus, son of Hippocrates ; we know that after 
coming to tyrannical power by foul means, they used 
that power nobly, 6 and after defying the laws to 
obtain sovereignty, turned out to be sovereigns that 
were rrula and beneficent to their subjects. Thus 
Hieron and Peisistratus maintained good order every- 
where, promoted husbandry, and created in the 
people themselves a new sobriety and industry in 
place of their old derisive and loquacious ways, while 
Gelon was furthermore a stout champion of his 
country, and after defeating the Carthaginians in a 
great battle refused their suit for peace until he had 
added to the treaty the provision that they should 
no longer sacrifice their children to Cronus. In 
Megalopolis Lydiadas ruled as tyrant, and it was 
in the midst of his tyrannical rule that the change in 
him occurred. Finding that he had no stomach for 
injustice, he restored their legal government to his 
countrymen, and while defending his native land 
against the enemy fell gloriously in battle. d If some- 
one had killed Miltiades earlier, when he was tyrant 
in the Chersonese, or had prosecuted and convicted 

6 Much the same point is also made in Mor. 175 a. 

c Cf. Mor. 175 a ; Theophrastus quoted in the scholia on 
Pindar, Pythian Odes, ii. 2 ; Porphyry, De Abstinentia, 
ii. 56. 

d Cf. Lives of Agis and Cleomenes, chap, xxviii. 4 (807 d), 
and Life of Aratus, chap. xxx. 1-8 (1041 a-d). 

203 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(552) Stomas elXev, rj ©epaaTOKXeovs €(f>' ols daeXyaivajv 
iKchjxa^e Kal vftpL^e St' ayopas acfrelAero rrjv 7t6Xlv 
d>S varepov 'AAKt/3taSou ypaifjapcevos, dp* ovk av 
aTTcoXcjXeao.v 1 rjfjuv ol M-apadchves, ol JLvpVfJLeSovTes, 

TO KaXoV 'ApT€fJLL(JLOV, 

66l TTalSes . AOavouojv 2 efidXovTO cfraevvdv 
_ KprjiTiS' iXevOeplas ; 

C oi)9ev yap at fieydXai <f>vo€is puiKpov €K<j>epovoiv y 
ov8e dpyei St' 6^vrr]ra to acf)o8p6v iv clvtclZs kcll 
8pao~TrjpLOV, aAA' iv ordXto Sta</>epovrat irplv els to 
fjiovifJLov kcll KaOeoTTjKos rjOos iXOelv. ojcnrep ovv 
6 yecapylas aireipos ovk av aairdaaiTo yclopav ISojv 
X6xp<'r}S epimXea) Saaeuas Kal (f)VTCov dypiojv Kal 
drjpla ttoXXol Kal pevfiaTa Kal ttoXvv e^ovaav rrrjXov, 
dXXd to) fjLefjbadrjKOTi 8iaia9dveadai Kal Kplvetv 
avTa TavTa ttjv lo~xp v Kai T ^ ttXtjOos 3 vtroSeiKwoL 
Kal TTjv ixaXaKOTTfTa ttjs yfjs, ovtojs aToira 7roAAa 

D Kal cfyavXa TTpoe^avdovcrtv at fieydXaL <j>vo€is y <hv 
rjfiels /xev evdvs to Tpa%v Kal vvttov ov (frepovTes, 
airoKOTTTeiv olofxeda Setv Kal KoXoveiv, 6 8e fieXTcwv 
KpiTrjs Kal arro tovtojv to ^piqaTov evoptbv* Kal 
yevvalov jrepipuivei Xoyov koX dpeTrjs avvepyov 
rjXiKLav, Kal ojpav fj tov olk€lov rj (jyvais Kapirov 
a77oStSa>at. 

7. lauTa [lev ovv TavTT). tov o ev AiyvTTTtp 
vojjlov dp' ovk eLKOTOJS VfJLtv drroypdifjaod at 8okovglv 

1 a7ra>AcuAeaav a ac : the rest have aTrcoXwXeiaav or corruptions 
of it. 2 'AOavaictjv Bockh : ddrjvaLCov. 

3 to TrXfjdos Wilamowitz (to fiddos Pohlenz) : TrdvO* oaa. 

4 to xprjarov ivopcov G X F Z : evopcov to xpT)<rr6v, 

a Cf Life of Cimon, chap. iv. 6 (480 f). 
304 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 552 

Cimon for incest with his sister, a or had indicted 
Themistocles and driven him from Athens, as was 
later done to Alcibiades, for his insolent revelling 
in the market-place, b should we not have lost our 
Marathons, our Eurymedons, and glorious Artemi- 
sium, 

Where Athens' sons laid freedom's bright foundation ? c 

For great natures bring forth nothing trivial, and the 
vigour and enterprise in them is too keen to remain 
inert ; nay, they drift about on heavy seas before 
coming to rest in their abiding and settled character. 6 * 
And so, as one ignorant of agriculture, on seeing a 
piece of ground overgrown with dense thickets and 
weeds, overrun with wild animals and water-courses, 
and covered with mud, e would not find it to his liking, 
while to him who has learned to discriminate and 
judge these very circumstances reveal the vigour, 
depth, and looseness of the soil, so great natures put 
forth at first many strange and villainous shoots, and 
we, at once impatient of their rough and thorny 
quality, fancy that we should clear them away and 
cut them short ; whereas the better judge discerns 
even in this their good and noble strain, and waits 
for them to reach the maturity that lends support 
to reason and virtue and the season when their nature 
yields her proper fruit. 

7. " Let us pass to another point. Do you not 
think that certain Greeks did well to copy the 

b Cf. Athenaeus, 533 d and 576 c. 

c Pindar, Frag. 77 (ed. Schroeder) ; cf. also Mor. 350 b 
and note. 

d Cf. Life of Themistocles, chap. ii. 7 (112 e) ; Life of 
Demetrius, chap. i. 7-8 (889 c) ; Plato, Republic, 491 e. 

e The same comparison occurs in Mor. 528 c-d. 

205 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(552) €vlol rcov 'EAA^vtov, os KeXevei ri)v eyKvov, av dXco 
Oavdrov, ^XP l r ^ K V (f>vXdrr€Lv ; " 
llavu fxev ovv, etpacrav. 

lttov ovv eyco, eu oe rraLOLa firj kvol tls, 
E aAAa irpa^iv rj ftovXrjv diropprjTOv els (f>cos rjXlov 
Svvaros elrf irpoayayelv XP° VC ? Kal dvahel^ai y kclkov 
tl fJL7]vvaag XavOdvov rj acorr]piov yvcbfjirjs yevo- 
fjuevos ovfjifiovXos rj xpeias evperrjs dvayKalas, ovk 
dfieivcov 6 7T€pi[jL€Lvas rfj Tipucopia* to xPV cri l JL0V T °v 
irpoaveXovros ; epiol jiev yap," e<f)r)v, 5 " SoKet." 
" Kcu rjfJLLV," 6 6 HarpOKXeas elirev. 

'Opdcos," €<f)r]v 7 ' r GKoirei yap, el Alovvolos iv 
dpxfj t t)s rvpavvihos eScoKe Slktjv, cos ovSels av 

'EAA^VCUV CpK€L YilKeXLaV, OLVaGTOLTOV VTTO Kap^T}- 

oovicov yevofjievrjv, cocnrep ouS' 'AttoXXcovlolv ouS' 

' AvCLKTOpiOV OVO€ T7JV AeVKdSiCOV X^PPOVTjOOV COKOVV 

F av 8 "EXXrjves el UeplavSpos eKoXdoOrj pbrj /xera 9 
ttoXvv xP° vov - otpLOLL 8e /ecu KacravSpa) yeveaOai 
rrjs oiKTjs dvafioXrjv ottcos al Qrjfiai ovvoiKcovrai 
irdXiv. rcov 8e tovtl to lepov crvyKaraXapovrcov 
£evcov ol ttoXXol TijjLoXeovri ovvSiapdvres els TtLKe- 
Atav, ore K.apx^ovlovs evcKr]crav Kal KareXvcrav 

1 el] eav Bern. 

2 kvol £ and Paton : Kvei G X F Z Vv ; kvtj. Kontos and 
Hatzidakis cite Kvelodai (Mor. 770 a) for the accent. 

3 ei7) Paton : fj (rj N 1 ; el Z Ry 1). 

4 rfj TLficopla nos {rrpo rrjs Tifiwptas ? Post) : rfjs TijACopias. 

5 e<j>rjv X 3 qflp : e<f>r). 

6 r)puv G 2 S Kt Y 2 : vfitv. 

7 hjyqv X 3 : e<f>r) (omitted in Ry K Y 3 ). 

8 av G X F Z Vv : omitted in the rest. 

2 el ... fir) jjLera G X F Z M 2 Vv : el fxr) . . . fiera. 

a Of. Diodorus, i. 77. 9-10 ; Aelian, Var. Hist. v. 18 ; 
206 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 552 

Egyptian law which provides that a pregnant woman 
under sentence of death shall be kept in prison until 
she has borne her child ? " a 

" Assuredly," they replied. 

" If a person," I continued, " instead of having 
children to bring into the world, should be capable 
of eventually bringing forth to the light of day some 
hidden action or plan and of publishing it for all 
to see, reporting some unnoticed evil or imparting 
salutary advice or making some discovery of general 
use, is not he who waits for the benefit before 
punishing such a person better than he who kills him 
first ? I for one think so," I said. 

" And so do we," Patrocleas replied. 

" And you are right," I said. " Consider : if 
Dionysius had met with his deserts when his tyranny 
began, no Greek would now be living in Sicily, which 
the Carthaginians would have laid waste b ; so, too, 
no Greeks would now be living in Apollonia, in 
Anactorium, or on the peninsula of Leucas, if the 
punishment of Periander had not been long deferred. 
Cassander too, I think, was reprieved so that Thebes 
might become a city again. d Of the mercenaries 
who helped to seize this temple e the greater part, 
crossing over to Sicily with Timoleon/ defeated the 
Carthaginians and overthrew the tyrants before 

Philo, Be Virtutibus, 139 ; Clement, Strom, ii. 18. 93. 2 ; 
Quintilian, Decl. cclxxvii. For a similar provision in Roman 
law cf. Julius Paulus, Sent. I tit. 12. 5, and Ulpian in the 
Digesta Iustiniani Augusti, xlviii. 19. 3. 

b Cf. the eighth Platonic Epistle, 353 a-b. 

c Cf. Proclus, On Providence, col. 134. 7-29 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

d Cassander restored Thebes (which had been destroyed 
by Alexander) in 316. 

e The temple of Apollo at Delphi : cf. 560 c, infra. 

f Cf. Life of Timoleon, chap. xxx. 6-9 (251 a-c). 

207 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(552) rag rvpavvlhas, i£d)XovTO Kal olvtol 1 kclkoI kclkcos 
vorepov. iviois yap dfieXei koX KoXaaTals erepcov 
TTovrfpchv y olov Srj/jLOKOLVots, OLTrexprjcrcLro to Sat/zo- 

VLOVy €LT €7T€Tpilfj€V, Ka9oL7T€p OLfiai TOVS TrXeiOTOVS 

rvpavvovs. coarrep yap vaivrjs x°^V KCLL fiatKrjs 
553 TTvrla, 2 Orjpiojv raXXa puapwv, iypuoi tl irpos tcls 
vooovs xPV (JL l JLOV > °vto)s eviois SrjpLOLS S^y/zou 3 
SeojJievois Kal KoXdaea)s i[AJ3aXtbv 6 deos TTiKpiav 
tlvcl Tvpdvvov 8vapLeiXiKTOv Kal rpaxvTrjra xaXenty* 
apxpvros, ov rrporepov e^etXe to Xvttovv /cat rapdV- 
tov r) to voaovv arraXXd^ai Kal Kadapat. toiovto 
Kal OaAapt? rjv * &KpayavTivois <f)dpixaKov Kal e Pa>- 
lialois Mdpios. Tilkvo)vlols 8e Kal 8iapprj8r)v 6 
deos TrpoeiTrev \xaoTiyovo\icov oetodai ttjv ttoXlv, 
6t€ TeXrjTiav 5 Traloa GTC^avovfievov iv Tlvdiois 
a^aipovfievoi l&XeovaLaiv ojs loiov ttoXlttiv oieoTra- 
B aav. dXXd HiKvayvLois {lev 'Opdayopas ycvopievos 
Tvpavvos Kal /xct' eKelvov oi nepl Mupcova Kal 
KAeiodevr) ttjv aKoXaoiav eiravaav KAea>vaioi 8e 

TT)S aVTTJS OV TVXOVT€S laTptlaS €6? TO fiTjSev 

rJKovatv. Kal 'Q/JLrjpov 8e ttov XiyovTOS aKov€T€- 

TOV yeV€T €K TTaTpOS TToXl) X e ^P 0V0 ^ VMS djJL€LVa>V 

TxavToiqv apeTTjV*' 
KaiTOi XafATTpov ov8ev ouSe eKTrpenes 7 epyov eKeuvos 

1 Kal avrol F : the rest omit. 

2 7tvtI<l] TTiTva G 1 X 3 hki. 

3 iviois SrjfJiOLs 8-qy/jiov Plasberg {Brjfiois S-qyjjLov Klostermann) : 
iviois hrjyfjiov. 4 x a ^ €7T V v G 1 X 3 R y K : Ae7rn)v. 

5 TcXrjTiav] TeXevrlav ? Wilamowitz. 

6 TravTolrjv dp€Trjv] most mss. of Homer have iravrolas 
dperds. 

1 €K7Tp€7r€s Wyttenbach : zvirpenks* 
208 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 552-553 

perishing miserably in their turn. Indeed the Deity 
has actually made use of some of the wicked as 
chastisers of others — public executioners, one might 
say — and then blasted them ; this is true, I believe, 
of most tyrants. a For as the gall of the hyena b and 
rennet of the seal c — animals unclean in all else — 
have a certain efficacy in disease, so God has fastened 
on certain peoples in need of an irritant and of 
chastening the bitter application of a tyrant's un- 
yielding harshness and a ruler's cruel anger, and has 
not removed the pain and distress until he has ex- 
pelled the disorder and purged it away. Such a medi- 
cine was Phalaris for the Agrigentines and Marius for 
the Romans. To the Sicyonians the god even de- 
clared in plain terms that the city needed ' pliers of 
the lash ' d when, claiming the boy Teletias as their 
own countryman while he was receiving the crown 
at the Pythian games, in their attempt to wrest him 
from the Cleonaeans they tore him to pieces. 6 But 
the Sicyonians, when Orthagoras became tyrant and 
after him Myron and Cleisthenes, were checked in 
their wantonness ; whereas the Cleonaeans, who 
were not granted such a cure, have come to nothing. 
You doubtless all recall the words of Homer f : 

From that far baser sire a better son 
In every excellence was sprung. 

Yet that son of Copreus accomplished no splendid 

° Cf. Philo, De Prov. 9 quoted by Eusebius* Praep. Ev. viii. 
39 (pp. 70 f. ed. Aucher). 6 Cf. Mor. 1065 b. 

c Cf. Mor. 1029 f. It was used against epilepsy : cf. 
Aristotle, Frag. 370 (ed. Rose), and Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. 
ix. 11. 3, and Frag. 175 (ed. Wimmer). 

d Cf. Diodorus, viii. 24,. 

e The story is not found elsewhere. / II. xv. 641 f. 

209 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(553) 6 tov VLoTrpecos irapiax^v aAAa to Hiovcfrov kcli 
to AvtoXvkov kcli to 1 Q>Xeyvov yivos rjvdrjoev iv 
86£cus kcu apeTals pueydXajv ftaoiXiojv. yeyove Se 
Kal HepiKXfjs 'AOrjvrjoLV ivayovs olklols' kcli Yiopu- 
Q 7Trjios Wldyvos iv ^Paypurj HTpdficovos rjv vlos, ov 
tov veKpov 6 ^Vajpiaiajv Stjjjlos viro jiioovs itjefiaXe 
koll KaTeiraTrjcrev . tl ovv cltottov el, KaOdrrep 
yecopyos ovk €Kk6ttt€l ttjv aKavOav av p,rj Xdfirj 
tov dwndpayov , ouS' ol ALfives to cfrpvyavov im- 
Kaiovai rrpoTepov r) to XrjSavov an olvtov avv- 
ayayelv, ovtojs 6 Oeos iv86£ov Kal fiaaiXiKov yivovs 
pit.av TTovrjpdv koX Tpa^elav ovk avaipel rrpoTtpov 

Tj (f)VVai TOV TTpOOr\KOVTa KOLpTTOV (X77 5 CLVTTJS ,' /JLVpLOLS 

yap 'I(/>6Tot> jSotfc Kal Ittttovs arroXioO ai KpetT- 
tov rjv <ba)K€vcn, Kal rrXeiova xpvaov €K AeXcfrcov 
D oi/^eaflac Kal apyvpov, r) psryre 'OSucrcrea payre 
'AaKXrjTTiov (frvvai pjryre tovs dXXovs €K KaKcov Kal 
rrovrjpojv dvopas dyadovs Kal pLeyaXaxfreXels yevo- 
jjievovs. 

8. " To 8' iv Kaiptp Kal TpOTTOJ Tip TTpOOTjKOVTL 

yevioOai 2 tcls TipLOjpias ov ^cXtlov elvai tov ra^u 

1 /cat to . . . /cat to G X F Z : /cat to . . . /cat M Vv ; 
/cat . . . Kal to Ry hki N Y CW. 

2 ytvtoOai] yivtcQai X 3 M 3ss . 

° Sisyphus, " wiliest of men " (Homer, II. xv. 153), was 
grandfather of Bellerophon (vi. 155), who in turn was grand- 
father of Glaucus and Sarpedon (vi. 199, 206). In later 
literature Sisyphus was held to have been the real father of 
Odysseus (c/. Mor. 301 d with the note in the L.C.L. and 
992 e). 

210 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 55S 

or remarkable deed, while the stock of Sisyphus , a of 
Autolycus, & and of Phlegyas c came to flower in the 
glories and virtues of great kings. And at Athens 
Pericles came of a family that lay under a curse d ; 
at Rome Pompey the Great was son of Strabo, whose 
corpse the Roman people in its hate cast out and 
trampled under foot. 6 Where then is the absurdity, 
if, as a farmer does not cut away the prickly plant f 
until he has culled its edible shoots, and the Libyans 
do not set fire to their shrub until they have gathered 
from it the gum ladanum, so God too does not destroy 
the rank and thorny root of a glorious and royal race 
until it has borne its proper fruit ? Better for the 
Phocians to have lost ten thousand cows and mares 
of Iphitus, 9 ' and for still more gold and silver to have 
vanished from Delphi, than that Odysseus and 
Asclepius should never have been born or those 
others who, sprung of a base and wicked line, turned 
out to be men of virtue and authors of great bene- 
fits. 

8. " Do you not think it better that punishments 
should take place at a fitting time and in a fitting 

b Autolycus, who " excelled all men in thievery and per- 
jury " (Homer, Od, xix. 394-396), was the maternal grand- 
father of Odysseus (xix. 395). 

c Phlegyas burned the temple of Apollo at Delphi (cf, a 
scholium on Statius, Thebaid, i. 713 ; Servius on Aeneid, vi. 
618 ; Eusebius, Chronicorum Canonum Liber, pp. 32 f. 
Schoene). He was the maternal grandfather of Asclepius. 

d Cf. Thucydides, i. 127. 

e Cf. Life of Pompey, chap. i. 2 (619 b). 

f Asparagus acutifolius : cf, Mor, 138 d and Theo- 
phrastus, Caus. Plant, vi. 12. 9, Hist. Plant, vi. 4. 1-2. 

9 According to a scholium on Homer, Od, xii. 22, Auto- 
lycus stole the twelve mares of Iphitus with their mule foals. 
Plutarch identifies this Iphitus, son of Eurytus, with Iphitus 
the Phocian (Homer, //. ii. 518, xvii. 306). 

211 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(553) kolI TrapaxpfjfJLCL vopbi^etg, 1 otov iart to Kara KaA- 

\l7T7TOV, CO tjufriSltp <J)l\oS €LVai 80KCOV 0L7T€KT€LV€ 
AtCOVa, TOVTCp TTOlXlV aVTOV VTTO TOOV (f)iXa)V 0L7T0- 

Oavelv, koX to M.ltvos 2 tov *ApyeLov kclto, gtoloiv 
avaipedlvTOS avhpidvTa 'xoXkovv iv dyopa Oeas 
ovarjs €/x7T€cre6V tco KTeivavTi tov Mitvv* Kal dv- 
eXecv; Kal tol rrepl tov Be'craov tov Ilaiova Kal 
3 ApLGTCova tov OItollov ^evayov oloda 8rj7rov6ev, 
3) TlaTpOKXea." 
E " Ma Ai"," 6?776V, 4 " dXXd SeofJLOLi jiadelv." 

" '0 [JL€V 'ApiOTCOV," €(f)r]V, 5 " TOV *JLpL<f)vXr]S 

kog/jlov ivTCLvOa Keipievov KadeXcov, tcov Tvpdvvcov 
SlSovtcdv, eKOfjuGe ttj yvvaiKi Stopov 6 8' vlos 
avTov rrpos ttjv firjrepa SiopytaOels €K tivos oItiols 

V(f)fjlp€ TTJV OlKiaV Kal 7TCLVTCLS €V TLp aVTtp KaT€KCLV- 

Gev. 6 8e Beaao?, a>9 €olkcv, o\tt€ktovol)s tov ttol- 
Tepa tov eavTody ttoXvv xpovov iXdvdavev, voTepov 
§6 77/009 £evovs 6776 Selrrvov iXdcbv x € ^ L00Va> v Ttvd 
veoGGidv* rfj Xoyxj] vv£as KaTefiaXev Kal tovs 
veoGGOvs $L€(f)6€ip€V XeyovTOJV Se olov €LKOS TCx)V 
F rrapovTCOV, ' avOpame, tl rradtov epyov ovtojs aAAo- 
kotov errpa^as; ' ' ov yap J e<f)rj, ' jjlov irdXai KaTa- 
\iaprvpovGiv avTai ifjevScos Kal KaTafiotooiv <x>s 
direKTOVOTOS tov iraTepa; ' BavpudaavTes Se ol 

1 vopltfiis Bern. : vofd&nv (placed before tov ra\v in F). 

2 Mltvos L. Dindorf from Aristotle : plnos {tl^ilos Ry) ; 
furlov G 2 F Z M 3 Y 3 . 

3 Mltvv L. Dindorf : [ivriov, 

4 €?7T6V X 3 hki C : €LTT€IV. 

5 €</>7jV Aid. 2 : €<f>7]. 

6 vcoaaiav] voooiav G X F (-o- Z) hk Vv. 
212 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 55S 

manner rather than speedily and at once ? That 
Callippus, for example, should have been murdered 
by his friends with the very dagger with which, a 
seeming friend, he murdered Dion, a and that the 
bronze statue of Mitys the Argive, who had met 
his death in a factious quarrel, should in the course 
of a spectacle in the market-place have fallen on his 
slayer and killed him ? b I presume you also know, 
Patrocleas, the stories of Bessus the Paeonian and 
Ariston of Oeta, the captain of mercenaries." 

" Indeed I do not,'' he replied. " But I should like 
to hear them." 

V Ariston," I said, " with the tyrants' c leave, took 
down the jewels of Eriphyle, which had been dedi- 
cated here, d and carried them off as a present to his 
wife. His son, incensed at his mother for some 
reason, set fire to the house, and all who were in it 
perished in the conflagration. 6 As for Bessus, the 
story goes that he killed his father and long went 
unsuspected. At last, when he had come to dine 
at a certain house, he prodded a swallow's nest with 
his spear, knocked it down, and killed the nestlings. 
The rest naturally asked : * What is wrong with you, 
man ? What is the meaning of such strange be- 
haviour ? ' To this he answered : * Why, haven't 
they all along accused me falsely and denounced me 
for killing my father ? ' The company was astonished 

° Cf. Life of Dion, chap, lviii. 6-7 (983 d). 

6 Cf. Aristotle, Poetics ', chap, ix (1452 a 7-10), and Pseudo- 
Aristotle, De Mir. Ausc. chap, clvi (846 a 22-24). 

c The Phocian leaders who seized and plundered Delphi 
in the Third Sacred War. 

d At Delphi. 

e Cf. Diodorus, xvi. 64. 2, and Parthenius, chap. xxv. 
Ariston's wife, like Eriphyle, met death at the hands of her 
§on, 

313 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(553) irapovres rov Xoyov Ip/qvvoav ra> jSacuAei, Kal tov 
TTpayjAaros i^eXeyxOevros eriaev 6 Beacros" rrjv 

SiK7]V. 

9- " 'AAAa, ravra \iiv^ €<f>r)v, " 17/1,669 Xeyofxev, 
cooirep rj^cajTCU, ylyveodai rtva rfjs TLficopias dva- 
fioXrjv VTTodefievoL roZs rrov7]pois % to\ Xonrd 8e 
'HcndSou XPV vojJLL^eLV aKpoaodai Xeyovros ovx fj 
YiXdrcov, aKoXovdov elvat Tijiojpiav dhiKias Tradrjv, 1 
554 aAA' rjXiKLWTLV ek rr\s avrrjs opuoOev Spots' Kal 
pifyqs avvvTTOcfrvoiJLevrjv ' rj * yap ' KaKT], 1 <f)7]cri, 
1 fiovXrj tcq fiovXevoavTi KaKtarr] ' Kal 

$S 8' aXXa) Aca/ca Teir^et, ea> KaKov rynaTi rev^et. 

rj {lev yap Kavdapls iv avrfj Xeyerat to j3or)9r)TLKov 
€K twos avTiiradeias ^X €LV vvyKeKpapbivov, rj Se 
TTovqpia ovyyevvojoa to Xvttovv iavTrj 2 Kal KoXd^ov, 
ovx voTepov aAA' iv avTrj ttj vfipei ttjv 81kt]v tov 
aoiKelv SISojoiv Kal tco fiev ox6/xan tcov KoXa- 

B ttOpLtVOJV €KaOTOS KaKOVpyOJV* €K(/)€p€i TOV aVTOV 

OTavpov, rj Se KaKta tojv KoXaoTrjplojv €<f>* eavTrjv 
eKaoTOV iij avTrjs T€KTalv€Tai, heivr) tls* ovoa 
fiiov 5 Srjpuovpyos OLKTpov Kal* ovv aloxvvr) <f)6ftovs 

1 7rddr)v X 3 : Tradelv {oiraQ-qv G 4 ). 

2 iavrfj] iv avrfj F Ry N (iv iavrrj S). 

3 KaKovpyaiv X 3 D : tcjv KaKovpycov. 

4 heivrj tls] Setvou rj tls D ; Bclvottjs Ry. 

5 fttov] omitted in G. 

6 oiKTpov Kal F 3 Ry hki N 2 C 1 : olktov Kal G X 1 F 1 Z I 
(ot- N 1 ) M Y 1 W R1 ; olktov V*v ; olktovs D V 2 ; oiktovs Kal 
X 3 Y 2 . 

a Laws, 728 c ; cf. Plutarch, Comm. on Hesiod, 25 (vol. 
vii, p. 63. 14 f. Bern.). 

b Hesiod, Works and Days, 266 ; quoted also in Mar, 36 a. 

c Instead of Works and Days, 265, Plutarch by a slip of 
214 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 553-554, 

at these words and reported them to the king. The 
truth was discovered, and Bessus suffered the penalty. 
9- " But hitherto," I said, " the arguments have 
been our own, and rest on an assumption that the 
punishment of the wicked is deferred ; what remains 
to be said we must imagine we hear from Hesiod, 
who does not say with Plato a that punishment is a 
suffering following upon injustice, but holds it to be 
coeval with injustice, springing up with it from the 
selfsame soil and root. Thus he says that 

The evil plan is worst for him that planned it b 

and 

He that devises ill for other men 

For his own vitals does the ill devise. c 

For whereas the blister beetled is reported to con- 
tain, mixed within itself, its own remedy, which 
operates by a sort of counteraction, wickedness en- 
genders with itself its pain and punishment, and thus 
pays the penalty of its wrongdoing not later, but at 
the very moment of commission ; and whereas every 
criminal who goes to execution must carry his own 
cross on his back, 6 vice frames out of itself each in- 
strument of its own punishment, cunning artisan f 
that it is of a life of wretchedness containing with 

memory quotes a similar verse found in Lucillius (Anth. Pal. 
xi. 183. 5) ; cf. Callimachus, Aetia, i, frag. 2. 5 (ed. Pfeiffer, 
Oxford, 1949). 

d Cantharis vesicatoria, L. The beetle, used as a medica- 
ment, was poisonous when taken internally. Cf. Mor. 22 a-b 
and Galen, Be Simpl. Med. Temp, ac Fac. iii. 23 (vol. xi, 
p. 609 Kuhn). 

* Cf. John xix. 1 7 and Artemidorus, On the Interpretation 
of Dreams i ii. 56. 

' Cf. Mor. 498 c-d, 

215 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(554) re itoXXovs /cat /xeratzeAetas' /cat 7rddr] ^aAeTra 1 
/cat rapa^as aTravoTovs fyovTOS. dAA' ovdev 2 evioi 
hia(f)€povoi TTdihapiouv, a tovs KaKovpyovs iv tois 
OedrpoLs Oeoofieva, 7roXXaKLs iv x 1 ™ 01 8iaxpvaois 
/cat yXapuvhiois dXovpyols iaT€(f)avoo[xevovs /cat rrvp- 
pLX^ovras, dyarai /cat redrjirev cbs piaKapiovs &XP 1 
ov K€Vtov/jl€voi /cat /xaartyov/zevot /cat rrvp dvUvres 
€K rrjs dvOtvrjs* €K€lvt)s /cat 7roXvreXovs icrdrjros 
C ocfrdooaiv. oi yap ttoXXoi toov TTowqpcov oiklcls 77-ept- 
j8€j8A^jLtevot jxeydXas /cat dpxds /cat hwdpueis Trepi- 
cfxivels Xavddvovcnv otl /coAd£ovrat irplv av (J)9coolv* 
a7TOG(f)ay€VT€s fj KaTaKprj/jLvcadevTes' direp* dv tls 

OV TljJLCOpLCLV €LTTOL y 7T€pCLS 06 TLfJLCOpiaS /Cat GVV~ 

reXeiav. cocrnep yap 'HpdSt/cov tov HrjXvpLppLavov 
els cfrdlaiv, dvrjKeoTOV Tfddos y ipmeoovTa /cat /xt^avra 
TTptoTov avSpoorroov yvfJLvaGTLKrjv larpiKfj (frrjaiv 6 6 
UXdroov jita/cpov 7 Troirjaai rov ddvarov avroo /cat 
rots 6jjL0LO)s vocrovoiv, ovtoos /cat toov 7rovrjp6ov oooi 
rrjv TTapavriKa TrXrjyrjv €K(/>vyelv e8o£av, ov fierd 
vXeiova xP° vov dAA' iv irXeiovi x?^ vo ? Ttfioopiav 
D fiaKporepav, ov fipaSvrepav, rivovoiv, ov8e yqpd- 
oravres iKoXdadrjaav, aAA' iyrjpaaav /coAa£o/xevot. 
Ae'ya; 8e Trpos rjfias rov ttoXvv xpovov irrel rols ye 
Oeocs tt&v avOpooTTivov j8tot> StdarTy/xa to fjbrjbev 
iari, /cat to vvv dXXd /jltj 7Tpo iTOov TpiaKovTa 

1 fX€T, Kal nadr) %. G X F Z I Vv : rrddrj %. /cat /act. 

2 otdev G X F Z I Vv : ovScv. 

3 dvdtvrjs GX 1 F 3 I N 2 W R (confirming Kontos and Hatzi- 
dakis) : dvdivTJs F 1 R K™ N 1 M 2 (d0- M 1 ) Y C ; dvdtivrjs X 3 D 
ySK« hki Vv. 

4 dv <j>Bwoiv Vossianus 2 2m s : dv o^dwatv X 3 F I V Y 3 ; av 
(pddaajOLV D ; dva<f)OcoGiv (dv d(f>6cb(Jiv 9 dv d(j>9d>OLv). 

5 direp] da-rep X 1 F 1 Z I N 2 (cSa- N 1 ) M 1 Y 1 . 

6 (f>7)oi,v X 3 D : cos" <f>7]aiv. 

216 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 554> 

infamy a host of terrors, regrets, cruel passions, and 
never-ending anxieties. Yet some there are no wiser 
than little children, who see criminals in the amphi- 
theatre, clad often in tunics of cloth of gold and 
purple mantles, wearing chaplets and dancing 
Pyrrhic measures, and struck with awe and wonder- 
ment suppose them supremely happy, till the moment 
when before their eyes the criminals are stabbed and 
scourged and that gay and sumptuous apparel bursts 
into flame. a For in most cases it is not suspected 
that the wicked, when arrayed in greatness of family 
and office and in positions of splendid power, are 
suffering punishment, until, before we know it, they 
are slaughtered or hurled down a precipice, and this 
one would not call punishment, but the end and con- 
summation of punishment. For as Herodicus of 
Selymbria, who had fallen ill of phthisis, an incurable 
disease, and was the first to combine gymnastics with 
medicine, devised for himself and for others similarly 
afflicted, as Plato b says, a * lingering death,' so like- 
wise those of the wicked who appear to have escaped 
the immediate blow, pay not after, but during, a 
longer period c a penalty more lasting, not more 
delayed, and have not been punished on growing 
old, but have grown old in punishment. When I 
speak of a long period I mean it relatively to ourselves, 
as for the gods any length of human life is but 
nothing,** and to put the evildoer on the rack or hang 

a The apparel is the tunica molesta : cf. L. Friedlaender, 
Darstellungen aus der Sittengeschichte Roms* (Leipzig, 1920), 
ii, p. 91. b Republic, 406 a-b. 

c Cf. Proclus, On Providence, col. 130. 8-10 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

d Cf. Proclus, On Providence, col. 135. 10-19 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

7 fjuuc P 6v] paKpav G X 1 F Z I N M Vv Y 1 W R . 

217 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(554) tolovtov eoriv olov to SclXtjs dXXd firj Trpan arpe- 
fiXovv tj Kpejjiavvvvat rov rrovrjpov, dXXcos re /cat 
(fypovpovfievov iv tco fiitp Kaddnep elpKrfj u^SetxtW 
ixeravduraaiv ixovarj /x^Se Sid^ev^iv, eua^ta? 8e 
rroXXds Sta, fxeaov /cat Trpayiiareias /cat 86g€ls /cat 
xdpLTas dfieAeL kcll TraL&Las, cooirep iv SeaLLCorrj- 

pLCp KVpeVOVTtOV Tj 7T€TT€VOVTCOV V7T€p K€(/)aXfjS TOV 

oyoLVLov KpepLdfjievov. 

10. " Katrot tl KtoXvcL firjSe tovs €7rl davdrco 

E KadeLpyvvLLevovs 1 </>dVat KoXd^eodaL ^XP l °^ Tl ^ 

d7TOKoifjrj 2 rov rpdx^Xov, p,r]$€ rov 7T€7Tlok6tcl to 

KCOV6LOV eLTCL TTZpLLOVTO? KCLL TTpOG/JLEVOVTa j8ap09 

iyyeveodcLL toTs cr/ce'Aecrtv avrov irplv fj rrjv avv- 
dTTTOVoav dvcLLodrjcFLCL ofieoLV kcll 7ttj^lv /caraAa/3etv, 
el rov eoyaTov rrjs TLpbcopias /catpov rjyovpLeda 

TLjJLCOpLCLV, TCL S' CV jJL€Gq) 7Tadr}[jLCLTCL /Cat <})6f5oVS 

F /cat TrpoohoKLCLS /cat /xera/xcAetas' ots aSt/c^aa? e'/ca- 
oros €V€X€tcll tcov rrovrjpcov rrapaXeLTTOiiev , coarrep 
IxOvv Kara7T€7ra>KOTa to clyKLOTpov ov cfrdcjKov- 
Tes iaXcoKevaL ttoIv vtto tcov fxayeipcov o7ttcojjl€vov 
l8oj[jl€v a tj kcltclt€ijlv6ll€Vov ; €X€tcll yap e/caaro? aSt- 
Krjcras tj] Slktj, /cat to yXvicv ttjs dot/cta? coaTrep 
Se'Aeap evdvs i^eSrjSoKev, to 8e gvv€l$6s iyKeLfxe- 
vov excov /cat drroTLVov, 5 

dvvvos fio Aa los rreXayos cos StaarpojSet. 

rj yap tVa/xoT^? €K€lvt] /cat to dpaov ttjs /ca/cta? 

1 Ka6eipyvvfjL€vovs] KadeipypLevovs G K v J. 

2 aTTOKOlfjrj] -€L G 1 X 1 I S N Y (aTTOKOljjOl D). 

3 Trepuovra Z I D 2 : 7T€piovTa. 

4 tStopLev] rSo/tev X 1 Z I N Y 1 ; etSo/xev G 1 M. 

5 OLTTOTLVOV I M raS Y raS C (olTTOtIvOV X 3 Ry Vv) ; aTTOTtlVQV 

K ; OLTTOKTzivov £ : airoTivayv (d-jToreiVcov hki), 

218 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 554> 

him now, and not thirty years ago, is like doing it in 
the evening and not in the morning, especially as he 
is shut up in his life as in a prison-house affording no 
removal or escape, although it allows in the interval 
much feasting a and transaction of business, much 
conferring and receiving of favours, and indeed many 
pastimes, as when prisoners play at dice or draughts 
with the rope hanging overhead. 

10. " And yet what is to keep us from denying that 
even prisoners under sentence of death are punished 
until their necks are severed, or that one who has 
drunk the hemlock and is walking about, waiting for 
his legs to become heavy, h is punished until he is 
overtaken by the chill and rigor that immediately 
precede the loss of all sensation, if we account as 
punishment only the final moment of punishment 
and ignore the intervening sufferings, terrors, fore- 
bodings, and pangs of remorse to which every wicked 
man, once he has done evil, is prey, as if we denied 
that a fish which has swallowed the hook is caught 
until we see it set to broil or cut in pieces by the 
cook ? For every man, on doing wrong, is held fast in 
the toils of justice ; he has snapped up in an instant 
the sweetness of his iniquity, like a bait, c but with the 
barbs of conscience embedded in his vitals and paying 
for his crime, 

He, like a stricken tunny, churns the sea. d 

For the proverbial aggressiveness and boldness of 

a Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 116 e. 
b Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 117 e. 

c Cf. Proclus, On Providence, col. 135. 29-33 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 
d Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespota, 391 ; also quoted 
in the Life of Lucullus, chap. i. 5 (491 f). 

219 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(554) CLXP 1 T ^ )V doLK^fidrajv loyypov earn /cat rrpox^pov, 
555 €tra, rod ttolOovs toorrep TrvevpLaros vrroXeiTrovros , 
dodeves /cat raneivov V7T07tl7tt€l rots </>oj8oi9 /cat 
tolls SetGLSatfJiovLaiS' coore rrpos ra yiyvofxevo} /cat 
npos rrjv dXrjOe tav dTTOTrXdrreodaL to rrjs KAurat- 
fjLrjGTpas 2 ivvTTViov tov HrrjGtxopov, ovrcoai ttojs 
Xeyovra 

tcl Se 3 opaKcov eSoKrjoe pioXelv /capa fiefSpoTto- 

fievos CLKpov, 
e/c 8' dpa rod ftaoiXevs UXeLcrOevlSas ecf)dvr). 

KCLL ydp Olfj€LS eWTTVLOJV KOLL (frdofJLaTOL fJLe8rjfJL€pLvd 

/cat yprjojJLol kcll /carat/Jaatat 4 kcll 6 tl 86£av ecrxev 

ClItLCL QeOV 7T€pCLLV€o9cLL ^€t/xd>Va9 €7rdy€L KCLL (f)6f3oVS 
B TOZS OVTOJ OLCLK€Ljl£vOLS , OLOV <f)CLCTLV ' KlToXXohoJpOV 

wore Kara tovs vrrvovs opav eKhepojievov iavrov 
vtto HkvOlov, eWa KaOei/jofxevov, rr]v Se Kapoiav 
€K rod Xefiyjros vrro^OeyyofjLevrjv /cat Xeyovaav , 
iytb ool tovtojv atria/ /cat rrdXLV tcls dvyarepas 
hLairvpovs /cat (fyXeyopuevas rots aajpuaoLV kvkXco 
rrepl avrov 7T€pLrpexovoas 5 ' "\TnTapxpv he tov 
HeLCTLOTpdrov \iLKpov kfjLTTpoadev rrjs reXevrrjg atjita 
Trpocr^aXXovoav 6 avrco ttjv ' ' A.(f>pohirr]v e/c tlvos 
(f)LaXrjs TTpos to TTpocrcoTTov. ol Se IlToAe/zaiou rod 

1 yiyv6fjL€va G X Z : yivo/xeva {-aiva F 1 ). 

2 KAvTaijjLrjcrrpas N 1 : /cAurat/xv^crrpas. 

3 ra 8e Reiske : raSe (omitted in Ry). 

4 /carat^aatat] /cara^aatat G 1 X 1 F Ry S hk Y. 

5 TTepiTpexovoas] rpexovaas G Vv. 

6 TrpoofiaXkovGav hki Vv : TrpoafiaXovGav, 

220 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 554,-555 

vice is strong and ready to hand until the evil deed 
is done, but thereafter, as the gale of passion dies 
away, it falls a weak and abject prey to terrors and 
superstitions ; so that Stesichorus a is modelling the 
dream of Clytemnestra on life and reality when he 
speaks in this sort : 

She thought a serpent came to her, its head 

Smeared on the crown with blood ; when lo ! it changed 

Into the royal Pleisthenid. b 

For visions in dreams, apparitions by day, c oracles, 
the fall of thunderbolts, and all else that gets ascribed 
to the agency of God bring agonies of terror to those 
in this state. Thus Apollodorus/ it is said, in a dream 
once saw himself flayed and then boiled by Scythians, 
when his heart spoke from the cauldron in muffled 
tones and said : ' It was I that brought you to this ; ' 
and another time saw his daughters run about him 
with bodies glowing like coals and all aflame. And 
Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus, is said shortly before 
his death to have seen Aphrodite dashing blood into 
his face from a cup. e When the friends of Ptolemy 

° Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. iii, Stesichorus, 42. 

b Interpreters differ whether this is Agamemnon, the 
husband she had murdered (so Jebb in his introduction to 
the Electra of Sophocles, p. xix), or Orestes, the son who 
avenged him (so Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry, pp. 131 f.). 

c Of. Proclus, On Providence, col. 135. 21 f. (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

d Cf. Proclus, On Providence, col. 135. 37-44 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 
Apollodorus, tyrant of Cassandreia from about 279 to 276 B.C., 
was a byword for ferocity. The dream of being flayed and 
boiled is doubtless connected with the killing and eating of 
Callimeles {cf. 556 d infra and note), while that of the blazing 
daughters may be connected with the incident told in Poly- 
aenus, vi. 7. 1. 

e This dream is not mentioned elsewhere ; it is easily 
interpreted. 

221 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(555) K.epavvov <f)LXoi KaXovfievov avrov eojpojv 1 enl 8iKrjv 
C vrro HeXevKov, yvrrcov Kal Xvkojv SiKa^ovTwv, koll 
Kpea noXXa rots iroXepLLois Suave pLovra. 2 Ylavoavlas 
Se KXeovLK7]v ev TSv^avrla) napdevov eXevdepav 
vj3p€L ixeraTTepafjaiievos ojs e^odv Sia vvktos, elra 
rrpooiovoav e/c nvos rapa^S Kal vrToxjjias dveXwv, 

€(A)pa TToXXoLKLS €V Tols VTTVOIS XeyOVGOLV OLVTO) 

fiaive* Slktjs douov pudXa rot kclkov avhpdotv 
v ft pis. 

ov 7ravo\ievov Se rod (pdojjLaros, ojs eoLKev, rrXevoas 
em to i/jvxoTTOfJiTTelov 4 els 'Hpa/cAeiav, IXaajJiols not 
Kal xocus aveKaXelro rr)v ipv)(r)v rrjs Kopr]S' eXOovoa 
Se els oi/jlv elrrev on TTavoerai t&v kclklqv orav iv 
AaKeSaifJLovL yevrjTai* yevojxevos Se, evOvs ereXev- 
rrjoev. 
D 11. " "Clare el fjir]8ev eon tt\ iftvxfj f^erd rrjv 
reXevrrjv, dXXd Kal ^apiTOS Trepas dirdorjs Kal 
njjiojplas 6 ddvaros, jjl&XXov dv ns elrroi tols ra^u 

1 KaXovfievov avrov ia>pa>v]. The passage is corrupt. Cf. 
Proclus, col. 125. 41-44 : " Ptolemaeum autem Ceraunum 
vocantem amicos putare se [Post would omit se] ipsum in 
somnia vocari ad iudicium a Seleuco, vultures autem ibi 
considere et lupos iudices." Pohlenz suggests KaXovvros avrov 
rrapayevofievoi vvKrwp ovrcas i^€7rXr)^av avrov, wore hoKelv opav 
KaXovfievov avrov. Post suggests KaXovvros irepl HzXevKOV 
hiKat,€iv iv V7TVO) KaXovfievov avrov ed>pojv. 

2 otavefiovra] hiav€fiovra)v Reiske. 

3 /Salve] orelx€ Life of Cimon, chap. vi. 5 (422 c). 

4 nXevoas em ro ijj.] Trifupas erri ro ift. F ; efiftXeifias (eK7refnfias 
V 2 ; eVe/u,/3Aej/ras v) em to i/j. V 1 ; irrl ro iff. TrXevoas (irefixjjas C) 
W ; rrefjupas M 2m %. 

222 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 555 

Ceraunus were called to his presence, they beheld 
him suffering from the delusion that he was being 
called to judgement himself a by Seleucus before a 
tribunal of vultures and wolves, and was serving his 
enemies great portions of meat. & When Pausanias 
was at Byzantium, he had in his insolent lust sent for 
Cleonice, a maiden of free birth, intending to keep 
her for the night. As she drew near, he was seized 
by some wild suspicion and killed her. Thereafter 
he often saw her in his dreams, saying to him : 

Come meet thy doom ; by pride are men undone. 

As the apparition did not cease, he sailed (we hear) 
to the Passage of the Dead at Heracleia and with 
certain propitiatory rites and libations evoked the 
maiden's ghost ; it appeared to him and said that 
his troubles would be over when he went to Lace- 
daemon. On going there he presently died. c 

11. " And so, if nothing exists for the soul when 
life is done, and death is the bourne of all reward and 
punishment, it is rather in its dealing with those 

a The text is corrupt and the translation conjectural. 
Proclus says : " And Ptolemy Ceraunus, when he summoned 
his friends, thought in his dreams that he was himself sum- 
moned to judgement by Seleucus. . . ." 

b Ptolemy Ceraunus murdered Seleucus in 280 b.c. Pos- 
sibly the dream was suggested by the proverb tov (or rr]v) 
Kepi Tu>v Kpecov (cf. Mor. 1087 b), in its fuller form Xaycbs rov 
7T€pl T&v Kpecjv rpex^v " the hare runs for her meat," for which 
see Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroem. Or. i, pp. 108, 270, 
336 f., ii, pp. 37, 121, 496. But cf. also Prov. Coisl. 324 : 

XvKOS KpiaS V€JJL€L. 

c The story of Cleonice is told in greater detail in the Life 
of Cimon, chap. vi. 4-7 (482 b-d) ; cf. also Frag. 1 of the 
K OfjLt]pLKal MeXerat (vol. vii, p. 99 Bern.), Aristodemus, 8. 1 
(F. Jacoby, Die Frag. d. gr. Hist., Zweiter Teil, a, p. 498. 
11-20), and Pausanias, iii. 17. 8-9. 

223 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(555) KoXat.opievois rcov Trovrjpajv Kal drroOvrjaKOVGL fia- 
Aclkcos Kal padvfJLCUS xprjodai to Satpoviov, 

Kal yap el pcrjSev aXXo <f>aLr) rt? ev ra> /3ta> Kal 
rep xpovcp tcov TTOVTjptov 1 Trapex^tv 2 KaKov, aAA' 
i^eAeyxofJLevrjs ttov z rfjs doiKias, irpdyp,aros aKap- 
ttov Kal d^apioTov Kal ^p^oTov ovoev ov8e a£iov 
GTrovSrjg dvacfrepovros Zk ttoXXo)V Kal fieydXajv 
dyo}VO)Vy rj atoOrjcris aurcov 4 dvarpeirei ttjv \\svyr\v. 
olov laropovGi orjrrov 5 AiW/za/^ov vtto OLifjrjs e/c- 
ficaodevTa Kal rrapahovra rols Terais to acopa 

E Kal ttjv ovva/JLLV, cos* €7tl€V vno^eipiog yevopbevos, 
elireiv ' <f>ev rrjs epirjs KaKias, 09 oV rjoovrjv ovtoj 
^pa^elav eoTeprj /xai fiaoiXeias r^XiKavrrjg.' Kalroi 
ye 6 TTpos cf)VGiK7]V TrdOovs dvdyKTjv dvTifirjvai iray- 
XaXeTTov Igtiv orav oe avdpamos rj xprjpLarajv 
eVe/ca rrXzove^ias rj c/)d6vcp ttoXltlk^s 86£rjs Kal 
ovvdpbecjos rj St' tjoovtjv rtva avvovcrias avopuov 
epyov epyaodpevos Kal Secvov, etra rod TrdQovs 

F dcfuels to Sii/rcDSe? Kal puaviKov iv XP® V(J 9 KaOopa rd 
atGXpd koI </>o/?e/xx rrjs dSiKuas rrdOrj TrapapLevovra, 
XprjGipbov Se pbrjSev prjSe dvayKalov purjSe dvrjoi- 
c/)6pov, ap' ovk eiKos e/zmWetv avrco 7roAAa/a? 
Xoyiopiov d)s vtto Kevfjs S6£t]s rj St' rjSovrjv dveXev- 
depov Kal d^dpicrrov dvarpei/jas ra KaXXtara Kal 
pLeyLcrra tcjv iv dv9pd)7TOLS SiKalajv €pL7T€7rX7]K€V 
224 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 555 

offenders who meet an early punishment and death 
that one would call the Divinity lax and negligent.* 
" For even if one should deny any other misery in 
the lives and existence of the wicked, yet, surely, 
when their iniquity is put to the proof and found 
a barren and thankless thing, yielding for all their 
great and anxious efforts no solid or valuable return, 
this realization overwhelms the soul. Thus it is re- 
corded, you will recall, that Lysimachus, compelled 
by thirst to surrender his person and army to the 
Getae, said, when he had come into their power and 
had his drink : ' Alas ! How base am I, who for so 
brief a pleasure have lost so great a kingdom ! ' b 
Yet a feeling enforced by nature c is very hard to 
resist ; but when it is for the sake of ill-gotten gain, 
or from envy of political prestige and power, or to 
gratify some lustful pleasure, that a man has done 
a lawless and dreadful deed, and then, as he loses the 
thirst and madness of his passion, sees at last that 
the shame and terror of his crime endure, but nothing 
useful or necessary or profitable, must it not be 
brought home to him again and again that, misled 
by vain opinion or lured on by an unworthy and 
thankless pleasure, he has subverted the noblest and 
greatest laws of mankind and poisoned his life with 

Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 107 c. 

b Cf. Mot. 126 e and 183 e. 

c For the distinction between innate and adventitious 
desires cf. Mor. 584 e and note. 

1 tu)v 7TOvr]pa>v] rov irovypov G 3 . 

2 7rap€X€Lv] Trdax^iv Moser. 

3 7tov G (X is wanting) F Z : omitted in the rest (rrore ? 
Post). 

4 avrcov] avrajv Post ; Pohlenz would omit. 

5 btfrrov] Srj nore ? Post. 6 ye] omitted in F. 

vol. vii i 225 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(555) aloxyvqs KCLl Tapax^js rov fiiov; tooirep yap 6 
HtpiOJViSrjg eXeye nal^cov tt]v rod dpyvpiov Kificorov 
evpioKeiv del TrXrjpr], ttjv Se tcov yapLrayv Kevr]v, 

OVTO)S OL TTOVTJpol TTjV KCLKLCLV €V €<1VToZs SlOptOVTeS 

rjSovrjs 1 {lev ev8vs' Kevrjv 2 x&piv €xovoy]s eArn- 
556 S09 3 eprjjjiov evpioKovoiv, cpofiwv 8e Kal Xvttcov kcli 

fJLVTjjJLT]? arepTTOVS KCLL 7TpOS TO pieXXoV* VTTOlfjlCLS, 

dmoTias he irpos to 7rapov, del yepbovoav tooTe 
Kaddrrep 5 ttjs 'Ivovs OLKovojJLev 6 ev toIs deoLTpois 
Xeyovorjs, efi ols ehpaoe ju-era/xeAo/xev^s', 

(f>iXai yvvatKes, 770)9 dv e£ dpx^js hopiovs 
'AOdfACLVTOS olK7]OaijJil tcov Trerrpayfjievajv 
hpdoaoa firjhev; 7 

raura 8 eKaoTOV tcov irovr^pcov ttjv i/jvxyv dvarroXetv 
ev avTjj Kal hiaXoyiL^eodai, 77009 dv eKJ3aoa ttjs 
B fJLvrjiJLrjs tcov dhiK^fiaTcov Kal to ovvethos e£ eavTTJs 
eK^aXovoa Kal KaOapa yevopuevrj ftiov dXXov 9 e£ 
dpxr\S fiicoaeiev. ov yap Ioti dappaXeov ovhe 
CLTVtfrov ovhe \xovi\JuOv Kal fiefiaiov ev ols irpoaipeiTai 
to rrovrjpov, el fjurj vrj A/a oocfiovs Tivas elvai cftrjaro- 
\xev tovs doiKovvTas* dAA' ottov (fyiXorrXovTia Kal 
(f>iXr]8ovia Trepi/JLavrjs 10 Kal tf)96vos aKpaTOS evoiKi- 

1 rjbovrjs D : St' rjSovrjs. 

2 K€vr)v] K€vr)v Trjv Post, keeping St'. 

3 iXiTiSos] Kal eXTrioos XP 7 ) 01 "*) 1 * D. 

4 to fjueXAov] to /ze'AAov fiev D ; jjl£v to jxiXXov CW. 

5 cooT€ Kaddirep nos (ojs yap Reiske ; /cat tboirep Wytten- 
bach) : cooirep. 

6 aKovojxev (-o>-N) is placed here in G (X is wanting) F Z 
Vv ; after \eyovcrqs in D S 1 hki N M Y CW ; before it in Ry. 

7 wow] ixrjdiv G (X is wanting) F Vv. 

8 TauTa] TavT €lkos Bern, (f 2 and Stephanus add cikos after 
7rovr)pcx)v). 9 aAAoy] aXviTov F Vv. 

226 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 555-556 

shame and anxiety ? For as Simonides a used to jest 
that he found his coffer of money always full, but his 
coffer of thanks empty, so, when evil men see through 
the wickedness within them, they find it bare of plea- 
sure, which allures for a moment with delusive hope, 
but always full of terrors, sorrows, dismal memories, 
misgiving for the future, and mistrust of the present. 
Hence, as we hear Ino say in the theatres, regretting 
her deed : 

Oh, dearest women, would that once again 

Within the halls of Athamas I dwelt 

As one that had done nought of what is done ! b 

so the thought that the soul of every wicked man 
revolves within itself and dwells upon is this : how 
it might escape from the memory of its iniquities, 
drive out of itself the consciousness of guilt, regain 
its purity, and begin_ij^hfe_anew. For wickedness 
is not confident or clear-headed or constant and 
steadfast in its chosen course — unless, by Heaven, 
we are to call evildoers wise men of a sort — ; but 
wherever the frantic pursuit of wealth and pleasure, 
and wherever unmitigated envy, in the company of 

a Cf. Mor. 520 a and Stobaeus, vol. iii, pp. 417 f. (ed. 
Hense) : " A man once requested Simonides to compose an 
encomium for him, promising thanks, but offering no money. 
4 I have two chests,' the poet replied, ' one for thanks, the 
other for money. When need arises I open the chest of 
thanks to find it empty, and only the other of any use.' " Cf. 
also a scholium on Aristophanes, Peace, 697, a scholium on 
Theocritus, xvi, Tzetzes, Chiliades, viii. 814-830, and Gnomo- 
logium Vaticanum 513, ed. Sternbach {Wiener Studien xi, 
1889, p. 227). 

b From the Ino of Euripides : Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 
Eur. 399. 

10 7T€piiJ,avr]s (or d7Tapafj.vdrjTos) Emperius : 77-cpt/xa^Tos (-ov 
C) ; TTapa.Tr\i)KTos ? Post. 

227 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(556) £crat fiera Svafievelas rj KaKorjdeias, evravOa /cat 
SeunSaLiJLovLav gkottcov dvevprjoets V7TOKa9r]iJL€vr]v 
/cat fjLaXaKLdv 7rpos ttovov /cat SetAtav Trpos Odvarov 
/cat fierdTTTOJoriv o^elav oppicov /cat yavvoTtyra Trpos 
C $6£av vtto dXa^ovetas' /cat tovs ijjeyovras <f>ofSovvrai 
KCLL TOVS eTTCLlVOVVTCLS SeSlCLGLV cos dSiKovfievovs rfj 
d7rdrrj /cat /zaAtara rots kclkols TroXefiovvTas on 
tovs Sokovvtcls dyadovs €7Taivovort TTpoOvpLcos. to 
yap GKXrjpov iv /ca/cta KaOairep iv <f>avXcp crtS^pa) 

OadpOV ioTl KCU TO aVTLTVTTOV evdpCLVOTOV. O0€V iv 

Xpovco ttoXXco jjl&XXov cos eypvoiv clvtovs Kcvra\iavQd- 
vovtzs &x&Qvrrm /cat SvaKoXaivovoi /cat TrpofidX- 
XovTai tov iavTcav jSt'ov. ov yap Stjttov TrapaOrjKrjv 1 
{lev dnoSovs /cat yvcbpipiov iyyvrjodpuevos /cat 
7rarptSt jitcra S6£t)s /cat (fyiXoTipiLas imhovs /cat 
D ovveioeveyKcov 6 cf>avXos evdvs ioTiv iv /xerajiteAeta 
/cat rots' TT€7rpayiJL€VOLS avtarat Sta to TrdvTTj 
jjieTaTTTCOTov 2 avTov /cat TrXavcofievov Trjs yvcbfiTjs, 
/cat KpoTOVfievoi Tives iv tols QeaTpois evdvs OTevov- 
olv VTTovooTOVorjs TTJs (f)iXoSo^tas els ttjv (f)tXapyv- 
plav y ol Se KaTaOvovTes dvdpcorrovs €7rt Tvpavvioi 
/cat vvvcopLoolais , cos 'AiroXXoScopos, /cat xPVf JLCLTa 
(j>iXcov aTTOGTcpovvTes , cos TXavKos 6 'EttlkvSovs, 

OV [JL€T€v6oVV OuS* ifJLLOOVV iaVTOVS OvSe TjVLCOVTO 

1 7rapa0rJK7)v (a variant in Herodotus, vi. 86)] TTapaKaraO-qKrjv 
G 3 Ry S 1 a 3 . 

2 fieraTTTCDTOV D Ry (afxeraTTTcoTov S) : €VfjL€rd7TTC0TOV. 

a Cf. Mor. 458 e. 

b Polyaenus (vi. 7. 2) records that Apollodorus butchered 

228 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 556 

ill will or malice, take up their abode, there, on closer 
view, you will discover superstition lurking, with 
shrinking from effort, cowardice in the face of death, 
sudden shifting of purpose, and an empty conceit of 
the opinion of the world that springs from swollen 
vanity. Such men not only fear those who censure 
them, but are in terror of those who applaud them, 
feeling that these are wronged by them in the decep- 
tion, and that they are besides the bitterest enemies 
of evildoers because they freely praise such as appear 
to be good men. For the toughness of evil, like that 
of defective iron, is brittle, and its hardness easily 
shattered. a Hence, as in the fullness of time they 
come to better knowledge of their condition, they 
fret and repine and condemn their own way of life. 
For if the man of little worth, when he has returned 
money left to his keeping or gone surety for a friend 
or bestowed a free gift and contribution on his native 
city with honour and distinction, is at once filled with 
regret and distressed at his act from the erratic 
mobility and unsteadiness of his judgement ; and if 
certain men on receiving applause in the theatre 
suddenly give a sigh, as their appetite for glory sub- 
sides, leaving behind mere love of wealth ; surely 
those who have butchered human victims, like 
Apollodorus, & in conspiracies to seize tyrannical 
power, or who, like Glaucus, c son of Epicydes, have 
withheld sums entrusted them by friends, cannot 
have failed to feel remorse, to hate themselves, and 

a youth called Callimeles and served the flesh and blood (the 
last mixed in a dark wine) to his fellow-conspirators. By 
making them partners to the crime he secured their loyalty, 
and with their help became tyrant. Cf. also Diodorus, xxii. 
5. 1. 

c Cf. Herodotus, vi. 86. 

229 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(556) toZs yeyevrj/jLevois. eyd> jxev, et 1 depus iarlv elireZv, 
ovre twos detov ovt€ dv9pa)Tra)v oeZaOai koXolotov 
vofjLL^aj tovs dvoaiov pyovvT as , dXXd tov fiiov avrtbv 2 

E ££apK€LV VTTO TTjS KOLKiaS Si€(f)dapfM€VOV SXoV KCLI 

avvrerapayfjievov . 

12. " 'AAAct GKOTT€LT€ TOV X6yoV," €(f)7]V, " fJL7) 

rod Kaipov Troppoorepcx) irpoeiai!' 

at o 1 LfjLCov, Tvypv, e^r/, rrpos to pieAAov 
Kal to XemopLevov avTCp pfJKos. rj8rj yap (Zaire p 
ecf>e8pov avLGTrjfjLL ttjv TeXevTaiav dnopiav, eirel 
Tats TrpujTais hiiqyojv lot at [xeTplcos. 

1 *A yap ¥iVpL7TtSrjs eyKaXeZ Kal TTapprjaid^eTai 
rrpos tovs deovs 

tol Ttov t€k6vto)v ocfrdXpiaT els tovs eyyovovs 

TperrovTas, acTLaoOaL vopul^e Kal tovs oiojTTCjVTas 
F rjfJicov. eiTe yap ol hpaaavTes avTol SIktjv eoooav, 
ovdev ert Set KoXd^eiv tovs pir} aoiKiqaavTas , ottov 
Sis eirl tols avTOts ovSe tovs opdaavTas hiKaiov 
eiTe paOvpiiq KaTarrpoepievoi ttjv Ttpojpiav ev toZs 
rrovrjpoLS oifje irapa tG>v dvaiTiuyv eloirpaTTOvaiv ', 
ovk ev to) 4 doLKajs to 5 fipaoews* dvaXapLfidvovcriv. 
olov evTavda Aeyerat SrjTrovdev 7 eXOeZv A'iaamov, 

1 el G 1 (X is wanting) Z D Ry (yap ei F : yap is a corrup- 
tion of ^) : #05 G 3m s ; rj N ; ov J 1 ). 

2 avrcov] avrols D. 

3 rvvov] tvx^v G 1 (X is wanting) F 1 Z N. 

* ro> G (X is wanting) Z D S 1 N M Y 1 CW : to F Ry hki 
(to 8* V ; toj 8' v). 

5 to G 4 (X is wanting) D S 1 W 3 : to£. 

6 fipaoecos] fipaoeos G 1 (X is wanting) Ry c Vv C. 

230 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 556 

to be distressed at what they had done. For my part, 
if it is not impious to say so, I hold that the per- 
petrators of unholy deeds need neither god nor man 
to punish them : their life suffices for that office, as 
their wickedness has wholly ruined it and plunged 
it into turmoil. 

12. " But consider," I said, " whether my speech 
is not exceeding the proper limits." 

" Perhaps it is," replied Timon, " in view of all that 
still remains for it to answer ; for I am now sending 
the last problem into the field, like an athlete who 
has been waiting to engage the winner, since your 
discourse has done well in its bouts with the earlier 
problems. a 

" Euripides' b outspoken arraignment of the gods 
for visiting 

The sins of parents on the children 

you must suppose is also endorsed by those of us who 
keep silence. For either the actual offenders have 
been made to pay, and there is no further need to 
punish the innocent, since even the guilty may not 
in justice be twice punished for the same offence, or 
the gods have indolently allowed the punishment 
of the guilty to lapse, and then, at a late date, exact 
payment from the innocent, in which case it is not 
well done to retrieve the tardiness of their punish- 
ment by its injustice. You will recall, for example, 
the story that Aesop came here with a sum of gold 

a Cf. 549 e, supra, 

b Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Eur. 980. 

c Cf. Proclus, On Providence, col. 136. 8-22 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

7 Aeyerat SrjTrovdev Benseler (Ae'ycTcu StJttov Ry) : hrjTrovOev 
(hrjrrov Z) Aeyerat. 

231 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(556) kxovra Trapd Y^poioov ^pvoiov ottcos re Ovorjrai 
to) deep 1 pL€ya\o7Tp€7TO)s kcll AeXcfxjov eKOLGTCp Sta- 
re ip,rj fjivdg reaaapas' opyrjs Se twos, cos eoLKev, 
clvtco 2 kcll Sicufropas yevopLevrjS 77009 rovs avrodi, 
rrjv p,ev dvaiav eTroirjoaro , to Se ^p^/xa 3 dveTrepupev* 
557 €t9 TidpSets, cos ovk d^icov ovtcov axfreXrjdrjvcu rcov 
dvOpcoucov ol Se ovvOevres alriav err' avrov lepo- 
crvAlas a7T€KT€Lvav cooavres drro rrjs Trerpas iKelvrjs 
tjv c Ya/X77€tav KaXovGiv. €K Se rovrov Xeyerat 
fjLrjvtoav 5 to Oelov avrols d<f)oplav re yrjs eirayayelv 
kcll voacov droTrcov I8eav rraoav, coore irepuovras 
eV rals 'EAArpiKafc TTavrjyvpeai K7]pvao€LV kcll 
KaXelv del rov fiovAo/JLevov vnep Alocottov Slktjv 
AajSetV 6 77ap' avrcov. rpirrj Se yevea HdpuLos 

"I8jJLCOV* d(f)LK€TO, y€V€L fJL€V Ol)8eV AloCOTTCp TTpOCTr)- 

kojv, duoyovos Se rcov irpLajxevcov avrov iv Tidficp 
B yeyovcos' kcll tovtlo TLvas St/cas" Sovres" ol AeAcfrol 

TCOV KCLKLOV a7T7]AAdyrjOaV . i£ €K€LVOV Se' (f)CLCrLV 
KCLL TTJV TLfJLOJpLCLV TLOV lepOCTvAcOV €7TL TTjV AuAtaV 8 

drro rrjs < Ya/Z7retas > pLeraredrjvaL . kcll rov 'AAe'£- 
av8pov ouSe ol rrdvv (friAovvres, cov eoyzev kcll 
7]{jl€ls, errcLLvovoL to Bpay^tScov clcftv ovyyeavra 

1 6vo7)tcll (dvur) hki) tw 0€cp : TO) 0ea> 9vG7)Tcu G (X is wanting) 

F (xpij<J€T(U Z 1 ; dvO€TCLL Z 2 ). 

2 auTo) is placed after yevofiev^s in Ry CW C ; before it in 
M Vv. 3 to 8e xPVP -] T( * Se xPVf JLara -^ s# 

4 av€7r€fjup€v J : avriire^ev (aTTeirciJupev hk). 

5 jxr)vloav 1, as Reiske had conjectured : [irjviaai. 

6 AajSctv] XajjLpdveLv G (X is wanting) F Z S. 

7 "18/xojv] 'Ia8/xcoy Herodotus. 

8 avXlav G 1 R hki M 1 : vavXiav G 3 (X is wanting) FZyS 1 
N M 2 Y CW ; vavnXiav Vv. 

232 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 556-557 

from Croesus, intending to offer a splendid sacrifice 
to the god and distribute four minas apiece to every 
Delphian ; but falling into an angry dispute (the 
story goes) with the inhabitants of this place, he 
performed the sacrifice but sent the money back to 
Sardis, considering the people unworthy of the 
bounty. They thereupon trumped up a charge of 
temple robbery and put him to death, casting him 
down from the cliff over there called Hyampeia. a 
The angry Godhead then visited them, it is said, 
with failure of crops and all manner of strange 
diseases, so that they went from one public festival 
of the Greeks to another and kept inviting by pro- 
clamation anyone who so wished to come and receive 
atonement at their hands for the wrong they had 
done Aesop. In the third generation Idmon b of 
Samos came, no kinsman of Aesop, but a descendant 
of his purchasers at Samos ; and on making him 
certain amends, the Delphians were delivered from 
their troubles. It is said that in consequence the 
place of execution for sacrilege was transferred from 
Hyampeia to Aulia. c Again, not even the greatest 
admirers of Alexander, among whom I count myself, 
approve his wiping out the city of Branchidae and 

a Cf. Herodotus, ii. 134, and a scholium on Aristophanes, 
Wasps, 1446 : " . . . (Aesop) is said to have come to Delphi 
and derided the inhabitants for having no land to cultivate 
for their livelihood but living off the sacrifices offered to the 
god. The Delphians were angered at this and secretly placed 
a sacred cup among Aesop's effects. Aesop, unaware of this, 
set out on the road to Phocis. But the Delphians ran after, 
discovered the cup, and charged him with sacrilege ..." 
Cf. also Plutarch, Mor. 401 a. 

b Cf. Herodotus, ii. 134. 

c The name is uncertain, and the place not elsewhere 
mentioned. 

232 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(557) /cat 8cacj)deLpavTa tt&golv rjAiKuav 8ta ttjv yevofxevrjv 
tov nepl M.lAt}tov lepov Trpohootav vrro tcov Trpo- 

7TOL7T7Ta)V CLVTCOV. 'Aya8oKXr]s §€ 6 HvpOLKOOLOJV 1 

rvpavvos koX ovv f yeXtOTi ^Xevdt^ojv KepKvpalovs 
epcoTajvras Sta ri iropdoir) ttjv vrjoov olvtcjv, ' on 

V7] Aid/ €L7T€V, ' Ol TTCLTeptS VfJLWV VTTeSe^CLVTO TOV 

C 'OSucrcrea/ kclI tcov 'Wolktjolojv opLoicos iyKaXovv- 
tojv otl Trpo^ara XapLJSdvovoLV avTO>v ol orpaTito- 
tcll, ' o Se vpLerepos,' e(f>r] y ' fiacnXevs iXOoov 77/509 

Tjixds KOLl TOV 7TOLpL€VCL 7TpOO€^€TV(f)Xa>0€V .' dp* OVV 

ovk droTTOJTepos tovtojv 6 'AttoAAcov el QeveaTas 
drroXXvoi tovs vvv, epb<f>pdt;as to fidpadpov kcll 
KarcLKXvcras ttjv yoipav aTraoav avrcov, otl Trpo 
XlXlojv €to)v, o)s (fraoLV, 6 'HpaKXfjs dvaoirdoas 
tov TpLTToSa tov fjiavTLKov els Q>€V€ov dirty ey Kev , 
Hvf$apLTais Se (frpdl^cov diroXvoLV tcov kclkcov otolv 
TpioXv oXedpoLS IXdoojVTai to pajvLpia ttjs AevKaSlas 

1 ovpaKooitov N W 1 : ovpaKooaicov G 3 X 1 F : ovppaKOvaicov 
G 1 X d Vv 2 ; GvpaKovGtcov. Cf. also 559 d. 

° Cf. Quintus Curtius, vii. 5. 28, and Suidas, s.v. Bpayxioai 
(Aelian, Frag. 54 Hercher) : " The men of Dindyma in the 
territory of Miletus, to gratify Xerxes, betrayed the temple 
of the local Apollo to the barbarians, and the dedications, 
which were extremely numerous, were pillaged. The 
traitors, fearing the vengeance of the laws and of the Milesians, 
begged Xerxes to reward that detestable treason by removing 
them to some place in Asia. He consented, and in return for 
his wicked and impious plunder, allowed them to dwell in a 
place from which they would no longer be able to set foot in 
Greece, and where they and their progeny would be relieved 
of the fear that possessed them. Having thus obtained the 
land under by no means happy auspices, they raised a city, 

234 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 557 

his general massacre of young and old because their 
great-grandfathers had betrayed the temple near 
Miletus. a Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse, even 
turned the notion into a derisive taunt in his reply 
to the Corcyreans, who asked why he ravaged their 
island : * because, by Zeus, your forebears harboured 
Odysseus/ b And when the Ithacans made a similar 
complaint, saying that his troops were taking their 
sheep, he answered : ' when your king came to my 
country he blinded the shepherd c to boot/ Is not 
Apollo still more absurd than these if he ruins the 
Pheneates of the present day, obstructing their 
underground channel and putting their whole terri- 
tory under water, d because Heracles is said to have 
pulled up the tripod of prophecy and made off with 
it to Pheneus a thousand years ago ? e And again, 
in telling the Sybarites that their troubles will be over 
when they have appeased the wrath of Leucadian 

gave it the name Branchidae, and fancied themselves secure 
not only from the Milesians but from Justice herself. But 
the providence of God did not sleep ; for when Alexander 
had defeated Darius and taken possession of the Persian 
empire, he heard of their evil deed. In his abhorrence for 
their posterity he slew them all, judging that of the wicked 
the offspring are wicked, and razed the falsely named city, 
and its people vanished from the earth." 

6 Cf. Mor. 176 f. 

c The shepherd was the Cyclops Polyphemus : cf. Homer, 
Od. ix. 375 ff. 

d The territory of Pheneus was surrounded by an unbroken 
chain of mountains and drained by underground passages 
said to have been dug by Heracles. When these were ob- 
structed a lake was formed. Cf. Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. 
iii. 1. 2, v. 4. 6, and Pausanias, viii. 14, with Frazer's notes. 

e For Heracles and the tripod cf. Mor. 387 d, 413 a ; 
Cicero, Be Natura Deorum, iii. 16 (42) ; Hyginus, Fab. 
xxxii ; Apollodorus, ii. 6. 2, with Frazer's note in the L.C.L. ; 
Pausanias, iii. 21. 8, x, 13. 7. 

235 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(00/) "Hpa?; Kal fjLrjv ov ttoXvs xpovos a</>' ov AoKpol 
rre^LTTOvres els Tpolav TreTravvrai rds Trapdevovs 

at Kal ava\nreypvoi yv pivots rroalv rjvre SovXac 
rjotat oalpecjKov 'AdrjvaLrjs Trepl fiajpiov, 
v6a(f)i KprjSepivoio, Kal el fiapv 1 yrjpas lkolvol 

8 id rrjv AHavros aKoXaoiav. ttov 8rj ravra to 
exiXoyov tercet Kal oiKaiov; ov8e yap ®p&Kas ejrai- 

VOVpL€V OTL GTL^OVOTLV dy^pi VVV TLpLO)pOVVT€S '0/)^€t 

rds avrcjov yvvalKaSy ov8e rovs Trepl 'HpiSavov 
fiapfidpovs pueXavo^opovvras eirl rrevdei rod QaeOov- 
E ros, coairep Xeyovortv. en §' av, oi/zat, yeXoiorepov 
rjv el, Ttov rore dv9pd)7TO)v ore 8ce(f)ddprj QaeOajv 
7TapapLeXrjodvra>Vy ol rrevre yeveals r) 8eKa rod 
TrdOovs varepov yeyovores rjp^avro rrjv ecrOrjra 
pLerafiaXXetv err' avrcp Kal irevdeiv. Kairoi rovro 
apeArepiav puev eyei piovov, ovoev oe oetvov ovoe 
avrjKearov' at Se rtov decov opyal tivl Xoyco irapa- 
Xpfjpia ovopievai, Kaddirep evioi rcov TrorapLciov, etra 
varepov eir' dXXovs dvacfrepopievai, nrpos eaydras 
ovpL(f)Opds reXevTOJcrLV ; 

13. K £ls Se TTpwrov eTreayev, 8eluas eyto purj ndXiv 
i£ vrrapx^s erraydyrj irXeiovas Kal puel^ovas aromas, 

1 jSapu] Padi> C 1 . 2 djSeAreptay M 1 Y : a^Arrjptav. 

° The oracle is otherwise unknown, and whether the third 
destruction refers to that of 448 or to some later date is un- 
certain. 

6 The verses are attributed to Euphorion : cf. J. U. Powell, 
Collectanea Alexandrina^ pp. 40 f., Euphorion, 53. 

c As the lesser Ajax had violated Cassandra, the priestess 
of Athena, at the sack of Troy, the Locrians were instructed 
by an oracle to make atonement by sending maidens to the 
temple for a thousand years. Cf. Lycophron, Alexandra^ 

236 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 557 

Hera by being thrice destroyed ? a Again, it is not 
long since the Locrians gave up sending their maidens 
to Troy 

Who cloakless, bare of foot, like slaves, at dawn 
Swept clean the space about Athena's altar 
With head uncovered, even in weary age b 

all for the wantonness of Ajax. c Where is the logic 
or justice of this ? Nor yet do we commend the 
Thracians for tattooing their own wives to this day 
in revenge for Orpheus , d nor the barbarians on the 
Po for wearing black in mourning for Phaethon, as 
the story goes e ; and the absurdity, I think, would 
be all the greater if at the time of Phaethon's death 
men had neglected any observance, while those born 
five or ten generations after the disaster had intro- 
duced this change of attire in his honour and gone 
into mourning. In this, however, there is mere folly, 
nothing grave or irreparable ; but for what reason 
should the wrath of the gods at first sink out of 
sight, like certain rivers, only to resurge later against f 
others, leading in the end to the direst calamities ? " 
13. At his first pause, fearing that he would bring 
up a new and longer series of still more formidable 
absurdities, I at once put a question to him : " Well, 

1141-1173, with the scholia; Strabo, xiii. 1. 40 (600 f.) ; 
Aelian, Frag. 47 (ed. Hercher) ; Iamblichus, De Vita Pytha- 
gorica, chap. viii. 42 ; A. Wilhelm, " Die lokrische Mad- 
cheninschrift " in Jahreshefte des oster. arch. Inst, xiv (1911), 
pp. 163-256 ; Wilamowitz, Die Ilias und Homer, pp. 383-394. 

d Cf. Phanocles, "Epcores rj KraAot, Frag. 1 (J. U. Powell, 
Collectanea Alexandrina, pp. 106-108). Incorrigible slaves 
were tattooed on the forehead. 

e Cf. Polybius, ii. 16. 13. 

f Plutarch plays on the double sense of anapheromai, 
which can mean " come up from underground " or "be 
brought into relation with." 

237 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

v J; evovs i)popfr\v avrov eiev, ecpr^v, ravra yap 
ttolvtol aArjUtva rjyrj ; 

a/ceivos, et oe firj rravra, eiirev, aAA ewa, 
rrjv avrrjv drropiav ^X €LV °^ vopbl^eis rov Xoyov; " 
1 "lcrtos," €<f>r)v eyoj, " /cat tols cr</>oSpa rrvper- 

TOVGLV, idv T€ tv t/zdVtOV €OLV T€ TToXXd TTepifSefiXr)- 

jjievoi Tvyyavuxjiv , ravro Kavpua /cat rraparrXrioLOV , 
ofJLtos Se 1 els rrapapLvOiav d(j>eXelv to ttXtjOos' el 8e 
pur) fiovXei, tovto 2 piev eaaov (kclltol tol ttXzZotcl 
pivdois eoiKev /cat TrXdopiaoiv) , dvapLVTjaOrjTt 8e TLOV 
evay^os Qeo^evcojv* /cat ttjs KaXrjs eKetvrjs pueplSos 
rjv d(f>aipovvTes tovs HtvSdpov Krjpvrrovaiv XapL- 
558 fidveiv drroyovovs , cos ooi to rrpaypia oepivov ecfzavrj 
/cat Tjbv. 

,( Tls 8e ovk av y " elrrev, " rjcrQeur) rfj ydpiTi rrjs 
ripLTJs ovtojs 'EXXrjvLKtos /cat dcfteXcos* dpxail^ovcrrjs, 
el purj 

pieXaivav Kaphiav KexdXKevTCu ifjvxpd <j>Xoyl 

/car' avrov rov Ylivhapov ; " 

'Eaj tolvvv," e(f)rjv, " opioiov ev ^irdprrj ktj- 
pvypLa TOVTtp, to ' pceTa Aeaficov cp86v,' err l TLpuij 
/cat pLvrjpLT) TepiravSpov rod rraXaiov KrjpvTTopue- 
vov 6 yap avros eon Xoyos. aAA' v pie is ye 
8tj7tov rrXeov e%eiv erepojv ev re Holcotols, '0<£eA- 

1 8c G X 1 F Z N CW : Set. 
2 tovto] tovtov N M 1 Y 1 CW 1 (TavTa hki). 

3 Oeo^evLcuv X 3 : tcoi> 0€o£€vl(jdv. 
4 tyeXtos] <j>tXoKdXa)s G 4m g X F 1 ^ Ry Y lm s. 

a Frag. 123 (ed. Schroeder), or Sandys, p. 584 (in the 
L.C.L.). 

6 Cf. Aristotle, Frag. 545 (ed. Rose) : " And Aristotle 
says in the Constitution of the Lacedaemonians that the ex- 
2S8 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 557-558 

well " ; I said, " so you take all those stories to be 
true ? " 

" Even if not all, but only some, are true," he 
replied, " do you not think the difficulty for your 
argument is the same ? " 

" Perhaps," said I, " the case is like that of persons 
with a raging fever, who feel much the same heat, 
whether they are wrapped in one cloak or in many, 
and yet are relieved when the additional cloaks 
are removed. But if you would rather not insist, 
then let it pass — though most of your stories look 
very much like fables and fictions — and recollect 
instead how impressive and pleasing you found the 
proceeding at the recent festival of the Theoxenia 
when that noble portion of the sacrifice was set aside 
and presented by public proclamation to the de- 
scendants of Pindar." 

" Who could fail to be delighted and charmed," 
he said, " with honour thus shown, so Greek in its 
old-fashioned simplicity, save one whose 

Black heart was forged with frozen flame 

in Pindar's a own words ? " 

" In that case," I replied, " I pass over a similar 
proclamation at Sparta, ' after the singer from 
Lesbos/ b made in honour and commemoration of 
Terpander of old ; for the point is the same. This, 
however, I will say : you and your family, I take it, feel 
entitled to greater consideration than others in Boe- 

pression ' after the singer from Lesbos ' refers to Terpander. 
It was in honour of Terpander (he says) that in later times his 
descendants were first invited to perform, while next came 
any other man of Lesbos who chanced to be present, and 
finally the rest * after the singer from Lesbos,' that is, after 
men from Lesbos in general.' ' 

239 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(558) TidScu 1 yevos 2 ovres, ol£lovt€ z kcu rrapa <£>a>K€vcn 
B Sta AatcfxiVTOv, i/JLol Se kcll uaprpre kcu cruvcAa/zjSa- 
V€G0€ 7rpcpr)v* ore AvKopfiais kcu SartAatots' 6 rrjv 
7rdrpiov 'Hpa/cAciScov fxeriovoi Tipsqv kcu OTe^avq- 
cftopiav ovvavaaco^ajv eXeyov on Set /zaAicrra toXs 
d<f>' c Hpa/cAeous* yeyovocri rag ripids virdpyeiv j8e/?at- 
ovs kcu ras ^dpiras cov tovs "RXXrjvas evepyerrjaas 
ovk ervyev clvtos d^ias ^a/Hro? ovSe duoipfjs." 

KaAou y€," €L7T€V, " T^/xa? dytovos kcu (f>iXo- 
GOcj>ia 6 udXa 1 TTperrovTos* dvejJLvrjoas." 

1 "A(f)€S OVV," €L7TOV, " (b T&V ', TO O(f>o8p6v TOVTO 
TTJS KCLTrjyOpLCLS, KCtl fJLTJ <j>€p€ TTlKpCOS €1 KoXd^OVTCLL 

C nves £k kclkcov yeyovoreg r) 7rovrjpcov, rj urj x a W € 
fjL7]$* €7raiv€L TLpLCOfjLevrjs evyeveias . Sec ydp, €1 TTjV 
ydpiv iv rep yevei rrjs dperfjs dvaaoj^oaev, evXoyojs 
urjSe rrjv KoXaoLV o'UoOcu SeXv d7rav8dv koll Trpocnro- 

XeL7T€LV 9 €776 TOLLS dSlKLCUS, dXXd OVV€KTp€)(€LV 
€K€LV7) TO KOLT d^LCLV dvTLOTp6(f)OJ£ aVoStSoUCTaV , 10 

o Se tovs diro YlLuojvos rjSecog opcov 'AdrjvrjGL 
Tifxajaevovs , Ttov he Acfydpovs r) ' ApiOTicovos 11 
eKyovcov iXavvoaevcov dxOdfjievos kcu dyavaKTCov, 

1 'O^cArtaSat Xylander, from Life of Cimon, chap. i. 1 (478 
e) : c5 (J)S X 3 ) (/>tArtaoat. 

2 yevos] yevovs G 3 F Ry hki M 2 . 

3 ol£iovt€ X 3 : a£tov re G X d ; df t'ou. 

4 7rpc[yqv Reiske : npcbrov. 

5 XvKop/JLais /cat oariXaiois X 3 Y 3 : Au/cop/zat (-/tot hk ; -fiovs 
W) /cat aartAatot. 

6 <£iAocro(£t'a] (j>i\ooo<f>Las hki N M Vv Y CW. 

7 /xaAa] omitted in C 1 ; placed before avefjuvrjcras in M Vv. 

8 TTptTTOVTOs] TTpeiTOVrOiS X 1 Z 1 hki N 2 M (7Tp€7TOVTO)S V) Y 
CW (irpCTTOVTOS V F 1 N 1 y). 

9 7Tp0a7T0\€l7T€Lv] 7Tpo\€l7T€lV G 4 ; 7TpoaTT€iX€LV G 1 X 1 K (doubt- 

less from the lost margin of F, where an index by F 1 shows 
that a marginal reading once existed) Y lm s. 

240 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 558 

otia as descendants of Opheltas, and again in Phocis 
from your connexion with Daiphantus ° ; you moreover 
lent me your presence and support the other day 
when I helped the Lycormae and Satilaei to recover 
the hereditary honour of the Heracleidae, the right of 
wearing a crown. I said at the time that the posterity 
of Heracles should particularly be maintained in 
possession of the honours and rewards he had earned 
by his services to the Greeks, for which he had re- 
ceived no adequate thanks or compensation himself.' ' 

" You call to my mind a noble debate/ ' he said, 
" and one well worthy of philosophy/ ' 

" Then lay aside, my friend, " said I, " this hotness 
of denunciation, and do not take it ill that some who 
come of a bad or wicked line are punished, or else 
you must withhold your delight and approval when 
noble birth is honoured. For if we preserve in the 
descendants our gratitude for virtue, we must in 
reason expect that neither should the punishment of 
crime flag or falter in its course, but that it should 
keep pace with gratitude, matching it in requiting 
men as they deserve. He that delights to see the 
descendants of Cimon honoured at Athens, but is 
displeased and offended at the expulsion of the 
descendants of Lachares b or Aristion, c is much too 

° For Opheltas cf. Life of Cimon, chap. i. 1 (478 e) ; for 
Daiphantus, of whom Plutarch composed a Life, now lost, 
cf. Mor. 244 b and 1099 e. If Timon was Plutarch's brother- 
german, we have here an account of Plutarch's own descent. 

h Lachares became tyrant of Athens and allied himself 
with Cassander. He escaped from the city shortly before its 
capture by Demetrius in 294. 

c Aristion became tyrant of Athens in 88 b.c. 

10 aTTohibovGav X 3 : aTTohihovarj. 
11 ' Apiarlcjvos Reiske : apioTcuvos. 

241 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(558) vypos eon Aiav kcll pddvpios, [JiaAAov Se <f>iAalrios 

SAoJS KCtX SvOKoAoS TTpOS TO 0€LOV, iyKdAcOV fJL€V, 

av dvopos ahiKov kcll Trovqpov iraloes €/c rraioojv 
evrvyelv SoKGJcriv, eyKaAtbv Se TrdAtv, av ra yevrj 
D KoAovrjrai kclI d(f)avi^rjrai rcov <f)avAojv, alricopievos 
Se 1 rov 6eov ojjlolcos puev, av y^piqorov rrarpos reKva 
7TpaTT7] KaKCDS, OpbOLOJS Se, av rrovrjpov. 

14. " Kat ravra piev/' ecfrrjv, " coorrep dvri- 
(j>pdypLard ooi k€lg6oj rrpos rovs dyav rnKpovs /cat 
KarrjyopLKovs eKeivovs' dvaAafiovres 2 8e avOis 

(JL)G7T€p dp)(r)V KAaXJTTJpOS €V GKOT€LVCp Kal TToAAoVS 

eAiypiovs Kal rrAdvas eypvri rep rrepl rod 6eov z Aoyco 
KadoSrjy&pLev avrovs /xer' evAafieias drpepua rrpos 
ro eiKos Kal mdavov ojs ro ye oa<f>es Kal rrjv 
dArjdetav oz)S' ev ols avrol TTpdrropbev docfraAtos 
elrrelv ej^opev, olov hid ri rcov vtto cf>9ioea>s rj 
vSepov hta(j)dapevrojv rovs rralSas els vScop rcb 

E 7t68€ fipeyovras KaOt^eodac KeAevopiev ecos av 6 
veKpos KaraKafj, So/cet yap oiiroj ro voorjpia purj 
pbediaraodai paqSe. TTpooTxeAd^eiv avrols' 77 TrdAtv 
St' fjv alriav, alyos ro rjpvyyiov* Aafiovorjs els ro 
oropua, oAov ecf)Lorarat ro alrroAiov dy^pi av e£eArj 
rrpooeAdoov 6 alrroAos ; a'AAat re Swdpcets d(f)ds 
eypvoai Kal hiahooeis drriorovs d^vrrjot /cat pLiJKeoi 
St' erepoov ets erepa irepaivovoiv . aAA' r)pLeis ra 

F Kara rovs XP° vovs OLaAeipLpuara OavpLa^opuev, ov 

1 8e] re Pohlenz ; ye ? Post. 

2 ava\apovT€s] avaXafiovTOS G 1 X 1 Z. 

3 rod 0€ov] Oeov G hki Vv C. 

242 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 558 

lax and indulgent, or rather he is downright captious 
and quarrelsome with heaven, reproaching it if the 
children's children of an unjust and wicked man 
appear to prosper, reproaching it again if the pro- 
geny of the base is thwarted and wiped out, and 
finding God alike at fault whether it goes hard with 
the children of a good or of an evil father. 

14. " These remarks," I said, " you are to view as 
a sort of barricade to hold off those excessively bitter 
and denunciatory critics. Let us now take up again 
the beginning of a clue, as it were, in the argument 
about God, obscure as it is and abounding in intricacy 
and error, and pick our way cautiously and calmly 
to a probable and credible issue, since not even in 
what we human beings do ourselves can we safely 
speak of certainty and truth. Why, for example, do 
we tell children whose parents have died of phthisis 
or the dropsy to sit with their feet in water until the 
corpse is consumed, the disease (it is thought) being 
thus kept from passing over or coming near them ? Or 
again, when a goat takes the sea-holly a in its mouth, 
what makes the whole herd stand by until the goat- 
herd comes and removes it ? And there are other 
forces, with a capacity for contagion and transmission 
incredible in its rapidity and the great intervals 
covered, that reach one object by passing through 
another. We, however, are amazed at the intervals 

° For this story cf. Mor. 700 d, 776 f ; Aristotle, Hist. 
Animal, ix. 3 (610 b 29) ; Theophrastus, Frag. 174 (ed. 
Wimmer) ; Pliny, N.H. viii. 203 f. ; Antigonus, Hist. Mir. 
chap, cvii (115); and a scholium on Nicander, Theriaca, 
645. 

4 tov (to nos) "qpvyyLov Turnebus ; tov rjpviTrjv G 4mg ; tov 
vrjpvLTrjv X 1 F R lm e K u V 2m e ; tov (to i 1 ; ttjv C) rjpvyyLT-qv. 

243 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(558) tcl Kara tovs tottovs. kclltoi 1 davfjuaaiwrepov el 
rrdOovs ev AlQiOTrLq \af36vTOS &PX*] V dveTrArjodrjoav 
at 'AOrjvat, /cat UepiKArjs arredavev /cat Qovkv8l8t]s 
evoorjcrev, 7} el AeA<f)U)v /cat l^vfiapircjov yevofievcov 
7TOvr]pcov rj St/cry (frepofievrj TrepcrjAdev els tovs 
7rarSas'. k'xovGL yap tlvcls at Swdpceis avacj>opds 
diro tcl>v ea^drajv errl ra rrpcora /cat avvdijjeis' 
tov rj alrta, kolv ficfS rjfjiajv ayvorjrai, aicoTrij irepaivei 
to ot/cetov. 

15. " Ov firjv aAAa rd ye 2 SrjfjLOGLa tcjv rroXecov 
pjr)vi\xojTCL tov tov St/catot> Aoyov e^ct rrpoxeipov? 
559 eV ydp tl irpdyp.a /cat ovvexes rj ttoAls worrep £>cpov, 
ovk e^Lordpievov avTOV 1 rals /ca# 5 rjAiKtav /xera- 
jSoAats ovS' erepov e£ erepov rep XP° VC P ywopuevov / 
aAAa ov parades del /cat olt<elov avra> /cat iraoav 
<Lv updrrei Kara to koivov rf errpa^ev ah-'iav /cat 
Xdptv dva8exop>evov p<expi> dv rj Trocovoa /cat ovv- 
8eovaa Tats emrrAoKals Kotvajvla ttjv evoTrjTa 
8ia<f>vAaTTr} . to 8e TroAAas" rroAeis 8iaipovvTa to) 
Xpovco TToielv, /xaAAov 8e arreipovs, opboiov eoTiv tw 1 
ttoAAovs tov eva noielv avdpoynov otl vvv Trpeofiv- 
Tepos eoTiy irpOTepov 8e vewTepos, dvojTepa) 8e 
B fietpaKiov rjv. pb&AAov 8e oXojs raurd ye toIs 
*Yi7TixQ<ppLeiois eoiKev e£ d>v 6 av£6pbevos dve<f)V 
tols ao<f)icFTais Xoyos' 6 yap Aaj3d>v TraAat to ^peo? 8 

1 kclItoi] koI t6 N 1 M 1 Y" CW. 

2 rd ye C : ye ra. 3 rrpoxeipov] 7Tpo$r)\ov F 1 *. 

4 avrov Xylander : avrfjs or olvttjs. 

5 yivopuevov) yevofjuevov hki N M 1 v Y CW. 

6 to koivov 77] to koivov G 1 ; 777 koivov rj X 1 ; rr)v koivov F xt ; 

TTjV KOLVTjV Z. 7 TO>] TO G 1 Z R N M 1 Y W 1 . 

244 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 558-559 

in time, not those in space. And yet it is more 
amazing that a disease which had its origin in Ethiopia 
should have raged at Athens, killed Pericles, and 
attacked Thucydides, a than that justice, after the 
crimes of the Delphians and Sybarites, should have 
found her way to their children. For forces have a 
way of reverting from their farthest points to their 
origins and effecting a connexion ; and although the 
cause of this may be unknown to us, it silently 
achieves its proper effect. 

15. " Nevertheless, the visitations of entire cities 
by divine wrath are readily justified. b A city, like 
a living thing, is a united and continuous whole. This 
does not cease to be itself as it changes in growing 
older, nor does it become one thing after another 
with the lapse of time, but is always at one with its 
former self in feeling and identity, and must take 
all blame or credit for what it does or has done in 
its public character, so long as the association that 
creates it and binds it together with interwoven 
strands preserves it as a unity. To create a multi- 
plicity, or rather an infinity, of cities by chronological 
distinctions is like creating many men out of one 
because the man is now old, but was in his prime 
before, and yet earlier was a lad. Or rather this 
procedure altogether resembles the passage of Epi- 
charmus c that gave rise to the sophists' fallacy of 
the * grower ' : the man who received the loan in the 

a Cf Thucydides, ii. 48. 3. 

b On the topic of this chapter cf. Be E Apud Belphos, chap. 
18. Proclus {On Providence, col. 136. 31-35 Cousin 2 ) sum- 
marizes the argument of this chapter and the next. 

c Frag. 170 (ed. Kaibel), translated by Hicks in Diogenes 
Laert. iii. 11 (in the L.C.L.) ; cf. Mor. 473 d, 1083 a, Life 
of Theseus, chap, xxiii. 1 (10 b-c). 

245 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(559) vvv ovk ocjtelAei, yeyovcbs erepos, o re 1 KArjOels em 
helrrvov ex^es a/cA^ros" r\Kei rrjpLepov aAAos" yap 
ear i. 

" KatVot fJL€i£ovds ye 2 7rapaAAayas at tjAlklcli 
nepl eKaarov rjfjLtov ttolovglv r) kolvt} irepl ras 
TToAeis. yvolrj yap av tls Ihdiv ras 'AOrjvas erei 
rpiaKoorcp Kal ra vvv rjOr) /cat KivrjpLara TTaihiai 
re Kal crrrovhal /cat ^dpires /cat opyat rod Stj/jlov 
ttolvv ye rot? rraAaioZs eoiKaaiv dvOpamov* he 
jjloAls av tls olKelos ?} (f)iAos Ivrvytbv hid y^povov 
C \iop<$>v)v yva>picreiev, at he rcov rjOtov /xcrajSoAat, 
Travrl Aoyco /cat nova) /cat nddei Kal vofico pahtajs 
rpeirop.evai, Kal irpos rdv del ovvovra rrjv droTriav 
/cat rrjv KaLVorrjra* OavpLaarrjV exovaiv. aAA' dV- 
dpojiros re Aeyerai p^expi reAovs els dird yeve- 
aea>s, ttoAlv re rrjv avrrjv d>oavTU)s hiapievovaav 
evexeadat rot? dveLoecri rcov TTpoyovajv d^Lovfiev 
to St/cata> pLerecFTiv avrfj ho£rjs re rrjs eKeivcov koX 
hwdpceajs' rj ArjcropLev els rdv 'Hpa/cAetretov 5 arravra 
Trpdy/JLara rrorapLov^ efifiaAovres, els ov ov <f>rjoi 
his efJL^rjvai, rep ndvra Kivelv koX erepoiovv rrjv 
c/)vaLV fxera^dAAovaav . 

16. " Et S' eart rt 7 ttoAls ev rrpaypLa Kal ovv- 

D ex^s, eari hrjirov Kal yevos, e^rjprrjiJievov dpxrjs 

pads Kal hvvapLiv riva Kal KOLvatvtav hiairecfrvKvlav 

1 re Pohlenz : he. 

2 ye X 3 C ac : re. 

3 av9pu)7rov X d? Z Ry Vv : avdpomov. 

4 KaivoTTjra] Kevor-qra G X 1 F 1 Z N M Y. 

5 'UpaKXeireiov (-rt-G 1 )] -k\J- X 1 F Z y hk N 1 M 1 Y 1 CW ac . 

6 0.1T. TTp. TTOT. S 1 hki N M Y CW (tTOT. 5.7T. TTp. Vv) ! O.TT. TO. 

Trp. TTor. G X F Z Ry. 
246 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 559 

past is no debtor now, having become a different 
person, and he who was yesterday invited to dinner 
comes an unbidden guest to-day, since he is now 
another man. 

" Yet growing older brings about greater altera- 
tions in each of us severally than in a city collectively. 
For one would recognize Athens on seeing it after a 
lapse of thirty years, and the present traits and moods 
of its people, their amusements and graver concerns, 
their displays of partiality and anger, are very similar 
to those of long ago. a But with a man, a kinsman 
or friend who should meet him after any length of 
time would find it hard to recognize his appearance, 
whereas the shifts in his character, responding lightly 
to every sort of argument, difficulty, passion, and 
law, are so strange and novel as to astound even a 
constant companion. Yet a man is called one and 
the same from birth to death ; and we deem it only 
proper that a city, in like manner retaining its 
identity, should be involved in the disgraces of its 
forbears by the same title as it inherits their glory 
and power ; else we shall find that we have unawares 
cast the whole of existence into the river of Hera- 
cleitus, 5 into which he asserts no man can step twice, 
as nature in its changes shifts and alters everything. 

16. " If a city is a single and continuous whole, 
surely a family is so too, attached as it is to a single 
origin which reproduces in the members a certain 
force and common quality pervading them all ; and 

a Cf. Life of Aristeides, chap, xxvii. 7 (335 e). 

b Diels and Kranz, Frag, der Vorsokratiker & 9 i, p. 171, 
Heracleitus, b 91, or Frag. 91 (ed. Bywater) ; cf also Mor, 
392 b and 912 a. 

7 ecrri tl\ ean Reiske ; Iotiv ? 

247 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(559) dva<f)epovor)s, /cat to yewqOev ovx w? tl 8r)[juovp- 
yrjfjLa 77€7ro iff \xevov airrjXXaKTaL rod yevvrjoavTOS' 
i£ avrov yap, ovx ^ 77 ' avTOV, yeyovev, coot ex €L 
tl /cat (freperai tlov €K€tvov jxepos ev eavTco, /cat 
KoXa^opievov TrpoorjKovTOJs /cat TLjJLOJjxevov. el Se 
pur] 86£aifju Trai^eiv, eyco (f>air)v av dvSptdvra Ka- 
odvhpov /cara^aA/ceuojitevov vri* 'AdrjvaLOjv 7rdax €lv 
dSiKcorepa 1 /cat to Alovvolov 2 otofjua pbeTa ttjv 
TeXevTrjv i^opi^ofievov vtto ?LvpaKooLtov 3 rj tovs 
eKyovovs avTtov Slktjv tlvovtcls. tco fiev yap 
E dvSpidvTL tt)s KaodvSpov cfrvoetos ovdev eveoTLV* 
/cat tov veKpov rj Alovvolov ^XV ^poXeXoirrev 
Nuaata) Se /cat ' ArroXXoKpaTeL /cat * KvTLnaTpoj /cat 
OtAt7T77a> /cat tols a'AAots" 6/jlolojs 77atcrt 5 TCOV 

TTOVrfpCOV TO KVpLOJTaTOV €fJL7T€(f>VK€V KOL TTapeOTL 

fiepos, ovx U av X a ^ ov °^°c dpyov, dXXd l^coglv avTto 
/cat Tpe(f>ovTaL /cat Stot/cowrat /cat (f>povovoLV /cat 
ovdev SeLVov ov8* ojtottov av, eKeivojv ovTes, e'^axTt 6 
ra eKeivcov. 

YLadoXov 8' eLirelv, 1 toorrep ev laTpLKjj to 
F xPV (JL l JLOV Kai ^LKaLov ecrTLV, /cat yeAoto9 o <j)daKCov 

1 dbiKCJTepa Victorius : dSt/ccorara. 

2 Siovucrtou G 3 X 3 M 3 V (Stovuatov v) Y 3 W 2 : Biovvoov. 

3 ovpaKoaioiV N W : ovpaKooolcov G 3 X 1 F ; GvppaKovolcov 
G 1 X 3 hki Vv ; ovpaKovolcov. 

4 oi50ei> eveoTi Reiske : ovdev ion {-iv N Y ; ov fjuereon X 3 ). 

5 iraial a 3 : nam. 

6 e'xcucrt] ndoxcuoL Pohlenz ; arrexcooi Post. 

7 elrrelv X 3 : e?7rov. 

° C/. ilfor. 1001 c. 
248 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 559 

what has been begotten is not severed from the be- 
getter, as if it were some product of his art a ; it has 
been created out of him, not by him, and thus not 
only contains within itself a portion of what is his, 
but receives a portion of his due when rightly punished 
or honoured. b If you would not take it for a joke, 
I would say that a statue of Cassander was more 
unjustly treated when the Athenians hammered it 
into scrap, and the body of Dionysius, when after 
his death the Syracusans cast it beyond their borders,** 
than were their descendants when they paid the 
price. For in the statue there is nothing of Cassander 's 
nature, and the corpse of Dionysius has been deserted 
by his soul, whereas in Nysaeus and Apollocrates, 6 
in Antipater and Philip/ and similarly in the other 
children of the wicked, the father's principal part is 
inherent and innate, not quiescent or inert, but by 
it they live, thrive, are governed, and think ; and 
there is nothing shocking or absurd that they, who 
are their fathers' children, receive their fathers' due. 
" To put it generally, as in medicine what is helpful 
is also just/ and he is ridiculous who calls it unjust 

6 Cf Proclus, On Providence, col. 137. 32-39 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

c Not mentioned elsewhere ; it doubtless occurred when 
Demetrius took Athens in 307. 

d Cf Life of Timoleon, chap. xxii. 2 (246 r). 

e Athenaeus (435 e-f) calls these the sons of the elder 
Dionysius. Nysaeus was banished after a short reign ; the 
fate of Apollocrates is unknown. As Apollocrates was the 
name of the eldest son of the younger Dionysius, it has been 
thought that Athenaeus is mistaken in assigning to the elder 
Dionysius a son of that name. If so, Plutarch appears to 
share the error. 

f The sons of Cassander. Philip died of consumption 
after a few months' reign ; Antipater was murdered. 

9 For what follows cf. Proclus, On Providence, col. 138. 
7-15 (ed. Cousin 2 ). 

249 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(559) a'St/cov elvai roov la^iov 1 ttovovvtcx)v /cat'etv rov 
avTiyeipa /cat rov tJttoltos vttovXov yeyovoros 
dfJivaaeLV to liriydoTpiov, /cat toov fiocov, dv els 
rds ^Aa? /jlolXolklwglv, 77pocraAet</>etv rd a/cpa rtov 
Kepdrcov, ovtcds 6 , Trepl rds /coAacrcts" dXXo tl 
St/catov r) to 6epa7T€V€iv 2 rrjv kclkiclv r)yovpL€Vos, 
/cat dyavaKTOiv edv tls St' erepcov e<^' irepovs 
dvacf)€prj rrjv larpelav, wonep ol rrjv </>Ae)8a St- 
oupovvres tVa rrjv 6<f>daXfJLLav Kov<j>iaa)oiv , ovSev 
560 €OLK€v Trepairepa) rrjs alcrOfjcreajs icf)opdv, ov8e 

{JLV7]fJLOV€V€LV 3 OTL Kol hlhaOKaXoS TTOLlScOV €VOS 

KadiKopievos irepovs evovOerrjcrev, /cat Grparr/yos 
€K Se/caSo9 dveXcbv eva Trdvras iverpeifjev,* /cat 
ovtojs ov fjbepei Sta fxepovs irepov \xovov, aAAa 
koX ift v X7i ^ L( * foxiS ytvovrai rives Siadecreis koll 
kolko)0€ls /cat €TravopQdc>oeis jli&XXov r) Utopian 5 Sta, 

GCjbfJLCLTOS. €/C€t [1€V ydp, OJS €OLK€V, TO OLVTO Set 6 

irdOos eyyiveodai /cat ttjv avrrjv pL€TOLf5oXf)v , ev- 
ravOa S' rj $VXV> ra ^ <J>olvtolo lolls dyofievrj Kara 
to dappelv /cat SeSteVat, ^etpov r) fieXrLov Sta- 
ylyveaOoLL rrecfrvKev." 

17. "Ert S' ifjiov 7 Xeyovros V7roXa^d)v 8 6 'OAu/z- 
7tlxos, ' eot/cas/' £</>?}> " rep Xoyco pLeydXrjv vtto- 
B deoLV VTTOTLOeadaL, rrjv eTTLpLovrjv rrjs fox^s" 

1 luxiov] lo X ltov G 1 X 1 F R N M v 1 Y W 1 . 

2 0€pa7T€V€Lv] depenrevov Reiske. 

3 fivrjfxoveveiv G 1 Z i M 3 C 2 : fjivr)fxov€V€L. 

4 iverpeipe l 2 and Reiske : averpeifie X 3 hki W 2 ; avecrrpeifjc 
(-€v Y ; aveareipev N). 5 GO)fxari\ rco GcLfxari G X F Z. 

6 bet] 8ij X x u F Z lss (omitted in G). 

7 8' ipLov Bern. : 8e jjlov. 

8 VTToXafiajv] VTTofioXtOV G 1 X 1 F Z. 

a Cf. Caelius Aurelianus, Morb. Chron. v. 1. 21. 
250 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 559-560 

to cauterize the thumb of a patient whose hip is 
diseased," to scarify the epigastric region for a sup- 
purating liver, 6 and when cattle get soft hooves, to 
anoint the tip of the horns, c so too, whoever thinks 
that in punishments there is any other justice than 
to heal the vice, and is shocked when some persons 
are used as intermediaries in treating others, as when 
ophthalmia d is relieved by opening a vein, appears 
to see no farther than the reach of sense, and not to 
remember that a schoolmaster who strikes one boy 
admonishes others, that a general who executes one 
man in ten e inspires his whole army with respect, 
and that in this way certain dispositions, afflictions, 
and corrections are transmitted not only to one part 
through another, but also to one soul through another, 
and indeed more readily than to the body through 
the body. For when the transmission is through the 
body, the same affection and change, it appears, must 
take place in both parts ; whereas the nature of the 
soul is such that it is guided by imagination to feel 
assurance or terror, and thus fare better or worse." 

17. I was still speaking when Olympichus broke in : 
" You appear," he said, V to rest your case on a very 
considerable assumption : the survival of the soul." f 

b Cf. Caelius Aurelianus, Morb. Chron. iii. 4. 57, 66, and 
Paul of Aegina, vi. 47. 

c Cf. Aristotle, Hist. Animal, viii. 7 and 23 (595 b 13-15, 
604 a 14-17) ; Cato, Be Agri Cultura, lxxii ; Pliny, N.H. 
xxviii. 266 ; Columella, vi. 15. 2 ; Geoponica, xvii. 9. It is 
conjectured that the word " horn " originally meant " hoof." 

d Cf. Hippocrates, Epidem. ii. 6. 12 ; Galen, Be Cur. Rat. 
per Venae Sect. chap, xvii (vol. xi, pp. 299-301 Kiihn). 

e This is the Roman punishment of decimation : cf. Livy, 
ii. 59 ; Suetonius, Augustus, 24>. 

f The wicked, if punished through their descendants, 
must somehow survive if the punishment is to reach them. 

251 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(560) " Kat vfjLcov ye" elirov iyco, <l SlSovtcov, pLtxAAov 
Se SeScoKOTCov cos yap tov 8eov to /car' d^iav 
vepLOVTOS rjfJLiv 6 Aoyos i£ dpxrjs Sevpo 7TpoeArj- 
Avdev." 

OLK€lVOS, €IT0L O , €<p7] , VOfJU^LS €7T€GUaL 

TCp 1 TOVS deOVS €77t/3Ae77£lV KCLl V€fJL€LV €KCLGTa TCOV 

kclO' rjpias to tols ifjv)(as vrrdpyeLV ?} irapmav 
a<f>9apTOVs rj %povov tlvol /xcra ttjv TeAevTiqv 
eTTinevovaas ;" 

VJVK, co yaue; etTrov, aAAa [iiKpos ovtco /cat 
Kevooirovhos 6 6eos eoTLV, coaTe pirjSev rjpLcov €^ov- 
tojv Oelov iv avTols parjSe TTpoaopLOLOv apLCooyeircos 

C £K€LVCp KCLI SldpK€S Kdl fiefiaLOV, dAAct (f)vAAoLS, 
cos "Opirjpos €<j> r l> 7Ta P a7T Arj (7 LCDS a7TOpLCLpCUVOpL€VCOV 
TravTairaai koX ^>6lvovtcov iv oAlycp 3 iroielod ai Aoyov 

TOOOVTOV , 0)07T€p (XI TOVS ' A8(OVl8oS KT]7TOVS tlT* 

OOTp&KOlS TLol TL0r]VOVpL€Vai KCLL 6epa7revovaaL 

yvvaiKes, i(f)7]piepovs 2 ifjvyds iv crap/a Tpvcf>epa Kal 

filov pi^av tayvpav ov heyopbevrj jUAacrTavovcras , 

€ltcl a7rooj3€VVvpL€vas evdvs 3 vtto ttjs Tvxovorjs 

rrpo^daecos ; el Se fiovAet, tovs aAAovs deovs 

idaas GKorrei tovtovI tov ivTavdol tov rjpieTepov 

el ctol Sok€l tols i/jvyds tcov TeAevTcovTCOv cxTToAAvpii- 

vas imoTapLevos evOvs, cooirep opiiyAas t) kcxttvovs 

D diroTTveovoas tcov ocopL&TCov* lAaapLovs re 7toAAovs 

TTpoa^epeiv tcov KcxToiypp^ivcov Kal ye pa pceydAa 

Kal Tipids aTTacTelv 5 tols TedvrjKOGLV, i^airaTCov Kal 

1 ra>] to G 1 X 1 ^ F 1 Z N OW 1 . 

2 Pohlenz would add anelpcov after efafiepovs. 

3 €&$i$ GXFZRy: del 

252 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 560 

" I do," I said, " and you concede or rather have 
conceded it ; for our discussion has proceeded from 
the outset on the assumption that God allots us our 
deserts." 

11 Why, do you think," he said, " that if the gods 
attend to us and mete out every particular of our 
lives, it follows that our souls are either altogether 
imperishable or survive for some time after death ? " a 

';■ It doesn't follow, my good friend ? " I asked. " Is 
God instead so petty and so absorbed in trifles that 
if we had nothing divine in us or in some sort re- 
sembling him and enduring and constant, but like 
leaves, as Homer & said, withered quite away and 
perished after a brief space, he would make so much 
of us, and like the women who nurse and tend their 
' gardens of Adonis ' c in pots of earthenware, would 
tend souls of a day grown in a frail vessel of flesh that 
admits no strong root of life, only to be presently 
extinguished on the slightest occasion ? But if you 
will, leave the other gods aside, and consider whether 
in your opinion our own god of this place, knowing 
that when men die their souls perish immediately, 
exhaled from the body like vapour or smoke, never- 
theless prescribes many appeasements of the dead 
and demands for them great honours and considera- 
tion, deluding and cheating those who put faith in 

a Cf. Mor. 1107 b. 

b II. vi. 146 ; cf. Mor. 1090 b. 

c These were pots or baskets in which wheat, barley, 
lettuce, and fennel were sown. When the plants sprouted, 
the " gardens " were taken out at the funeral of the god and 
cast into springs. Cf. Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroem. 
Gr. i, p. 19, with the note. 

4 tcjv aayfjLdrcjv] tov orwfJLaros F. 
6 airaiTtlv G 3 Z 2? Ry k N 2 : an an el. 

253 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(560) (/>€vaKi^a>v tovs TTLGrevovras. iycb puev yap ovk 
av rrpo€ijjir]v rrjs fax^S r W otapLovrjv, el parj tls 

OJG7T€p 6 'HpOLKXrjs V<})€\oJV TOV Tpi7To8a TTJS TlvOlOLS 

dvaLprjaei 1 /cat Sta</>#€pet 2 to xP r J aT VP LOV ' ^XP L ^ 
rod 77oAAa roiavra' TrpodeuTTL^euOaL kqX kcl6' rjjJLas 
ota /cat Kopa/ct rep Na£ta> XPV aOfjvai XeyovGiv, 

01>X OGLOV €GTL TTJS ^XV^ KCLTOLyVCOVai daVCLTOV." 

Kat 6 TlarpoKAeas, " ri S' rjv," e</)r), li to XP 7 !" 
adev, fj tls 6 ' Kopal; ' ovtos ; ojs e/xot /cat to 
E TTpdypia /cat to ovopua^opLevov* £evov." 

Uvoapiojs, etTTov, aAA atTto? eycu, irap- 

OJVVpLtp XP r J G( *'l JL€VO S o\vTL TOV OVOpLCLTOS. 6 yap 

airoKTeivas iv ttj pta-XT) tov 'Ap^tAo^ov 6/caAetro 

KaAAoJvS^?, 5 OJS €OLK€V, TjV 8' aVTtp K.6pa£ €7TQ)- 

vvpuov. 6 eK^Xrjdels §e to rcpGjTov vtto ttjs Ylvdlas 
ojs Upov dvSpa tojv M.ovg<jov dvrjp7]KOJS, etra ^p^aa- 
puevos Xltclls rtcrt /cat TrpoGTpoTrals 1 /xera St/cato- 
Xoylas, ihceAevGOrj Tropevdels €ttl T7]v tov Terrtyos" 
olktjglv tAaaaa^at tt)v tov 'Ap^tAo^ou ifjvxrjv. 
tovto 8' rjv 6 Talvapos' e/cet yap (j>aGLV iXdovTa 
pL€To\ gtoXov Terrtya tov Kp^Ta 77oAtv /crtaat /cat 

1 avaip^aet] avouprjGr) X 1 F Z N M Y CW. 

2 hta^depel X 3 : hia<j>e<-ipii (Sia</>0€ipa G 1 R hi V 2 or e). 

3 he added by S 1 and Meziriacus. 

4 ovofxa^oixevov] ovofia Ry. 

5 KaXXa>vbr]S X F N M Y : KaXowhrjs. 

6 €7TOJVVfXLOv] ilTOJVVpiOV G R hki. 

7 TTpoorpoirals Emperius : irpoTpoirais {rpoTrals G Vv 1). 

° C/. Li/I? of Numa, chap. iv. 9 (62 c). The fullest version 
of the story is in Aelian, Frag. 80 (ed. Hercher) : " Not even 
in death do the gods forget the good. Thus Archilochus, a 
noble poet, if you take away his indecency and abusiveness 

254 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 560 

him. For my part, I will never give up the survival 
of the soul until some second Heracles makes off with 
the tripod of the Pythia and abolishes and destroys 
the oracle ; but so long as many responses are de- 
livered even in our day of the kind that the Naxian 
Corax a is said to have received, it would be impious 
to pass sentence of death upon the soul." 

" What response was given ? " Patrocleas inquired. 
" And what manner of creature was this ' corax ? ' b 
I know neither the story nor what is meant by the 
word." 

" Not so/' said I ; " the fault is mine for using a 
sobriquet instead of the name. The slayer of Archi- 
lochus in the battle was called Callondes, we are told ; 
[ Corax ' was his nickname. At first the Pythia drove 
him away as one who had killed a man sacred to 
the Muses ; but on resorting to certain prayers and 
entreaties, and pleading his cause, he was bidden to 
proceed to the dwelling of Tettix and appease the 
soul of Archilochus. (The place was Taenarus ; 
Tettix the Cretan is said to have come there with a 

and rub it out like a stain, was pitied by the Pythian Apollo, 
though killed in war, where the chance is equal. When his 
slayer, Calondas by name, but nicknamed Corax, came to 
make certain requests to the god, the Pythia refused him en- 
trance as one polluted, and spoke the well-known words [that 
is, M.ovoda)v 0€pa.7rovTa KareKraves, e^tdt v-qov, " The Muses' 
servant hast thou slain : begone ! " Cf. Galen, Protrepticus, 
ix. 1]. He pleaded the fortune of war, said that he had either 
to kill or be killed, begged the god not to regard him as an 
enemy if he was victim of his fate, and cursed himself for not 
preferring death to killing. The god took pity on him for 
this and bade him go to Taenarus, where Tettix is buried, 
and appease the soul of Telesicles' son [that is, Archilochus] 
and deprecate its anger with libations. He obeyed, and was 
delivered from the god's wrath." 
b That is, " crow." 

255 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

' ) KaroLKrjaai Trepl 1 to ifjvxoTrojJLireLov. 2 ofiOLtus Se 
kcll Ti7Taprtdratg xpyjadev IXdaaaOai rrjv Havaa- 
viov ifjvxtfv, e£ 'ItclXlcls fxer air e^devres oi ^X" 
ay coy ol kcll Ovgclvtzs aTreandaavTO rod Lepov to 
€l8lq\ov. 

18. " E£? ovv Iotl Xoyos," €cf>rjv, z " 6 rod 6eov 

T7JV TTpOVOLCLV CLjJLCL KCLL TTjV Si-a/ZOV^V 4 Ti)S CLvdptOTTLVrjS 

ifsvxrjs fizfiaitov , kcll Odrepov ovk zgtlv aTroXLTreiv 
dvaipovvTCL Odrepov. ovarf 8e rfj faxfj* /xera tt)v 
reXevrrjv puaXXov €lko$ ion kcll tljjlcls a7To8l8oo6aL 
561 kcll TLfAcopLCLS' dycovl^eraL yap cocnrep ddXrjrrjs TOV 
fiioVy otclv Se 8LaycovLG7]raL, rore rvyxdveL rcov 

TTpOOrjKOVTLQV. dXXd CLS [JL€V €K€L KCL0' €CLVTr)V OVOCL 

KojJLi^eTCLL rcov TTpofiefiLCopLevcov x^P LTa ^ V twos 
KoXdaeis ovOiv elai 7 npos rjpL&s tovs l^covtcls, dXX 

CLTTLGTOVVTCLL KCLL XcLvOdvOVOLV at Se 8lc\ TCOV TTaL8cOV 

Iovctcll kclI 8lol yevovs , ifx^avels rols 8evpo yivo- 
fjuevcLL, 8 ttoXXovs dirorpeTrovGi KCLL ovariXXovGL TCOV 
Trovrjpcov. otl S' ovk €otlv alax^cov ov8e Xvnovod 
7tou 9 llolXXov erepa koXclgls rj rovs i£ iavrcov kclkcl 
rrdaxovras 8l clvtovs opav, kcll otl lJjvx^v av8 pos 
acre/Sods /cat 7Tapav6[JLov /xera ddvarov i<f>opcocrav 
B ovk dv8pidvrcLS ov8e rt/xas 1 tlvcls dvaTpeTropLevas , 

1 nepl] irapa a. 

2 lpVXOTTOfJL7T€LOV (~LOV N 1 )] iffVXOTTOfjLTTLOV G 1 X 1 . 

3 ion Aoyos ecfr-qv GXFZI: ionv €<f>7)p (ecfyrj Y 1 ) Aoyos. 

4 8ta/xov^] 8tavo/*V G 1 X 1 Z Ry hi N M 1 Y 1 C 1 . 

5 ovarj\ ovoav K ; Biafjievovar) ? nos ; Trepiovorj ? Post. Per- 
haps totc should be added after ion below. 

6 rrj i/jvyv] t^v ifsvxrjv R ac K i. 

7 cbi] ion K hki {-v N) M Y 1 * CW. 

256 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 560-561 

fleet and founded a city, settling at the Passage of 
Souls.) In like manner the Spartans were directed 
by an oracle to appease the soul of Pausanias ; they 
then sent to Italy for evocators who performed a 
sacrifice and drew the shade away from the temple. a 
18. " It is one and the same argument, then," 
I pursued, " that establishes both the providence of 
God and the survival of the human soul, and it is 
impossible to upset the one contention and let the 
other stand. But if the soul survives, we must expect 
that its due in honour and in punishment is awarded 
after death rather than before ; for its life is like 
an athlete's contest, and only when it has fought that 
contest to the end does it receive its deserts. 5 But 
the rewards and penalties (as the case may be) for 
its past life that the soul receives in the other world, 
in its separate existence, are for us, the living, as if 
they did not exist — they are disbelieved and escape 
us — ; whereas the rewards and penalties that reach 
such souls through children and descendants are 
rendered visible to the inhabitants of this world and 
thus deter and discourage many of the wicked. That 
no punishment, we may presume, is more shameful 
or galling than to see one's progeny suffer on one's 
own account, and that the soul of an impious and 
lawless man who should behold after death not 
statues or honours subverted, but children or friends 

° The temple was that of Athena Chalcioecus at Sparta, 
where Pausanias starved to death. Cf. 'OfirjpiKal McAe'rcu, 
Frag. 1 (vol. vii, p. 99 Bern.), and Thucydides, i. 134. 

6 Cf. Mor. 1105 c. 

8 yivofievat, X 3 Ry hki Vv : y€vo\i€va.i, 

9 ovhe Xvirovad ttov X d Ry Vv : /cat Xvirovod ttov X 1 F S 
Y l »* ; ovhk Xvttovgo. G Z I hki N M Y" C 1 W R . 

vol. vii K 257 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(561) aAAa 7701809 rj (frtXovs r) yevos otKeiov 1 avrrjs 
aTVxrffACLVi Xpco/xeVofS' pieydXois St' avrr)v kcu 8lktjv 
tivovtcls, ovhzls av dvarreioetev 2 avdis €7tl rats rov 
Alos TLficus dSiKov yeveodat koll aKoXaorov, €%co 

JJL€V Z TLVa KOLL X6yOV <L7T€LV €VCLy)(OS aKr)KO(x)S> OKVCO 

8e jjirj (f>avf) (jlvOos vpuv fiovov* ovv ^pco/xat rep 

€lKOTL. 

" MrjSapLcos , " 66776V o 'OAtf/xm^o?, " aAAd 8UX6e 
KOLKelvov." 

la oe av ra koll rojv clAAqjv oeopuevojv, eaoare, 
eiTTOV, " aTroSovval fie rep Xoycp to €lk6s* vorepov 
8e rov fjivdov, eav 86£rj, KLvrjoajpiev, 5 ex ye 8r) jivOos 
eonv. 

C 19- *0 yap Btcov rov deov KoXd^ovra tovs 
770,180-9 rtov TTovrjpebv yeXoiorepov elvai cfrrjoiv 
larpov Std vooov TTaimov koX rrarpos eKyovov r] 
77au>a (f>ap/JLaKevovTOS . eon oe rrfj jxev dvofiota ra 
TTpdyfiara 6 ' vooov jxev ydp dAAos d'AAov ov Travel 
OepaTrevopievos y ov8e j3eXnov ns eo"X e T ** )V ocf)6aX- 
pacovrajv rj nvperrovroav I8thv dXXov vrraXetcpopLevov 
r) KaraTrXarropievov al 8e npLOjplat rtov 7rovrjptov 
8td rovro 8eLKVwrai ttoloiv, on 8lkyjs Kara Xoyov 

D nepaivopLeviqs epyov eonv erepovs St' ereptov KoXa- 
C^opLevtov e7Tio)(eiv. rj 8e TTpooeoiKe rep tpqrovpuevto 
to 7Tapaj3aXX6pLevov vtto rov Bta>vo9 eXaOev avrov 
rj8r) ydp dv8pos 619 voorjpia pLoxOrjpov, ov pLrjv 

1 olkclov X 3 hki M 1 : rj oIkclov (rj olkclovs V 2 ). 

2 avarrelcrciev Coray : dya7rr^a€i€v (a.7rari]0€L€V ? Post). 

3 Ixo) flip] e X ofiev X 1 Z 1 I N 1 V 2 . 

4 jxovov Bern, (fjuova) S' ? Pohlenz ; fiova) y Sieveking) : /xovw. 

5 KLVrjaajfJLev] Kivrjcrofiev G ras v Z Ry S Vv C. 

6 rrpdy fiara] rrpdyfiara rrrj hk ioiKora koX o/xoia X 3 . 

258 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 561 

or his own kindred involved in terrible calamities 
through his own fault and paying the price, could 
never be induced, for all the honours rendered to 
Zeus, a once more to become unjust and licentious, 
is shown by an account I recently heard ; but I fear 
you would take it for a myth. & I confine myself 
accordingly to probabilities." 

" By no means do so," said Olympichus, " but let 
us have it too." 

As the others made the same request, I said : 
" First let me complete my account of the prob- 
abilities ; later, if you decide, let us venture upon 
the myth — if myth it is. 

19. " Bion c says that in punishing the children of 
the wicked God is more ludicrous than a physician 
administering medicine to a grandson or son for a 
grandfather's or father's disorder. The two pro- 
cedures, it is true, are in one way dissimilar : the 
treatment of one person cannot arrest the disease of 
another, and no victim of ophthalmia or fever ever 
improved on seeing another treated by salve or 
poultice ; whereas the reason for making a public 
spectacle of the punishment of evildoers is that the 
function of justice, when rightly administered, is to 
restrain some men by punishing others. But on the 
other hand Bion failed to notice where his comparison 
of the physician really resembles the point under 
discussion. It has been known to happen that a man 
has fallen ill of a serious but not incurable disease 

a Cf. Mor. 760 b. 

6 Cf. Mor. 589 r. For the contrast between logos (" ac- 
count " or " argument ") and mythos (" myth ") cf. Plato, 
Gorgias, 523 a. 

c Frag. 42 (ed. Mullach) ; cf. Philo, Be Providentia, ii. 7 
(p. 49 Aucher). 

259 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(561) aviaroVy epLTreaovros, elr aKpaola Kal puaXaKta 

7TpO€fJL€VOV Tip TTOiOei TO GCOfJia Kol Sia<f)9ap€VTOS, 

vlov ov hoKovvra vooelv, dXXd jjlovov emrrjheiays 
eyp VTa 7rpog rrjv avrrjv voaov, larpos r) oIkzIos rj 
dXeiTrrrjs KarafiaOcbv r) SeoTrorrjs Xi 07 ? " 7 "^* ^f JL ~ 
jSaAcov els Siatrav avorrjpdv /cat a<f)€\(hv oi/jcl Kal 
rrepLpbara koll ttotovs kclI yvvaia, (frappiaKeiais Se 
E XP r J a( ^l JL€VOS evSeAe^e'crt Kal hiarrovrjaas 1 yvpLvaaiois , 
eWe'Sacre Kal aTreTrepujjev pbeydXov rrdOovs orreppLa 
puKpov, ovk ideas els pbeyedos rrpoeXOelv. rj yap 
ovx ovro) TrapaKeXevopbeda rrpooeyew d£iovvres 
eavTOis 2 Kal Trapa^vXarreoOaL 3 Kal pur) rrapapieXeZv 
oaoi yeyovaoiv e/c rrarepajv r) pjryrepiov voorjpLari- 
kcov, dAA' evOvs e£a>deZv rrjv eyKeKpapuevrjv dpxrjv, 
evKLvrjrov ovoav Kal aKpoo(f)aXrj rrpoKaraXapi^d- 
vovras ; "* 

Ildvu puev ovv," ecfraaav. 

Ov Toivvv aroTroVy" elrrov, " dAA' avayKaZov, 
ovhe yeXolov dXX d)(j)eXipLov rrpaypLa rroiovpiev, 
F eTTiXrjTTTiKOJV TTaial Kal pLeXayxpXiKOJv Kal 7708a- 
ypiKcov yvpbvdaia Kal Staira? Kal (fidppiaKa Trpoa- 
dyovres ov voaovoiv, dAA' eveKa rod pur) voorjaai- 
to yap eK rrovrjpov owpcaros yivopuevov crcu/xa 
Tipiojplas piev ovSepuas, larpeias Se Kal <f>vXaKr)s 
a^iov eariv rjv el tls, otl rds rjSovas d<f>aipeZ Kal 
Srjypiov errdyei Kal ttovov, riputopiav vtto oeuXias 
Kal puaXaKtas drroKaXeZ, ya' l P eiv eareov. ap* ovv 
croj/xa piev eKyovov cfravXov owpcaros a£i6v eon 
deparrevetv Kal (frvXarreiv, KaKtas Se opLOLorrjra 



1 Sunrovqaas GXF 1 : hunrovrjoas to oajfia. 
2 iavTOis X 3 C : iavrovs* 



260 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 561 

and from weakness of will and lack of fortitude has 
yielded his body up to it and succumbed, while a 
physician, kinsman, trainer, or kindly master, under- 
standing the situation, has taken that man's son, 
who to all appearance is not ill, but merely predis- 
posed to the same disease, and by subjecting him 
to a severe diet, depriving him of relishes, pastry, 
drink, and women, administering medicine without 
interruption, and keeping him busy with hard exer- 
cise, has dissipated and dispelled the tiny seed of 
a great disorder by not allowing it to grow to any size. 
Is this not indeed the advice we press upon the chil- 
dren of a sickly father or mother — to take care of 
themselves and use precaution and not be negligent, 
but expel from the start the incipient disease inherent 
in their constitution, catching it in time when it is 
still readily dislodged and has as yet but a precarious 
hold ? " 

V Certainly," they said. 

" Our action, then," said I, " is not absurd, but 
necessary, and not ridiculous, but salutary, when we 
prescribe exercise and diet and medicine to the chil- 
dren of epileptics, of melancholiacs, and of sufferers 
from the gout, not because they have the disease, 
but to keep them from getting it ; for the body born 
of a vitiated body deserves not punishment, but 
medical treatment and preventive care ; and if any- 
one is coward and weakling enough to stigmatize 
such treatment as punishment, we must not let him 
detain us. If, then, a body that comes of a vitiated 
body is deserving of treatment and care, is it right 
to do nothing about a family resemblance in vice as 

3 Trapa<f>vAdTT€adai\ <f>vXdrr€adaL GXF. 
4 7TpoKaTa\a[JLfidvoVTas] TrpoGKaraXa^dvovras G X 1 F 1 Z 1 N Y 1 . 

261 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(561) avyyevtKrjv iv veto pXaardvovaav rjdei /cat dvacjyvo- 
562 fievrjv idv Set /cat irepipbeveiv /cat JleXXeiv axP 1 ®- v 
eK^vdeloa roXs rrddeoiv ifJL(f)avrjs yevrjrai, 

KaKO(f)povd t dfjicfxivrj 1 TTpairihayv Kaprrov, 2 

cos (f>rjcn UuvSapos ; 

20. ' *H /caret rovro puev 6 deos ovbev rod 
'HcrtdSov aocfxjorepos Sta/ceAeuo/zeVou /cat rrapey- 
yvoovros, 

/xryS' drro Su<7</>ryju,oto 3 rdc/)ov drrovoGTrjaavTa 
Girepixaiveiv yeverjv, dAA' ddavdroov drro Sairos, 

cos ov KaKiav pLovov ouS' dperrjv, dXXa /cat Xvtttjv 
/cat ^apdv /cat 77dV rrddos* dvaSexofJLevrjs rr)s 
yeveaeoos, IXapovs /cat rjoels /cat Sta/cc^u/xeVovs' 
dyovros 5 rrpos ttjv reKvcoaiv ; e/cetvo Se ou/ceVt 6 
B /ca#' 'Hcrt'oSov ouSe dvdpajTTivrjs epyov ao(j>ias dXXd 
Oeov, to Siopav /cat hiaioddvzodai ras opLoioiraOeias 
/cat tol? $ia(f}opds rrplv els fxeydXa rols rrddeaiv 
ifiTTeaovaas dSt/cr^ara yeveodat Kara^avels . dp- 
ktoov {lev yap ert vrjma /cat Xvkoov re/cva /cat 
TTidrjKOOv evdvs ific/yaLvet to ovyyevks 'qOos, vtto 
pLrjSevos V7ra[JL7T€xdfi€Vov fJLrjoe Kara7TXarTOfJL€VOV' 
rj 8' dvdpooiTov Averts, els edrj /cat Soypiara /cat 
vopiovs eavrrjv epb^aXovaa, Kpyrrrei rd <f)avXa /cat 
rd /caAd /xt/x€trat TroAAd/cts 1 , coore r) rcavTaTraoiv 
e^aXelifjai /cat hia<f>vyelv eyyevfj KrjXlSa rrjs /ca/cta?, 

1 T* dfx<f)dvrj Ruhnken : t* dfx<f>avrj Vv (rdfju^avrj K lm s) ; to 
(tov G 8 M^a/u^awJ G 1 X 1 F 1 K" N 8 M 1 Y W (to d/x<jW 
N 1 ) ; tov d(j)avrj F 3 Z hki C 1 ; to ifixfravrj Ry ; t* eK<j>av€i X 3 
(t* aK(f)av€L M 3 )c 

2 /cap7roj>] KapTTCJV F M 1 Y 1 (/cat koldttcov K 1 ; /cat kcldttov K 2 
Vv). 

262 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 561-562 

it germinates and shoots up in a youthful character, 
and to delay and hold off until, spreading far and wide, 
it conies to light in the passions and 

Shows the malignant harvest of the soul, 

as Pindar a says ? 

20. " Or in this is God no wiser than Hesiod, b who 
offers this exhortation and advice : 

Nor yet returning from a burial, 

That thing of evil omen, sow thine offspring, 

But from a feast of the immortal gods, 

bringing men to procreation in a mood of gaiety and 
pleasure and cheerfulness, because their progeny 
receive from them not only vice or virtue, but sorrow, 
joy, and every kind of mood? There is another 
matter, however, no longer within Hesiod's capacity, 
nor a task for human wisdom, but rather for God : to 
discriminate and distinguish between similar and dis- 
similar propensities before the actual passions bring 
them to light by involving them in great acts of 
wrong. For whereas the young of bears and wolves 
and apes reveal their congenital character from the 
outset, undisguised and unfalsined, man has a nature 
that can enter into customs and doctrines and co3es 
c>£U^nduct and thereby often conceal its failings and 
imitate a virtuous course, with the result that it either 
wipes out and escapes altogether an inherited stain 

a Frag. 211 (ed. Schroeder). 
b Works and Days, 735 f. ; cf. Mor. 158 b. 

3 hvocfrrifjLOLo G and Hesiod : bvartjvoLo. 

4 irav TTados Post : navff oaa (omit /cat iravd* ooa as a cor- 
rupt gloSS, 7T6V0OS ?). 

5 ayovros Pohlenz : dyci G X 1 F Z y hki N 2 M Vv C ; ayrj 
N 1 Y W; ciyeivX* R. 

6 qvkztl G X F Z I 1 : ovk ecrrt. 

263 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(562) ?} SiaAafletV rroXvv y^povov olov eXvrpov tl rrjv 
C iravovpyiav 1 rrepifiaXovoav, hiaXaOelv 8e rjixas rovs 
coorrep vtto TrXrjyfjs rj SrjypLaros eKaarov rtov 
aS iKrjjJLOLTWV jjloAls alodavojJLevovs rrjs kclkIols, 
fiaXXov 8e SXcos rore yiyveodai vojxi^ovras olSlkovs 
ore olSlkovglv, aKoXdarovs ore vfipl^ovoiv, Kal 
dvdv8 povs ore <j>evyovoiv , coorrep 2 el ris oloiro 
rols OKopiTiois epLc/yveadai to Kevrpov ore rvrrrovaiv , 
kclI rats e^cSvats" rov lov ore SaKvovoiv, evrjdcos 
olopievos' ov yap dfia yiyverai /cat <f>aiverai rcov 
rrovrjpcov eKCLGTOS, aAA' ex €L ^ v *£ ^-PXV^ T V V 
kclkiclv, xPV TaL ^ KCLtpov kclI Svvdptecos emAajSo- 
pievos rco KXerrreiv 6 KXeirrrjs Kal rep rrapavopLelv 
D o rvpavvLKos. aAA' 6 deos ovre dyvoei Stjttov rrjv 
eKaarov oiddeatv koll </)volv, are orj ipvxrjs pidXXov 
rj acojuaros* aloddveodai 7re<f>vKcbs y ovr dvap^evei 
rrjv fiiav ev X € P CFL yzvofJLevrjv Kal rrjv dvaiSeiav ev 
<f>covfj z Kal rrjv aKoXaoiav ev alholois KoXd^eiv. ov 
yap dpjvverai rov dSiKrjcravra KaKcos rraOcov, ouS' 
opyi^erai rco aprrdoavrL fSiaoOeis, ov8e paael rov 
fjioixov vfipioOeis, aAA' larpeias eVe/ca rov pboix^Kov 
Kal rov* rrXeoveKTiKov Kal dStK^riKov KoXd^ei 
TToXXaKiSy coaTTep €7TiXrnfjLav rrjv KaKiav Trplv rj 
KaraXafieiv dvatpcov. 

21. " 'Hueis oe dpricos piev rjyavaKrovpLev cog 
E oifje Kal fipaoecos rcov Trovqpcov Slktjv SlSovtcov, 

1 olov eXvrpov tl ttjv rrav. nos : olov iavrfj tlvol ttjv rrav. G X 1 
I hki N M 1 Y C 1 W ; olov eXvrpov tl iavrfj rrjv irav. F M 2 ; olov 
eXvrpov rt (for eX. tl Ry have eoOrjra tlvol) rrjv rrav. iavrfj Ry 
Vv ; eTTLKaXvijjLV olov iavrfj tlvol rrjv Trav. X 3 . 

2 O)07T€p] COCTT* X 1 ; d)S X 3 K. 

3 iv cfxjovfj] ev(j>avrJL F ; e^avrj G 2 Ry K* V 2m «. 

4 Kal rov] Kal hki M. 

264 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 562 

of vice, or else eludes detection for a long time by 
enveloping itself in duplicity as in a cover, eludes 
detection by ourselves, I say, who stung or bitten, 
as it were, by the particular vicious act, come at last 
to be aware of the vice, a nay rather, who believe in 
general that men become unjust when they commit 
injustice, licentious when they gratify their lust, and 
cowards when they run away. One might as well 
fancy that scorpions grow their dart when they sting, 
and vipers generate their venom when they strike — 
a foolish notion, for the various kinds of wicked men 
do not at the same time become wicked and show 
themselves wicked ; rather, the thief and the tyrant 
possess their vice from the outset, but put their 
thievery and lawlessness into effect when they find 
the occasion and the power. But God is surely 
neither ignorant of the disposition and nature of each 
individual, as he is naturally better aware of the soul 
than of the body, nor does he wait for violence to 
show itself in the hands, impudence in the voice, and 
lewdness in the parts of shame before inflicting 
punishment. For he has not been wronged that he 
should retaliate upon the wrongdoer, nor suffered 
violence that he should be angry with the robber, 
nor been injured that he should hate the adulterer ; 
when, as he often does, he punishes those of an 
adulterous, a rapacious, and a lawless tendency, his 
purpose is to cure them, removing the vice, like an 
epilepsy, before the seizure. 5 

21. " As for ourselves, we were a moment ago re- 
sentful that the wicked should be punished late and 

a Cf. Proclus, On Providence, coll. 139. 34-140. 25 (ed. 
Cousin 2 ). 

b Cf Comm. on Hesiod, Frag. 18 (vol. vii, p. 59 Bern.); 
Caelius Aurelianus, Morb. Chron. i. 4. 95. 

265 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(562) vvv 8e otl Kal ttoIv dSt/ceiv eviojv 1 ttjv e(;iv avrrjv 2 
KoXovet Kal ttjv 8id0€cnv iyKaXovfiev dyvoovvTes 
otl tov yevopuevov ttoAAolkls to pteXXov, Kal to 
XavOdvov tov TrpohrjXov, yelpov ioTi Kal (frofiepa)- 
Tepov, ov SvvdfJLevot 8e ovXXoy l^eo 6 at tols atria? 
St' a? eviovs pcev Kal aSiKrjoavTas eav /Je'ArioV 
iarTLV, eviovs 8e Kal hiavoovpievovs irpoKaTaXapL- 
j3dvetv couirep dfieXet Kal </>ap/xa/ca evioLs fiev oi>x 
dpfjio^ei vooovolv, evioLs 8e XvoLTeXel Kal /jltj 

VOOOVOLV €7TLO(f)aX€OT€pOV €K€LVOJV eyOVOLV '. 66 ev 

F ov8e irdvTa 

ra t<jl)v t€kovtojv o(f>dXjxaT iz els tovs eKyovovs 
ol deol Tperrovaiv, 

dXX edv {lev €K <f>avXov yevr)T ai ^p^aTos*, ojorrep 
€V€Ktlkos €K voooj8ovs , a^etrat ttjs tov yevovs 

TTOLvfjS, oloV €K7TO L7)TOS* TTJS KaKLaS y€VOfJL€VOS, 

vooa)8eL 5 8e et9 ofjLotoTTjTa pbox6rjpov yevovs dva- 
(frepofJLevto TTpoorjKeL 8r)7Tov9ev ojs xpea KXrjpovo pitas 
8ia8e)(eodai ttjs Trovqpias ttjv KoXaoLV. ov yap 
'AvTiyovos ye Sia ArjpaJTpLov, ov8e tcov npoTepatv 6 
<!)vXevs St' Avyeav ov8e NeoTOjp 8lo\ NrjXea 8iKas 

1 ivlcov] ivtovs X 3 . 

2 ttjv (z£lv ai)T7]V nos : ttjv e£iv (tol^lv Ry) olvtcov (auTa>i> rrjv 
e£iv hki). 

3 cr^aA/xar'] None of the mss. elides. 

4 €K7tol7]tos Victorius : e'/c ttolottjtos- 

5 voou)b€L Post : voaco (vooov Y ; voocov y c ; vico X 3 ). 

6 Trporipoiv Emperius : nov-qpcov. 

a Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Eur. 980 : cf. 556 e, supra. 
b Demetrius Poliorcetes, father of Antigonus Gonatas. 
c Cf. a scholium on Iliad xi. 700 quoted in Callimachus 
(ed. Pfeiffer), vol. i, p. 85 : " At the command of Eurystheus 

266 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 562 

with delay ; we now complain that even before the 
wrong is done God chastens the mere state and dis- 
position of some. This we do, little knowing that 
threatened evil is often worse and more to be dreaded 
than actual, and hidden than manifest, and unable 
to make out the reasons why it is better to leave some 
alone, even though they have done wrong, but to 
forestall the mere intentions of others, exactly as 
medicine may be unsuitable for some, though ill, 
but beneficial to others, who although not ill, are in 
a more precarious condition. Hence comes it that 
not all 

The sins of parents on the children 
The gods do visit," 

but where a good man is born of a bad, as a healthy 
child may come of a sickly parent, the penalty 
attached to the family is remitted, and he becomes, 
as it were, adopted out of vice ; whereas if a man's 
disorder reproduces the traits of a vicious ancestry, 
it is surely fitting that he should succeed to the 
punishment of that viciousness as to the debts of 
an estate. For Antigonus paid no penalty for 
Demetrius, b nor yet, to go back farther, did Phyleus 
pay for Augeas G or Nestor for Neleus d (for the sons 

Heracles cleaned the stables of Augeas, who refused the pay- 
ment demanded, asserting that Heracles had acted under 
orders. Phyleus, son of Augeas, was made judge in the affair 
and decided against his father, who in his resentment drove 
him from the country. Heracles came with an army and 
plundered Elis, and sending to Dulichium for Phyleus made 
him king." Cf. also Apollodorus, ii. 5. 5, 7. 2, and Pausanias, 
v. 3. 1. 

d As Nestor had not joined his father and brothers in the 
theft of Heracles' cattle, he was spared and given his father's 
kingdom : c/. Philostratus, Heroicus, p. 696, and Socrati- 
corum Epist. xxxviii. 6. 

267 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

563 eScoKev 1 (e/c kolkcdv puev yap, dyaOol 8e rjaav), aAA' 
ocrwv 2 rj <f)vais eorep^e Kal TrpoorjKaro to avyye- 
V€Sy tovtoov rj 8iktj SicoKovcra ttjv o/JLOLorrjra rrjs 
kclkicls Sie^rjAdev. 3 cos yap a/cpo^o p86ves Kal 
pbeXdapbara Kal cf>aKol Traripoov iv nraiaiv dc^avt- 
odevres dveKvipav vorepov iv vlwvois Kal Ovyarpi- 
8ols y Kal yvvr\ tls 'EAA^vtV, reKovaa fSpi<f>os /xe'Aav, 
etra Kpivopbevrj pbOL^eias, i£avevpev avrrjv AWlottos 
ovoav yevedv Terdprrjv, rcbv Se HvOojvos rod @t- 
a/?ea>9 4 7rai8oov, os evay%os redvrjKev, Xeyopiivov 
tols UTraprols TTpoariKeiv, els 5 i^avrjveyK^v Xoyxrjs 
B tvttov iv rco oxo/xart, Std XP° VC0V tooovtojv dva- 
o')(OVG r qs Kal dvaovwqs caoTTtp cac fivOov rrjs npos to 
yivos opLoiorrjTos, ovrcx) TToWaKis rjdr) Kal Trddt] ipv- 
Xrjs at 7Tp6jrai KpvTrrovoi yeveoets Kal KaraSvov- 
oiv, vorepov Se irore Kal St' irepojv i^rjvdrjoev Kal 
aTreSoj/ce to olk€lov els KaKiav Kal dperrjv rj </)v- 

(Jt9. 

22. 'E776t Se ravra etTTcbv iaLOJirrjcra, Sta/zet- 
Staaas" o 'OXvpLTnxos, ' ovk eVatvoutxe'v ae," etnev, 
11 ottoos pw) 86£oop,€V d</>teVat tov pbvdov, obs rod 
Xoyov Trpos aTr68ei£iv LKavcbs e^ovros' dXXd tot€ 
80000 piev rr]v a7TO(f)aoLV orav KaKelva 6 aKovooopiev." 

Ovroos ovv ecfrrjv on HoXevs 7 dvrjp, iKeivov rod 

1 eSajKtv] eSojKav X 3 N M Vv Y. 

2 ogojv] oaov G 1 X d ? F Z R N. 

3 hietjijXOev] eVe^Aflev Reiske. 

4 eiaficws G 4SS : vtoiftews G 1 X d Ry hki {-auos N ; vo- M 1 ) 
Vv Y CW ; violas F X 1 Z M 2 . 

6 els added by Stegmann after Xoyxqs, placed here by Bern. 

6 KOLKeLVa] K0LK€lV0V X 3 . 

7 SoAevs nos : wXevs {go- X d F c ) 6€gtt€glos G X 1 F ac Z ; 
268 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 56S 

were men of virtue, though sprung from wicked 
fathers), but only to those whose nature acquiesced 
in and espoused the family trait, did punishment, 
pursuing the vicious resemblance, make its way. For 
as the warts, birthmarks, and moles of the fathers 
disappear in the children to reappear later in the 
children of sons and daughters, and as a certain 
Greek woman, on bearing a black child and being 
charged with adultery, discovered that she was fourth 
in descent from a negro, a and as among the children 
of Python of Thisbe, who died the other day, and was 
said to be akin to the Sown Men, 6 there was one that 
reproduced on his body the tracing of a spear, the 
family likeness reappearing and emerging after so 
many ages as if from the depths of the earth, so too 
the first generations often conceal and submerge 
traits and passions of the soul, while later and in the 
persons of others the family nature breaks out and 
restores the inherited bent for vice or virtue/ ' 

22. With this I fell silent. Olympichus smiled. 
" We do not applaud," he said, " lest you imagine 
we are letting you off from the myth, on the ground 
that your argument suffices to prove your case. No ; 
we shall pass judgement only when we have heard 
that further recital/ ' 

And so I went on to say that a man of Soli — a kins- 

a Cf. Aristotle, Hist, Animal, vii. 6 (586 a 2-4), Gen. 
Animal, i. 18 (722 a 8-11), Antigonus, Hist. Mir. chap, cxii 
(122), Aristophanes, Hist. Animal. Epit. ii. 272, Pliny, N.H. 
vii. 51. 

b The " Sown Men " claimed descent from the warriors 
that sprang from the earth when Cadmus sowed the dragon's 
teeth. For the spear cf. Dio Chrysostom, Or. iv. 23. 

ooXevs (ao)- N M 1 Vv Y W) 6 Oeonioios (o S. 'AptSato? Hart- 
man). 

269 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(Obo) y €V0 ^vov fied* rjfJLcbv 1 ivravda Tlpojroyevovs ot- 

K€LO$ /Cat CpiXoS, €V TToXXfj filWOCLS OLKoAaaLCL TOV 

rrpcorov xP° vov > elra ra^u rrjv ovaiav drroXeoas, 
rjSrj yj>6vov riva /cat Sta, rrjv dvdyKrjv eyevero 
rrovqpos, /cat rov ttXovtov e/c pueravoias Slcokcov, 
tclvto tols aKoXdorots eVaa^e ttolOos, ot rds 
yuvat/cas exovres /xev ou cfyvXarrovotv , rrpoepLevoi 
Se 7T€ipa>oiv avdis olSlkcos ire pots avvovoas. 2 
ovSevos ovv a7T€x6p<€VOS alaxpov cf>epovros els 
drroXavaiv rj KepSos, ovaiav puev ov TroXXrjv, oo£av 
Se TTOvTjpias iv oXiyca TrXeiori^v ovviqyayev. pid- 

J) Atcrra Se avrov Ste'/3aAev aVeve^etaa rts e£ 'AjU,</>t- 
Xoxov /xavTeta* rrepufjas ydp, ojs eoiKev, rjpwra rov 
deov et fieXriov /JtaWerat rov €7TiXoittov fiiov o Se 
dvelXev on rrpd^et fieXnov orav a7roddvrj, 

Kat 8rj rpoiTov nvd rovro fier' ov ttoXvv xpovov 
avrcp ovv€7T€0€V. Karevex^eis yap i£ vifjovs TWOS 
els rpdx^jXov, ov yevofievov rpavpuaros dXXd 
TrXrjyfjs* fiovov, e^edavev, /cat rpiralos rjSrj rrepl 
rds ra</)ds avrds dv-qveyKev. ra^u Se pcooOels /cat 
Trap avrcp yevopbevos, amorov riva rod fiiov rrjv 
pLerafioXrjv €7TOL7]0€V oxire yap SiKacorepov rrepl ra 
au/xj8oAata yivtooKovoiv erepov* Kt'At/ces ev rots 
rore XP° V01 S yevopuevov, 5 oxire rrpos to Oelov ocrico- 

E repov ovre XvTrrjporepov exOpois rj fiefiaiorepov 
(friXoLS* coore /cat iroOelv rovs evrvyxdvovras avrcp 

1 rjfxwv G 1 Vv : r]jxas* 

2 hia(f)d€Lp€LV is omitted by Cobet after owovoas. 

3 7r\r)yr}s] nX^yels Z hki Y 1 . 

4 €T€pov] dripcov Ry ; G Z omit. 

5 yevofievov] yw6fjL€Vov h ac M Y 1 . 

270 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 563 

man and friend of that Protogenes a who was once 
with us here — had spent his early life in great dis- 
sipation, and then, soon running through his estate, 
had for some time practised a further villainy brought 
on by his straitened circumstances. Reversing his 
attitude toward wealth, he now courted it, acting like 
the libertines who when they have a wife do not keep 
her, but let her go, and then turn round and wrong- 
fully solicit her favours after she has married another. 
Abstaining, then, from no shameful act conducive to 
gratification or gain, he accumulated no very con- 
siderable fortune, but in a brief space a prodigious 
reputation for knavery. But the greatest blow to 
his good name was a response conveyed to him from 
the oracle of Amphilochus. & He had sent (it appears) 
to ask the god whether the remainder of his life 
would be better spent. The god answered that he 
would do better when he died. 

In a sense this actually happened to him not long 
after. He had fallen from a height and struck his 
neck, c and although there had been no wound, but 
only a concussion, he died away. On the third day, 
at the very time of his funeral, he revived.** Soon 
recovering his strength and senses, he instituted a 
change in his way of life that could hardly be be- 
lieved ; for the Cilicians know of no one in those 
times more honest in his engagements, more pious 
toward heaven, or more grievous to his enemies and 
faithful to his friends ; so that all who met him longed 

a Protogenes of Tarsus is mentioned in Mor. 749 b. 

6 A celebrated oracle at M alios in Cilicia : cf. Mor. 434 d. 

c The neck is the " isthmus and boundary " between the 
head, the abode of the divine part of the soul, and the body, 
the abode of its mortal part : cf. Plato, Timaeus, 69 c-e. 

d Cf. Plato, Republic, 614 b. 

271 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(563) rrjv alriav aKovoai rfjs 8ia<f>opas, ovk and rov 
tv^ovtos oiofievovs yeyovevai StaKoopbrjorLV 1 els 
rjdos Tocravrrjv. oirep fjjv dXrjdes, obs avros Sirjyelro 

TCp T€ Ylpa>TOy€V€L KCLL TOIS OfJbOLO)^ emeiKeOl TCJV 
<j>iXo)V. 

23. 5 E77€t yap e^errecre ro (f>povovv rov croo/Jbaros 
olov dv ris Ik ttXolov KV^epvrjrrjs els fivdov airop- 
picfrels 3 7tol6ol to rrpajrov, ovrojs vtto rfjs fiera- 
fioXfjs €OX €V ' € * ra piKpov e£ap6els e8o£ev dvarrvelv 
F oXos Kal rrepiopav iravraypQev >, ooorrep evos opb^iaros 
dvoixdeiorjs rfjs i/jvxfjs* eojpa 8e rcov rrporepov* 
ovOev aAA' rj ra aorpa TrafxpieyeOr] Kal aneyovra 
TrXfjQos dAA^Atov drrXerov, avyrjv 5 re rfj XP®^ 
OavfJbaorrjv d</>ievra Kal rovov ex ovaav > wore rfv 
^ V XV V €7Toxov[JL€vr]v 8 Xelojs rrXolov ooorrep 9 ev 
yaXrjvrj rep <f>corl paStws rrdvrr] Kal ra^u Sta- 
<f>epeod ai. 

Td 8e TrXelora rcov Oeapudroov TrapaXnroov , e</)7] 
rds ipvxas tcov reXevrcovroov KarooOev dvcovoas 
7TopL(/)6Xvya cfrXoyoecSfj rroiecv e^iorapuevov rov 

1 rfjs 0. ovk and rov t. 01. y. hiaK. Ry ; the rest repeat rrjs 
(and so N) $ia<f>opas before 8ta/c. (rrjv 8ia*. hk), except X 3 , 
which has rov jStou instead, rrjs through yeyovevai is repeated 
in v ; -<f)opds through yeyovevai was dropped by M 1 . 

2 oftoitas G X d? F : ofioiois. 

3 arroppifyels] aiToppi<j)6els X 1 F Z i N Y. 

4 TTporepov] TTporepcov G 1 S hki {jrporepaiv M) Vv. 

5 auy77i>] avyfj G ac X 1 ? ; avyr) Z ; avyfjv F 1 . 

6 XP° a C : XP OL 9- 

7 exovcrav] ex 0V(ja G ac X 1 F 1 Z 1 (?). 

8 eTTOxovfjievrjv G 3 X 3 : evox^ovfievrjv. 

9 ttXoIov oioirep Schwartz (cboirep ttXoiov Emperius) : olov 
ojGTrep {a>cr7T€p 1). 

For the comparison of the soul or intellect to a pilot or 
272 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 563 

to hear the reason for the difference, supposing nothing 
ordinary could have caused so great a reformation 
in character. Such indeed was the case, as appears 
from the story as told by himself to Protogenes and 
other worthy friends. 

23. He said that when his intelligence was driven 
from his body, the change made him feel as a pilot a 
might at first on being flung into the depths of the 
sea ; his next impression was that he had risen some- 
what b and was breathing c with his whole being and 
seeing on all sides, his soul having opened wide as if 
it were a single eye.** But nothing that he saw was 
familiar except the stars, which appeared very great 
in size and at vast distances apart, sending forth a 
marvellously coloured radiance possessed of a certain 
cohesion, so that his soul, riding smoothly in the light 
like a ship on a calm sea, could move easily and 
rapidly in all directions. 

Passing over most of the spectacle, he said that 
as the souls of those who die came up from below 
they made a flamelike bubble as the air was displaced,* 

sailor (implied here and in Mor. 586 a) cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 
247 c, Aristotle, De Anima, ii. 1 (413 a 8 f.), and Alexander, 
De Anima, chap. xv. 9. Cf. also Mor. 1008 a. 

h His intelligence has risen from the bottom of the air to 
the enclosing sphere of fire, and this appears to him a short 
distance. On leaving the body the soul moves upwards : 
cf. Cicero, Tusc. Disput. i. 17-18 (40-43). 

c Cf. Mor. 590 c. 

d Intelligence is the eye of the soul : cf. Plato, Republic, 
519 b, with Shorey's note in the L.C.L. The disembodied 
soul now sees without the intervention of corporeal " open- 
ings " or "windows," for which cf. Cicero, Tusc. Disput. i. 
20 (46), with Pohlenz's note, and Lucretius, iii. 360. 

e A film of air from the sublunary region envelops the soul 
— which, for the purposes of the myth, is fiery — as it rises 
into the empyrean. 

273 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

564 aipos, ^ii Ta prjyvvfidvrjg drpefxa rrjs TropicfroXvyos 1 
ikf$div€iv rdftW ^Xovaas dvdpco7TO€i8rj y rov Se 
oyKov evaraXeLS, klvovjx^VIS P € °^X dp.oiios, dXXd 
rocs' /xev €K7Tiqhdv eAa^oor^Tt davjxaaffj kuX Starretv 
67r' evdeias dvco, tc\s Se cboTrep arpa/crot 2 Trepu- 
arpe^ofAevas a/za kvkXco, /cat rore pbkv Kara) rore 
Se dvco p€7Tovoas , piLKTrjv tivcl cfrepeadai /cat re- 
rapayfjLevrjv eAt/ca 3 /cat 77oAAa> irdvv XP° va> KCLL /^oAts 
dTTOKadiarapievrjv . 

as /zev ovv TroAAas rjyvoet rives eiotv, ovo oe 
rj rpels Locov yvtopipuovs , €7T€ipdro Trpoa/Ju^aL /cat 
7rpocj€i7T€LV' at Se ovt€ TjKovov ovt€ rjoav nap 

B aurats*, 4 aAA' €K<})poves /cat SieirTorjpLevaL, ndaav 
oifjcv a7Tocf)€vyovaaL /cat ifjavoiv, ipepufiovTO TTpcorov 
avral /ca#' iavrds, euro,, 7toXXcus opioitos Sta/cet- 
fievais ivTvyxdvovaat /cat TrepnrXeKopLtvai , 5 cfyopds 
re Trdoas 7rpos ovdev* aKpirtos ecfrepovro /cat cfrtovas 
teaav 7 dorfpiovs, olov aAaAayuot? 8 Oprjvov /cat 
cf)6j3ov 9 puepuypLevas. aAAat Se dvtoOev iv rep 10 
KaOapco 11 rov TrepuexovTOS 6cj)8rjvaL re <^atSpat /cat 
7Tpos aAA^Aas* V7T* evjJLeveias dapid TreXd^ovorou , 
rds Se dopvfitbSeLS e/cetVas 1 €KT perr 6 puevai, Stea^- 

C fJLdivov cbs eoLKev GvaroXfj plv et? aura? to St>cr^e- 

1 7TOjjL<l>6\vyos] 7ro{A(j>6Avyyos X 1 F here and 7TOfjL(f>6Xvyya 
above. 2 arpaKTOt] ot aVpa/crot G X F Z Ry M 2 Vv. 

3 eAt/ca supplied by us (cf. Mor. 592 a) ; klvtjglv by X 3 . 
Perhaps eAt/ca (or £\Ur)v ?) should be read for ixiKT-qv. 

4 aural?] cWafe G X F Z K M 2 . 

5 ivTvyxdvovaat /cat 7re/ot7rAe/cd/xevat X 3 Ry : ivrvyxavovoi 
(-aat Y 2 ) /cat Tre/HTrAe/co/xeVats'. 

6 o*50ev G X F Z K Vv : ovSev. 

7 teaav G 3 F 3 Ry k M C (teaav G c X d hi Vv W) : fcoav. 

8 dAaAayuotS" X 3 R c (aAAaAay/iot? R ac y) : -fiol (-[jlovs hki M ; 
-ftov N Vv ; -fiov W). 

274 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 564, 

and then, as the bubble gently burst, came forth, 
human in form, but slight a in bulk, and moving with 
dissimilar motions. Some leapt forth with amazing 
lightness and darted about aloft in a straight line, 
while others, like spindles, revolved upon themselves 
and at the same time swung now downward, now 
upward, moving in a complex and disordered spiral 
that barely grew steady after a very long time. 

Most of the souls indeed he failed to recognize, 
but seeing two or three of his acquaintance, he en- 
deavoured to join them and speak to them. These, 
however, would not hear him and were not in their 
right mind, but in their frenzy and panic avoiding all 
sight and contact, they at first strayed about singly b ; 
later, meeting many others in the same condition, 
they clung to them and moved about indistinguish- 
ably in all manner of aimless motions and uttered 
inarticulate sounds, mingled with outcries as of 
lamentation and terror. Other souls, above, in a 
pure region of the ambient/ were joyful in aspect 
and out of friendliness often approached one another, 
but shunned the other, tumultuous souls, indicating 
their distaste, he said, by contracting into themselves, 

a Cf. Mor. 1105 d. 

6 For the isolation of impure souls after death cf. Plato, 
Phaedo, 108 b-c, and the Pythagorean doctrine in Diogenes 
Laert. viii. 31. Cf. also Plutarch, Frag. Inc. 146 (vol. vii, 
pp. 174. 20-175. 1 Bern.). 

c Cf. Mor. 610 c. 

d In Mor. 943 c good souls are said to dwell for a fixed 
period in the " mildest part of the air " {h> ra> irpaoTaTcp 
rod adpos). Cf. also Plato, Republic, 520 d. 

9 (f>6pov K a 2 l 2 : (f>6vov. 

10 t<5 added by Pohlenz. 

11 KaOapw Paton : Kapcp (kolXcx) X 3 V ; aKpco a 2 ). 

275 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(564) paivov, €K7T€Tda€i Se Kol Sta/^ucret 1 to x a ^P 0V KCLl 

7TpOGl€{JL€VOV. 

24. 'Evrat>#a fxlav e(j>r] yvcovat 2 ovyyevovs twos, 
ov fJLevroL aa<f)cos' drroOavelv yap en 7rai8ds ovros' 
dXK eKeivqv 7rpoaavdyovaav z eyyvs elirelv " X°^P € 
(deGireoie." Oavpidoavros he avrov kcll (frrjoavros 
d)9 ov QeoTreaios dXX 'A/oiSards* 4 ecrriv, " Trpo- 
repov ye, (pavai, to oe airo rovoe KjearreoLOS' 
ovhe yap roi redvrjKas, dXXd fJLotpq rtvl 6ecov TjKeis 
hevpo rco (frpovovvTL, rrjv he d'AA^v ifjvxrjv djcrrrep 
dyKvptov ev rep awpuart KaraXeXoiiras • ovpifioAov 
he gol Kal vvv koX avOis eora) 6 to rag i/jvxds rebv 

D reOvrjKorajv pLrjre OKidv iroielv prcyre GKaphapLVT- 
reiv." ravra aKovoas 6 QeoTreorcos rjhr] re pidXXov 
eavrov rep Xoyl^eoOai ovvr\yayev Kal hiafiXeifjas 
elhev iavrtp p,ev riva 1 avvaiajpovpLevrjv 8 dpuvhpdv 9 
Kal gklwSt) ypapLpufjVy eKeivovs he TrepiXapLTTopbevovs 
kvkXcq Kal StacfraveLS evros, ov pirjv opLotajs 10 airav- 
ras* dXXd tovs puev coGirep rj Kadapojrdrr] irav- 
aeXrjvos ev xpeopia Xelov Kal ovvex^s o/xaAco? 11 
levras, erepojv he ^oAtSa? rtvag hcarpexovoag rj 
piwAajnas dpaiovs, dXXovs he Kopahfj ttoikiXovs 

E Kal droTTovs rrjv oifjiv, tooTrep ol ex^is pLeXdopbaoi 

1 Staxvcr€i X 3 l 2 : SiaAucra. 

2 yvcovai added by Paton (einyv&vai after aa<f>tos Reiske ; 
tSctv after twos Leonicus). 

3 irpooavayovoav] TTpoadyovoav C 2 J 1 (irpoGayayovaav Reiske). 

4 'AptScuos-] 'ApStcuo's- Wyttenbach. 

5 rouSc] tovtov G X F (rov ye N). 

6 €GTO)] eOTCLl G 1 . 

7 Pohlenz would omit rtva, retaining it after dfivopav below. 
276 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 564, 

but their delight and welcome by expansion and 
diffusion.* 1 

24. Here, he said, he recognized one soul, that of 
a kinsman, though not distinctly, as he was but a 
child when the kinsman died ; but it drew near and 
said : " Greetings, Thespesius." b He was taken 
aback and said he was not Thespesius but Aridaeus. 
" You were that before," was the reply, " but hence- 
forth you are Thespesius. For you must further 
know you are not dead, but through a divine dis- 
pensation are present here in your intelligence, 
having left the rest of your soul, like an anchor, 
behind in your body. Now and hereafter know it 
by this token : the souls of the dead neither cast a 
shadow nor blink their eyes." c At this Thespesius, 
by an effort of thought, became more collected, and 
looking steadily, saw a certain faint and shadowy 
line d floating along with him, while the rest were 
enveloped all around with light and translucent 
within, although not all to the same degree. But 
some were like the full moon at her clearest, shining 
evenly with a single smooth and unbroken hue ; 
others were shot through with scales, as it were, or 
faint bruises ; others quite mottled and odd in 
appearance, covered with black tattoo-marks, like 

° Cf. Mor. 590 c. 

b In Or. xxvi (i. 53 Keil) Aristeides dreams that Asclepius 
addresses him as Theodorus. 

c Cf. Mor. 300 c, where this belief is attributed to the 
Pythagoreans. 

d It is the shadow of the " cable " : cf. 566 d, infra. 

8 avvaio)povyif.VT]v\ avvecopovfiev^v G 1 X 1 Z 1 i N M Y 1 . 

9 dpuvSpdv X F Z hki : dfxvhpdv nva. 

10 ofAoiaJS R ac y hk M : opLoiovs* 

11 ofiaXws W 2 : /cat ofiaXcos (/cat ofjuaXov Ry ; /cat ofjuaXks X 3 ). 

277 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(564) Kareariyixevovs y dXXovs Se Tivas dpifiXelas a/xt^a? 

25. "EAeyev ow> e/caara tfrpdl^cov 6 rod QeoTreotov 
ovyyevrjs (ouSev yap ovtco KCoXvei Tas ifjvxds 

OVOfJLaTL TCOV dvdpCO'tTCOV 7TpOOayop€V€lv) , COS ' AS pd~ 

oreta fxev, 'AvdyKrjs /cat Aids dvydrrjp, cttl iraoi 
TLfJicopos dvcordraj rcVa/crat tols dSt/c^xxacrt, /cat 
tcov Trovrjptov ovre fxeyas ovtcos 1 ovoels ovre 
puKpos yeyovev chore rj Xadchv StatfrvyeZv 2 rj jStaaa- 
puevos. dXXrj oe dXXr) Tipitopia, rpitov ovocov, 
cpvXaKL /cat ^eipovpyco 7TpoorjK€L 3 ' tovs puev yap 
evdvs iv ocopLatn* /cat Sta ocopLaTCov 5 KoXa^opuivovs 
F jLt€ra^€tpt^6Tat Holvtj ra^eta, it paw tlvI rpoTTtp 
/cat TrapaXeLTTOVTL ito XXd tcov KaOappuov Seopievcov* 
tbv Se /JL€i£6v ItiTiv epyov rj Trepl ttjv /ca/ctav tarpeta, 
tovtovs At/C27 /xera ttjv TeXevTrjv 6 8aip,cov irapa- 
oiocooiv tovs he rcdpmav dvcaTOVs, a7Tcooap,€vr)s 
ttjs A 1/079, rj TptTTj /cat dyptcoTaTT] tcov 'ASpaarcta? 
viTOvpytoVy *HLpivvs, fJieTaOeovaa TrXavco puevovs /cat 
TTepicpevyovTas d'AAov dAAa;9, oiKTpcos Se 6 /cat 
XdX€7TCos airavTas, rjcf)dvLO€V /cat KaTeorjcrev 7 els to 



5 / 



appTjTov /cat aopaTOV. 
565 V Tcov 8' dXXcov," €cf)rj, " StKatcooecov rj puev vrro 
ttjs Uoivrjs iv tco jSta) rat? fiapfSapiKals eot/cev cos 
yap iv Hipoats tcov KoXa^opbivcov ra t/xdrta /cat 
tols Tidpas aTTOTiXXovoi /cat /xaartyouatv, ol Se 

1 ovtcos added by Reiske after ot'Seis, placed here by 
Pohlenz. 

2 $ia<f)vy€iv X 3 : Sia&evyciv (-yet Z V 1? ; </>evy€iy G ; Sta- 

(f)Vy€LV i). 

3 TTpoorjKti] €lvai 7rpoGrJK€L X 3 . 

4 acojxaai G F : acofiari, 

5 acofJLOLTOJv] toop ocofidrcoy C. 

278 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 564^-565 

speckled vipers ; and still others bore the faded 
traces of what looked like scratches. 

25. Thespesius' kinsman — nothing need keep us 
from thus referring to a man's soul — proceeded to 
explain. Adrasteia, a he said, daughter of Necessity 
and Zeus, is the supreme requiter ; all crimes are 
under her cognizance, and none of the wicked is so 
high or low as to escape her either by force or by 
stealth. There are three others, and each is warden 
and executioner of a different punishment : those 
who are punished at once in the body and through it 
are dealt with by swift Poine in a comparatively 
gentle manner that passes over many of the faults 
requiring purgation ; those whose viciousness is 
harder to heal are delivered up to Dike by their 
daemon b after death ; while those past all healing, 
when rejected by Dike, are pursued by the third 
and fiercest of the ministers of Adrasteia, Erinys, as 
they stray about and scatter in flight, who makes 
away with them, each after a different fashion, but 
all piteously and cruelly, imprisoning them in the 
Nameless and Unseen. 

Of the other forms of chastisement,' ' he said, 
" that visited in life by Poine resembles those in use 
among the barbarians ; for as in Persia the cloaks 
and head-dresses of the sufferers are plucked and 

° Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 248 c. Adrasteia means " the in- 
escapable." 

b Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 107 d, 113 d. A religious and per- 
sonified way of speaking of a man's " lot " is to call it his 
44 daemon." 

c That is, they are seen and heard of no more : cf. Mor, 
1130 e. Hades is etymologized " unseen." 

6 8e G 1 X F : re. 
7 KCLTeBrjoev] Karihvoev hki a. 

279 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(565) TTavaacrOai haKpvovres avrifioXovaiv > ovrcos at Std 
Xpr)\xaTO)v /cat 1 acofidrcov KoAdcrets d<f)r)V ovk e^oucrt 
8pipLeiav ovSe avrfjs €mAa/zj8a voyrax rfjs kolkLcls, 
dAAd rrpos 86(;av at 7roAAat /cat 7Tpos alaQiqoiv 
avrajv elcrw. (26.) 6V 8* av eKeldev aKoXaoTOS 
ivravOa /cat aKadapTOS e£t/cryrat, tovtov rj At/cry 
StaAajSoucra rfj faxfj Kara(f)avrj, yvfivov, els ov8kv 

B exovra Karahvvai /cat aTTOKpvifjaodai /cat 7T£pt- 
oretAat rrjv iioxdripiav , dAAd iravraxoOev /cat U77o 
ttolvtcov /cat iravra Kadopcopuevov, e'Set^e 7Tpcorov 
dyadols yovevoiv, dvirep cScrt, /cat rrpoyovois 2 avrov 
Trp6a7TTV(iTov 2 ovtol /cat dvd^cov idv Se <j>avXoi, 
Ko\a£ofJL€Vovs imScbv eKeivovs /cat 6<j>d€is 3 St/cato£- 
rat 77oAuv xpovov i£aipov[JL€Vos ckolgtov rcov iradibv 
aXyrjSoai /cat 7roVot9 ot tooovto pueyedec /cat 
cr(f)o8p6r7]TL tovs* Std crap/cd? VTrepfidXXovoiv oaov 5 
to vrrap av etry rod ovetpaTOS* ivapyeorepov. 

'I OuAat Se /cat piojXames errl tcov rradcov e/cdcrrou 

C rots' /xev /xaAAov ipupLevovoi tols Se rjaoov. Spa 8e," 
eiirev, u rd rrot/ctAa ravra /cat 7ravroSa7ra ^pajjLtara 
tcSv i/jvxcov to 7 jji€V opcfrvivov* /cat pvirapov, dv- 
eXevOepias dXoi(f>7]v /cat irXeove^ias , to Se aljJLOJTrov 9 

/Cat SiaTTVpOV, OJpLOTTJTOS /Cat TTlKpiaS* 07TOV Se TO 

1 /cat] /cat ota M Vv. 

2 /cat irpoyovois Ry M 1 V 2ss W 2ss : irpoyovots (-ovs G 1 ). 

3 TTp6G7TTV(TTOv] TTOOOTTTVOTOV G X (jTpOS TTTVOTOV F 1 N) hki 

M*Y. 

4 tous G 4 X d? F Ry M 2 (V is wanting) v Y 2 : rot?. 

5 roaovro . . . oaov G 4 i roaovrco . . . oaov (roaovrco . . . 
Soto hk M [V is wanting] v). 

6 ovetparos] ovap? 

7 to X<" F Ry M 2 (V is wanting) v W ac ? : rot?. 

280 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 565 

scourged a as the tearful owners beg for mercy, so 
punishment that operates through external posses- 
sions and the body establishes no smarting contact 
and does not fasten upon the viciousness itself, but 
is for the most part addressed to opinion and the 
senses. (26.) But whoever comes here from the world 
below unpunished and unpurged, is fastened upon b 
by Dike, exposed to view and naked in his soul, c 
having nothing in which to sink out of sight and hide 
himself and cloak his baseness, but on all sides plainly 
visible to all in all his shame. In this state she first 
shows him to his good parents and ancestors — if such 
they are — as one execrable and unworthy of them, 
while if they are wicked, he sees them punished and 
is seen by them ; he then undergoes prolonged 
chastisement,^ each of his passions being removed 
with pains and torments that in magnitude and 
intensity as far transcend those that pass through the 
flesh as the reality would be more vivid than a dream. 
" The scars and welts e left by the different passions 
are more persistent in some, less so in others. Ob- 
serve," he said, " in the souls that mixture and variety 
of colours : one is drab brown, the stain that comes 
of meanness and greed ; another a fiery blood-red, 
which comes of cruelty and savagery ; where you see 

a Cf. Mor. 35 e and 173 d ; Pseudo-Dio, Or. xxxvii. 45 ; 
Ammianus Marcellinus, xxx. 8. 

b Cf. Plato, Republic, 615 e. 

c Cf. Plato, Gorgias, 523 d-e. 

d In Plato, Republic, 615 a-b, everyone must pay for his 
crime tenfold in a time ten times as long as the span of human 
life, which is set at a hundred years. 

e Cf. Plato, Gorgias, 524 e, and Arrian, Epict. ii. 18. 11. 

8 6p<j>vivov L. Dindorf : op<f>viov. 
9 al[JLCt)7r6v G 4 Ry K (at/z-a7rov X 1 F 1 ) : atfcarcorrov. 

281 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(565) yXavKtvov 1 iartv, evTevQev a/cpacrta tls rrepl rjSovas 
€KTerpL7TTaL fioXts' KdKovoia 2 S' ivovaa 3 fiera 
cpdovov rovrl to tcoSe? 4 /cat vttovXov, coarrep at 
crryrrtat to fieXav, dcpLrjoLV. e/cet yap ff /ca/ct'a Trjs 
re 6 i/jvxfjs TpeTTojJLevrjs 1 vtto tcov rraOcov Kdl Tpe- 
Trovorjs* to Gchfxa tols XP° as dva8L8a>oiv y evTavda 
8e KaOapfJiov /cat KoAdaecos rrepas €otiv tovtcov 

D eKXeavdevTOJV rravTarraoL ttjv iffvxrjv avyoecSrj /cat 
ovyxpovv ycveadai 9 ' /xe^pt ^ °v TavTa eveoTi 
yivovTai Tives vrTOTporral tcov rradcov acf)vy[j,ovs 
exovaai /cat 77rj8r]OLV, eviais fjuev dfjivSpdv /cat ra^u 
KaTao^evvvfJLevrjv, eviais 8e veaviKtos evTeivovaav. 
cov at fiev TrdXtv /cat TrdXtv KoXaodeloai ttjv rrpoa- 
rjKovaav e^iv /cat Siddetnv dvaXafi^dvov aiv, 10 Tas 8e 
avdis els owfJiaTa £ > cpa>v e^rjveyKev fiiaiOTrjs dfjuadtas 
/cat cptXrjSovlas eTSos. 11 rj [lev yap dodeveiq Xoyov 
/cat St' dpyiav tov deajpelv eppeijje tco irpaKTiKLp 

E rrpos yeveaiv, rj 8e opydvov tw a/coAaara) 12 8eopevrj 
TToOel tols emdv/JLLas ovppdifjai rats' a7roAaua6crt /cat 

1 yXavKtvov] yXavKiov X (V is wanting) v 11 W. 

2 fioXis KdKovoia M 3 : jjloXis kclkov ota G X F hki M 1 (V is 
wanting) v C ; (jloXikclkov ota (/xdAtfca/cov ota N) Y ; /xoAta/coV ota 
Ry W (ota) ; fxoXiaKov ot K. 

3 8* ivovoa Reiske : oetv ouoa X 1 (Setvouoa N W c? ; Setvouoa 
Y); Stvouoa F W ac? ; 8etvov ovaa G 1 X d hki M 1 (V is wanting) 
v C ; (hhivovaa G 3m % K 1 M 3 ; (hoivovcrqs Ry K 2 . 

4 rourt to la>&€s G 3? F Z M 2 ; tovtl TotoOSes* (Totojoes N ; 
TrotojSe? C X W) G 1 X 1 Y ; to rotoOSe? i M 1 (V is wanting) v ; 
to TotouTov hk M 3 ; TtTucDSe? X 3 ; in an omission in Ry. 

5 e/cet yap rj Pohlenz : eVet yap rj (et Y ac ) Te (eVet Te yap 17 Z ; 
« T6 W ac ). 

6 rrjs t€ nos : Trjs. 

7 Tp€7TOfJL€V7)S F 3 M 2 (T€p7TOIA€V7]S Y 2 ) : Tp€TTO[JL€Vr) (r€p7TOIX€Vr) 

Y 1 ). 

8 Tp€7TOVG7)S G 3 hki M 2 (T€p7TOV<JT)S Y 2 ) : Tp07TOV(JT)S (-07) F 1 ; 

rp€7rovaa Ry K [V is wanting] v ; orpopovaa X 3 C 2 ), 
282 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 565 

the blue-grey, some form of incontinence in pleasure 
has barely been rubbed out ; while if spite and envy 
are present they give out this livid green, as ink is 
ejected by the squid. a For in the world below 
viciousness puts forth the colours, as the soul is 
altered by the passions and alters the body in turn, 
while here the end of purgation and punishment is 
reached when the passions are quite smoothed away 
and the soul becomes luminous in consequence and 
uniform in colour ; but so long as the passions remain 
within there are relapses, attended by throbbings 
and a convulsive motion which in some souls is faint 
and soon subsides, but in others produces a vehement 
tension. Some of these, after repeated punishment, 
recover their proper state and disposition, while 
others are once more carried off into the bodies of 
living things by the violence of ignorance and the 
1 image ' b of the love of pleasure. For one soul, from 
weakness of reason and neglect of contemplation, is 
borne down by its practical proclivity to birth, while 
another, needing an instrument for its licentious- 
ness, yearns to knit its appetites to their fruition 

a Cf. Mor. 978 a. 

6 Eidos (" form "), in the Greek, a doubtful word. In Mor. 
945 a the soul is said to receive an impress from the intellect 
and give one to the body, at the same time enveloping it on all 
sides and taking on its eidos or form. The soul is thus called 
an eidolon (" phantom "), when, on being separated from 
the intellect or the body, it long retains the eidos of either. 

9 yiveadai] yeveodai Bern. 

10 /cat Stafleatv dVaAau/3avoucrtv X 3 (/cat hiddeoiv e^ouat C 1 G 3 ? 
[now erased] ; e^oucrt hki) : /cat otaflcatv. 

11 etSos] ?j\os Bern. ; olarpos Castiglioni ; ttolOos Richards ; 
lfj,€pos Schwartz ; 7T€i0a> Pohlenz ; elXos ? (etAea- . , . Scct/aoi 
Hesychius) Post. 

12 to) aKo\doT(x) Reiske : tov aKoAaorot;, 

283 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(565) ovveTravpeodai 1 Sta crwfJLaTos* ivravda yap ovSev 
rj ok id tls areXrjs /cat ovap rjSovfjs TrXrjpajoiv ovk 
ixovorjs TrdpeoTiv!' 

27. Tavra Se eiT/wv, rjyev avrov ra^i /xeV, 2 
arrXerov Se' riva tottov cos e<j>aivero Sietjiovva 
pqSccos /cat arrXavcos, olov vtto TTTZpcov tcov tov 
(Jxxjtos avycov dva^epojxevov, ^XP L °v ?rp6s tl 
yjxo\i(x fiey a /cat kottco 8ltjkov a^iKopuevos vtto rrjs 
oxovarjs* aVeAetc/)^ 8vvdjJL€Cos. /cat ras* aAAa? 
ifjvxas ecopa tovto* Traaxovaas e/cer ovoTeXXofxevat 5 
F ydp cboirep at opvides /cat Karate pofxcvat kvkXco 
to ^acr/xa TrepLrjeoav {dvriKpvs Se rrepav ovk 
iroXfjLLov), eioco Liev 6(/>6fjvai, toZs /fa/c^t/cots avrpois 
ojjlollos vXrj /cat 6 x^ a} P° T7 ) TL KaL XP^ ai ^ dvOecov 
aTrdoats Sta77e770t/ctA/zeVov e^eVvet Se LiaXaKrjv /cat 
rrpaelav avpav da/xas" dvacf>epovoav rjSovds 8 re 
davfiaoias /cat Kpdcnv otav 9 6 oivos toZs piedvaKo- 
jjievois ejJLTToiovoav €va>xovfJi€vai yap at i/a^at rat? 
€va)8taLS Ste^e'ovTo 10 /cat Trpos aAA^Aa? €<j>iXo<f)po- 
vovvro' /cat tov tottov iv kvkXcq /caret^e /3a/c\;eta 
/cat yeXo)s /cat Traoa fiovcra TTat^ovTCOV /cat re/)7ro- 
566 Lievcov. eAeye Se 11 TavTT) 12 tov Aiovvoov dveXOeZv 13 

1 crvi€7ravp€G0ai (sic) Reiske : ovvenaLpeodat. 

2 Ta^u ju.€i>] jitev Ta^u G X F. 

3 o^owct^s Madvig : ixovorjs. 

4 rouro] rauro Wyttenbach (outcd hki). 

5 cruoTeAAo/xtvcu N M (V is wanting) v : crreAAo^erai. 

6 uAt? fcai] vXtjs G. 7 ^/odcus G l 2 : ^Adais. 

8 7780m? Victorius : rjhovijs* 
9 otav X 3 v (V is wanting) : olov (olov av K). 

284 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 565-566 

and gratify them through the body, for here there is 
nothing but an imperfect shadow and dream of never 
consummated pleasure." 

27. After this explanation Thespesius was swiftly 
taken by the guide over what appeared an immense 
distance, traversing it easily and unerringly, buoyed 
up by the beams of the light as by wings, until he 
came to a great chasm extending all the way down 
and was deserted by the power that sustained him. 
The other souls too, he observed, were thus affected 
there, for they drew themselves in like birds and 
alighted and walked around the circuit of the chasm, 
not venturing to pass directly across. Within, it had 
the appearance of a Bacchic grotto a : it was gaily 
diversified with tender leafage and all the hues of 
flowers. From it was wafted a soft and gentle breeze 
that carried up fragrant scents, arousing wondrous 
pleasures and such a mood as wine induces in those 
who are becoming tipsy b ; for as the souls regaled 
themselves on the sweet odours they grew expansive 
and friendly with one another ; and the place all 
about was full of bacchic revelry and laughter and the 
various strains of festivity and merry-making. This 
was the route, the guide said, that Dionysus had 

° For " bacchic grottoes " cf. Philodamus, Paean to Diony- 
sus, 140 (in Powell, Collectanea Alexandrina, p. 169) ; Socrates 
of Rhodes in Athenaeus, 148 b ; Philostratus, Imagines, 
i. 14. 3, and Macrobius, Sat. i. 18. 3. 

6 Cf. Mor. 437 e and Macrobius, Comm. in Som. Scip. i. 
12. 17 ; cf. also Mor. 362 a-b. 

10 Siexeo vto G hki C : Sie^co'v Te X 1 N M (V is wanting) 
vYW 1 ; h L € X €ovTo re X 3 F Ry W 2 . n 8e added in Aldine. 

12 ravrrj G ra8? F ras Ry k C : ravrrjv (ravra hi). 

13 aveXdelv N M 1 Y W : els Ocovs (-eav Ry) aveXdelv (dveXOelv 
€is dtois M 2 1). 

285 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(566) koll ttjv HepLeXrjv dvayayetv 1 vorepov KaXelodaL 
8e ArjOrjs rov tottov. odev ov8e hiarpifSziv /?ouAd- 
puevov eta tov QeorreoLov, dAA' dcfreZXKe 2 j3ta, 
SiSolgkcjov d/xa /cat Xeyojv cbs iKrrjKeraL koll dv- 
vypaiverai to cjypovcfvv vtto ttjs rjSovfjs, to 8e dXo- 
yov koX oxo/xaroeiSe? dp86pLevov koll oapKovpuevov 

ifl7TOi€L TOV OOjpiaTOS pLVrjpLTjV, €K 8e TTJS pLVTjpLrjS 
IpiepOV KOLL TTodoV eA/COVTGt TTpOS yeveOLV , TjV OVTOJS 

ojvopidodaL vevoLV errl yrjv ovaav* vypOTrjTL fiapvvo- 
pLevrjs Tr\s yiVXlS' 

28. "AAAryv ovv TOoavTrjv 8LeX9d>v 686v e8o£ev 
B d(f>opdv KpoLTrjpa pueyav, eh 8e tovtov epi^dXXovTa 
pevpLOLTa, to p,ev d(f>pov daXdoorjs r) ^lovojv^ XevKO- 
Tepov, to 5 8e ottolov lpL$ e^avdel to dXovpyov, dXXa 
8' dAAat9 /Sanctis' 6 Ke^pojo\xeva y rrpooojOev l8lov 7 
i)(ovoaLS 8 <f>eyyos. cu? 8e ttXtjolov tjXOov, 6 KpaTrjp 
eKelvos dve<f)dvrj ydopua fiadv 9 tov rrepLexovTOS , tcov 
re xpajpLaTcov dfJiavpovipLefrcov to dvOrjpoTepov drr- 
eXeLirev 10 ttXtjv ttjs XevKOTrjTOS. etopa 8e Tpels 

1 dvayayetv Bern. : avaytiv. 

2 a<t>€l\K€ Reiske : dfelXe (d^rJKe v). 

3 im yrjv ovcrav Meziriacus : eVtrctVouaav (~rlv- N). 

4 x L ° VC0V \ X l ° vos G Z hki. 

6 to ... to X 3 Y 2 W 2 : tov . . . rov (rov . . . to. Ry). 

6 8' (he S k Y 8 ) cZAAais Pafals X 3 (V is wanting) v W 2 : Si' 
aXXais fia<f>ais (St* dXXcov /Jcu^cov Ry). 

7 IBiov a 2 : thoi X 1 F S 1 N Y OW ; thois G X 3 hk (ihoiev i) 
M (V is wanting) v ; there is an omission in Ry. 

8 exovocus v ( V is wanting) Y 2 : exovaas (there is an 
omission in Ry). 

9 dv€<f)dvYj xdcrfJLo. fiadv Kronenberg : d<f>avr)s xAcjua/SAou (xXefi- 
pdXov G 1 ; x € fiajSAou N ; xAe/za/AjSAo{> v [V is wanting] ; x^ € ~ 
fjLd/ApXov Y 1 ) ; d<j>avTjS K ; d<f>avr)s *qv eviaxov Ry ; d<j>avioOevros 
liaXXov M 2 . 

10 airiXeiircir N 1 Y (-ire G 4 Ry [in- K]) : ciTreAiTre. 

286 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 566 

taken in his ascent and later when he brought up 
Semele ° ; and the region was called the place of 
Lethe. b On this account, although Thespesius wished 
to linger, the guide would not allow it, but pulled 
him away by main force, informing him as he did so 
that the intelligent part of the soul is dissolved away 
and liquefied c by pleasure, while the irrational and 
carnal part is fed by its flow and puts on flesh and 
thus induces memory of the body ; and that from 
such memory arises a yearning and desire that draws 
the soul toward birth (genesis), so named as being an 
earthward (epi gen) inclination (neusis) d of the soul 
grown heavy with liquefaction. 6 

28. Proceeding as far again, he saw in the distance 
what he took to be a large crater f with streams pour- 
ing into it, one whiter than sea-foam or snow, another 
like the violet of the rainbow, and others of different 
tints, each having from afar a lustre of its own. On 
their approach the crater turned out to be a deep 
chasm in the ambient, and as the colours faded, the 
brightness, except for the white, disappeared. He 

a Dionysus brought his mortal mother, Semele, up from 
Hades and made her immortal : cf. Diodorus, iv. 25. 4 ; 
Pausanias, ii. 31. 2, 37. 5 ; and Apollodorus, iii. 5. 3, with 
Frazer's note in the L.C.L. The later Platonists regarded 
Dionysus, son of Semele, as the god who presided over 
rebirth : cf. Hermeias, In Plat. Phaedr. Schol. chap, xxiv, 
p. 32. 11-14, chap. Hi, p. 55. 21 (ed. Couvreur) ; Proclus, In 
Tim. vol. iii, p. 421. 29 f. (ed. Diehl) ; Olympiodorus, In 
Phaed. p. 208. 1 f. (ed. Norvin). 

6 That is, " oblivion." 

c For the image of dissolving away cf. Plato, Republic, 
411 b ; for liquefaction cf. Mor. 1053 b-c. 

d Cf. the fragment On the Soul, chap, ii (vol. vii, p. 22. 9 
Bern.). 

e Thus, when fire or air changes to water, it becomes liquid 
and heavy. ' Literally " mixing-bowl." 

287 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(566) SaifJiovas Sfiov KaOrjfjievovg iv ox' 1 ll xaTl rptyoovov 
TTpos aWrjXovs to. pevfjuara {terpens tujXv ava- 
K€pavvvvTas. k'Aeyev ovv 6 rod QeaTrealov ipvxo- 
C 7TO/JL7TOS &XP 1 t°vtqv rov 5 Oo</>ea rrpoeAdelv 1 ore 
ttjv *\svxt)v rrjs yvvaiKos fierrjei, /cat firj kclAcos 
oiafJLvrjiJLovevcravTa Aoyov €is avdpcoTrovs kl^StjAov 
i^eveyKelv cog kolvov et'77 fiavretov 2 ev AeAcfrols 3 
'A7rdAAa>yo9 /cat Nu/croV ovSevos yap 'AttoAAcovi 
Nu/CTa Koivoovelv " dAAd rovro p^ev" €</>'*), * " Ni>- 

KTOS €OTL KOLL ScAt^T}? /JbaVTetOV KOLVOV y Ov8a[JLOV T7)S 

yrjs Trepcuvov 5 ouS' k'xov eSpav puiav dAAa 7rdvT7] 
irAavrjTov €77t tovs dvdpcoTTovg evvTTviois /cat elSd)- 
Aots" €/c tovtov yap ol bveipoi \xiyvv\ievov / cog 
Spas, rep drrarrj Aa> Kal ttolklAco to drrAovv /cat 
aArjOes TTapaAapL^dvovres hiaoTTtipovcri. 
D 29- " To ok ' KttoAAoovos ovKer otSa," 7 et77€V, 
" €t 8 /cartSetv earf Svvaros' avoorepa) ydp ovk 

1 TrpoeXOelv Wyttenbach : TrpoaeXOelv. 

2 Post would add ofov after fiavretov. 

3 Ae\<j>ois] Oeols Pohlenz. 

4 ifa G X* Ry M 2 W 2 qflp : Ifav. 

5 uepaivov X 3 Ry : rrepalvov jjlclvtclov (Trepaivov fiavrelav 
Reiske, Post). 

6 fityvvixcvov Victorius : \iiyvv\Levoi (SeiKvvfjLevoi v). 

7 ovK€T y olha Pohlenz (ov Kareihes Cobet) : el /carotSa G 1 
X F 1 Ry N (V is wanting) v Y W ; ov KaroiSa G 4 ; ov 
KaTOihas F 3 hki M 2 C 1 ; ol /criVoiSa (-as M c ) M ac . 

8 el G 1 X N (rj M 1 ) Y W ; ov F Ry (V is wanting) v ; ovBl 
G 4 hki M 2 C. 

9 Kanhelv ear) Ry M 2 : Karihr\ iacrl G 1 X 1 ; KariSyecrcn N 
M 1 Y (W has a lacuna of 9 letters) ; /cartSetv eaol (and so G 4 ). 

288 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 566 

beheld three daemons seated together in the form of 
a triangle, combining the streams in certain pro- 
portions. The guide of Thespesius' soul said that 
Orpheus b had advanced thus far in his quest for the 
soul of his wife, and from faulty memory had pub- 
lished among men a false report that at Delphi 
there was an oracle held in common by Apollo and 
Night, c — false, as Night has partnership in nothing 
with Apollo. " This is instead,' ' he pursued, " an 
oracle shared by Night and the Moon ; it has no 
outlet anywhere on earth nor any single seat, d but 
roves everywhere throughout mankind in dreams and 
visions ; for this is the source from which dreams 
derive and disseminate the unadorned and true, 
commingled, as you see, with the colourful and de- 
ceptive. 6 

29. "As for Apollo's oracle," he said, " I hardly 
know whether you will be able to catch sight of it ; 

a Cf. Plato, Republic, 617 b. 

6 There is doubtless a polemic here against an interpreta- 
tion of the Delphic oracle attributed to Orpheus. Cf. 
Dieterich, Nekyia 2 , p. 147, who points out that an Orphic 
poem was called " Crater." The mixture of truth and false- 
hood in the crater may have a certain polemical point. 

c Night presided over the Delphic oracle before Themis 
and Apollo : cf. a scholium on Pindar, Pythian Odes (vol. ii, 
p. 2. 6 Drachmann). 

d Cf. Orphicorum Fragmenta, Pars Posterior, no. 294 (ed. 
Kern). For the notion that an oracle in this region can have 
an outlet on earth cf. 566 d, infra, where the light from 
Apollo's tripod is said to rest on Parnassus, the seat of the 
Delphic oracle. 

* The white corresponds to the truth in dreams, the varied 
colours to their deceptiveness ; at a distance (that is, when 
one does not examine closely) the deceptive and many- 
coloured is more prominent ; close at hand the white pre- 
dominates. Cf. Mor. 53 d and the Life of Alcibiades, chap, 
xxiii. 5 (203 c). 

VOL. VII L 289 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(566) €ttl8l8coctlv ov8e x a ^£ T ° *$!§ fox*!? iTTiyviov* aAAa 
Karrcvreivei tco ococicxti TTpoor)pTr)Lievov ." a/za 8' 
€7T€Lpdro TTpoodytov irnSeLKvveiv 2 avTtp to (f)tos £k 
tov Tpi7To8os f cos eXeyev, Sia tcov koXttcov ttjs Qepa- 
8os cxTTepei86Lievov els top Tlapvaoov . 3 TrpoOvLiov- 
fievos 8' clvtos* I8elv ovk el8ev vtto XapLTrporrjrog, 
aAA' TjKovev irapitov cfxovrjv o^elav yvvaiKos iv 
fierpq) c/)pd^ovoav aAAa re riva kclI 5 ypovov, cos 
eoitcev, rrjs itceivov reXevrfjs. eXeyev 8e 6 haijicov 
rrjv (fxjovrjv elvai HifivXXrjs' aSetv yap clvttjv Trepl 
E tcov LieXXovTtov iv rep TrpoocoTTCp rfjs oeXrjvqs 
7T€pl(f)€pOIJL€Vr]V . ^OvXoLieVOS ovv lxk podod at rrXeiova 
rfj pv/JLrj rrjs aeXtfvrjs els rovvavriov cooTrep iv rat? 
8lvais i^ecboQr) koll fipaxea Kar^Kovoev tov r\v kcli 
tl Trepl 6 to Bea/Stov 7 opos /cat ttjv Ai/cata/r^etav 8 
vtto TTvpos cf>opa 9 yevrjoopLevrjv, kcll tl kojjljjloltlov 
Trepl tov TOTe rjyefiovos cos 

. . . iodXos icov vovocp 10 TvpavvlSa 11 Xeiijjei. 

30. Mera 8e raura irpos tt)v Oeav tcov koXcl- 

1 iiriymov X 1 F N M 2 Y W (eTrlyvov G Ry K C) : viroyviov 
X 3 M 1 (vTToyvov hki [V is wanting] v) ; irriytiov l 2 . 

2 eVioei/cvuav] iirioziKvvoiv G 1 X N M 1 Y W 1 (-vodai S). 

3 Tlapvaoov] Trapvaooov G X F. 

4 TTpod. 8' avros Pohlenz : TrpoOvixovfievos {irpod. oe G 3 ; 
TTpoO. ovv hki C 1 ; /cat TTpod. F Ry M 2 [V is wanting] v ; o 
TrpoO. X 3 ). 

5 SiXXa re riva Kai X 3 : dXXa riva G 1 X 1 (aAAa riva N) M 1 Y W 
(aAAov rtva F 1 [V is wanting] v ; aAAa riva ko1 G 3 F 3 Ry hki 
M 2 C). & tl Trepl nos : Trepl (ra Trepl X 3 Rv). 

7 fiiafliQV G 3 K N Y OW : \iofiiov {reXeofiiov hki). " 

8 oixaiapxeiav G 3 R? C (-elav X 1 ? Y W ; -Lav) : AiKaiapx^tas 
Reiske. 

9 <f>opa] <f>opas S ; <f>opav K ; <j>a v (V is wanting) ; </>9opav 
l 2 and Reiske. 

10 vovoto hki : vooco, u rupam'Sa] rd rvpavvtKa ? 

290 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 566 

for the cable a of your soul gives no further upward 
play and does not grow slack, but holds taut, being 
made fast to the body." At the same time he en- 
deavoured to draw Thespesius near and show him 
the light that came (he said) from the tripod, 6 and 
passing through the bosom of Themis, c rested on 
Parnassus, but it was so bright that Thespesius, for 
all his eagerness, did not see it. But he did hear, as 
he passed by, a woman's high voice foretelling in 
verse among other things the time (it appears) of his 
own death. d The voice was the Sibyl's, the daemon 
said, who sang of the future as she was carried about 
on the face of the moon/ He accordingly desired to 
hear more, but was thrust back, as in an eddy, by the 
onrush of the moon, and caught but little. Among 
this was a prophecy about Mt. Vesuvius and the surge 
of flame that would pass over Dicaearcheia/ and a 
fragment of verse about the emperor 9 of those days : 

. . . good, he will through sickness leave the throne. 

30. They now turned to view those who were 

° Cf the image of the anchor (564 c, supra), the shadowy 
line (564 d, supra), and the syndesmos or " tie " of the De 
Genio Socratis, 591 f — 592 b. 

6 This celestial tripod is evidently connected with the 
Delphic ; it may symbolize the sun : cf. Cornutus, De Nat. 
Deorum, chap, xxxii. 

c Themis preceded Apollo at Delphi. 

d In such visions the seer's own death is often foretold : 
cf. Mor. 592 e and Homer, Od. xi. 134-137. 

e Cf. Mor. 398 c and Clement, Strom, i. 15. 70. 4. 

1 Cf. Mor. 398 e ; Dicaearcheia is the modern Pozzuoli. 
With Reiske's conjecture the text would mean : " the im- 
pending destruction of Dicaearcheia by fire." But there is 
no real evidence that the town was burnt. 

g Titus : cf. Introduction, p. 174. 

291 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(566) ^OfJL€VO)V irp€7TOVTO. KCU TCL fJL€V TTpOdTCL Sucr^epetS" 

/cat olKTpas ef\w jjlovov oxfjeis' iirel Se /cat (fylXoug 

/cat ot/cetot? /cat ovvrjQeoiv 6 QeaTreoios, ovk av 

F TTpoahoKTjoaSy KoXa^opLevots Ivtrvyyave , /cat Seiva, 

TraOrjiiara /cat TipuopLas aa^rjl^ovas /cat dXyecvds 

V7TOfl€VOVT€S COKTL^OVTO 77/009 €K€LVOV /Cat OLV€- 

/cAatovro, reXog Se rov rrarepa rov iavrov /caretSev 
e/c twos [iapddpov GTiyfidrcov /cat ovXcov fieorov 
dvaSv 6 fjievov, opeyovra ras* x € ^P a ^ oivrcp KCLL ai(x} ~ 
rrdv ovk icbfjievov, aAA' ojUoAoyeiv aVay/ca£ojii,evov 

U770 TCOV €(f>€OTOJTOJV TOIS TLfJLCOpLOlLS OTL 7T€pl £eVOVS 

rivds paapos yevopbevos xpvoiov e^ovras <j>apixdKois 
8ia<f)6€ipas /cat e/cet StaAa#aV diravras ivravd' 
i^eXeyxOels ra jxev yjSr] Trenovde, ra Se ayerat 
567 TreioofJLevos, LKereveiv fiev r) Trapairelodai Trepl rov 
TTarpos ovk eroA/xa St' eKTrXrj^iv /cat Seo?, V770- 
arpexfjai 1 Se /cat c/yvyelv ftovXofjievos ovkItl tov 
Trpaov £k€lvov icopa /cat olk€lov ^evayov, aAA' U(/>' 
irepwv tlvwv (frofiepcbv rrjv oiptv et9 to Trpoadev 
(bOovfjievos, ojs dvdyKrjv ovoav ovrco Ste£eA#etv, 
iOedro rtov fjbev yvojpLfJLCOs 2 TTOvrjptbv yevojilvcov 
/cat KoAaouevrojv avroui rrjv aiKLav ovk€t €/cet 
, ^aAe77a>s' ouS' SfJLOLOJS rpL^ojJievrjv, are Srj & Trepl to 
aXoyov /cat TxadryriKov ert \xovov 1 ovoav oooi Se 
B rrp6o")(ril ia KaL So^av dperrjs 7reptj8aAAojLtevot 8 St- 
ejStaxrav /ca/aa XavBavovorj, tovtovs* eTwrovtas /cat 

1 vTTOorptyai] airoarpeiPai hki M 1 Vv Y C X W qflp (F and N 
are wanting). 

2 yvcopipLcos Reiske : yvcopifitov. 

3 /cat Reiske : 77. 4 at/a'av Pohlenz : c/ctav. 

5 ovk€t eK€L nos : ou/<eV(-Ti X K) eu>ai (ovk€tl XCav Madvig). 

6 are St) Ry l 2 : areAiJ (aVe ttj hki). 

7 ert fiovov Pohlenz : inbnovov (Ittvtovov M). 

292 






THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 566-567 

suffering punishment. At first these presented only 
a disagreeable and piteous spectacle ; but as Thes- 
pesius kept meeting friends, kinsmen, and comrades 
who were being punished, a thing he never would 
have looked for, and these lamented to him and 
raised a cry of wailing as they underwent fearful 
torments and ignominious and excruciating chastise- 
ments, and when he at last caught sight of his own 
father emerging from a pit, covered with brands and 
scars, stretching out his arms to him, and not allowed 
by those in charge of the punishments to keep silent, 
but compelled to confess a his foul wickedness to 
certain guests he had poisoned for their gold, a crime 
detected by no one in the lower world, but here 
brought to light, for which he had suffered in part 
and was now being taken away to suffer more, 
Thespesius in his consternation and terror did not 
dare to resort to supplication or intercede for his 
father, but wishing to turn back and escape, saw no 
longer that kindly kinsman who had been his guide, 
but certain others of frightful aspect, who thrust him 
forward, giving him to understand that he was under 
compulsion to pass that way. He observed that while 
the torment of those who had been recognized in 
their wickedness and punished on the spot was not 
so harsh or so prolonged in the other world, as it now 
dealt only with the irrational and passionate part of 
the soul, those who on the contrary had cloaked 
themselves in the pretence and repute of virtue and 
passed their lives in undetected vice were surrounded 

° For confession as a form of punishment cf. Norden, 
P. Vergilius Maro Aeneis Buck VP 9 p. 275. 

8 7r€pij8aAAojU€Voi] 7r€pipaX6/j,evoL X 3 M 2 l 2 . 
9 tovtovs G 3? X 3? (F is wanting) Y 2 : tovtois. 

293 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(567) oSvvrjpcds rjvdyKac^ov ere pot TTepieorcores e/crpe'- 
Treodai rd evros e£co rrjs fax^S, lXvo7rcop,evovs 

TTOLpa <f)VOLV /Cat dvaKafJLTTTOjJLeVOVS y 1 CO(J7T€p at 

daXdmaL 2 OKoXo7Tev8pai Karamovoai to dyKiorpov 
€Krpe7TovGLV eavras' eviovs he dvaSepovres avrcov 

KOLL (lVa7TTVGGOVT€S d7T€0€LKVVGCLV VTTOvXoVS KCU 
TTOtKiXoVS * iv TCp XoyLGTLKO) /Cat KVpLCp T7JV JJLO- 

Xdrjpiav exovras. dXXas S' e<f>r) ipvxas ISelv cooTrep 
rds ix^ovas TrepiireTrXeypLevas gvvovo /cat ovvrpeis 
/cat TrXeiovaSy dAA^Aas* eodiovoas vrro pLvrjoiKaKias 

C /cat KOLKoOvfJLLas cvv erradov ev rep £,rjv rj eSpaoav 
elvcu 8e /cat Xl/jlvcls Trap* aAA^Aas*, rrjv puev xp vcr °v 
TrepiQeovoav ? tyjv 8e /xoAtjSSou ifjvxpordrrjv , dXXrjv 
Se rpax^av GLorjpov /cat rivas e^eordvat Saipuovas 
toojrep ol ^aA/C€t9 opydvois dvaXapi^dvovras /cat 
Kadievras ev ptepet ras ifjvxds rcov St' aTrXrjorlav 
/cat TrXtove^iav 7rovrjpcov. ev piev yap rep XP VG ^ ) 
oLarrvpovs /cat hia<j>avels vno rod cf)Xeyeodai yivo- 
puevas eveflaXXov els rrjv rod pLoXtfioov ^aTrrovres' 
eKirayeioas Se avrodi /cat yevopievas OKXrjpas cbo- 
7T€p at ^aAa^at 77aAtv ets rr)V rod oiSrjpov pied- 

D ioraoav evravda Se pLeXacval re Setvtos eylvovro 5 
/cat 7T€piKXt6pL€vai Sta GKXrjporrjra /cat ovvrpifio- 
puevai ra etSrj pbereftaXXov et#' ovtlo rraXuv els tov 
Xpvcrov eKopLL^ovro, Setvas, cos eXeyev, ev rats 
pLerafioXais dXyrjSovas viropuevovoai. 

1 dva/ca/x7rTO/xevou? Ry : a/xa KafjL7TTOfji€vovs. 

2 0aAarTicu] daXoiTTLOi X 1 (F is wanting) p c f lss l c (0aAaTT«uoi 
q). 

3 VTTOvXoVS /Cat TTOlKlXoVs] VTTOVAOVS KCU 7TOLKlA(OS G 4 X (F IS 

wanting) M Y : imovXoos kol ttoikIXojs hki. 

294 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 567 

by a different set of officers who compelled them 
laboriously and painfully to turn the inward parts of 
their souls outward, writhing unnaturally and curving 
back upon themselves, as the sea-scolopendras turn 
themselves inside out when they have swallowed the 
hook a ; and some of them were skinned and laid 
open and shown to be ulcered and blotched, their 
wickedness being in their rational and sovereign part. 
He told of seeing other souls coiled like vipers around 
each other in twos and threes and yet greater number, 
devouring one another in rancour and bitterness for 
what they had endured or done in life ; moreover (he 
said) there were lakes lying side by side, one a seeth- 
ing lake of gold, a second, piercing cold, of lead, and 
a third of rugged iron, with certain daemons in charge, 
who, like smiths, were using tongs to raise and lower 
alternately the souls of those whose wickedness was 
due to insatiable and overreaching avarice. Thus, 
when the souls had grown red hot in the gold from 
the blazing heat, the daemons plunged them into 
the lake of lead ; when they had there been chilled 
and hardened, like hailstones, they were removed 
to*the lake of iron. Here they turned an intense 
black and were altered in appearance, as their hard- 
ness caused them to become chipped and crushed ; 
and after this they were once more taken to the gold, 
enduring, as he said, the most fearful agonies in the 
course of each change. 

a Cf. Mor. 977 b (where Aristotle's account of the fox- 
shark [Hist. Animal, ix. 37, 621 a 12-16] is confused with 
that of the sea-scolopendra) ; Aristotle, Hist. Animal, ix. 37 
(621 a 6-9) ; Aelian, Be Nat. Animal, vii. 35 ; Oppian, 
Halieutica, ii. 424 ; Dioscorides, ii. 16 ; Pliny, N.H. ix. 145. 

4 Trepi^eovaav Reiske : 7rept^€ovros. 
5 iylvovro] iydvovro M Vv. 

295 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(567) 31. Yiavrojv 8k Trdoyziv eXeyev olKrporara ra? 
rjhrj hoKovaas afielaOai rr\s Slktjs, elr avdcs crvX- 
Xafx^avofjieva^' avrai S' rjaav (Lv e'ts rivas 6Kyovovs 
rj TTalSas r) 7TOLvrj 77epir)X6ev . orrore yap tis €K€lvo)v 
a<j)LKoiro /cat Ttepirvypi TTpooeTTnrrev opyfj Kal 
Karefioa /cat ra arjfjLeZa rcov rraOoov ioetKvvev, 

E SveiSt^ovaa /cat 8uoKovoa 1 (f>€vy€iv /cat airoKpvTrre- 
odai fiovXofjLevrjv, ov ovvafjievrjv Se. ra^u yap 
fjbereOeov ol KoXaoral /cat Trpos rrjv 8lktjv 2 i£ dpxrjs 
rjrreiyov 3 6Xo<j>vpopL€vas ra> TTpoyivojoKeiv rrjv tljjlo)- 
piav. eVtats" 4 Se /cat ttoXXcls dfxa rtov eKyovojv 
k'Xeye ovvrjprrjodac Kaddirep [xeXtrrag r) WKrepioas 
ar€-)(ycx)s i^opievas /cat rerptyvLas 5 vtto pLvrjpLrjs /cat 
opyrjs wv erraOov St' avrds. 

32. "Ecr^ara 6 8e opwvros avrov rds €ttl Sevrepav 
yeveoiv TpeTTOfxevas ipvxds els re £a)a Travroharrd 

F KapL7TTopL€vas j8ia /cat pb€raa')(7)piaTit ) opievas vtto tojv 
ravra SrjjjaovpyovvTOJV , opyavois rtcrt /cat TrXr]yaZs 
rd p,€V KoXXd)vra)v pieprj /cat ovveXavvovrcov , ra Se 7 
a7TOGrp€(f)6vTa)v , eVta S' eKXeaiv6vra>v /cat d<j>a- 
vl^ovtojv TravTairaoiv ottojs e<f>appi6oeiev erepois 
rjdecri /cat plots, ev ravraus (f>avfjvai rrjv Nepajvos', 8 
ra re dXXa /ca/ccos* eypvoav rjSrj /cat 8 can €tt a ppievrjv 

1 6v€ihll,ovoa /cat otaj/couaa YictorhlS : oVctot'Joucra /cat 
SoKovaa (6v€iftt£ovoa [-av R] /cat hoKodaav Ry ; oVetStfouaa 
BoKovaav X 3 ). 

2 /cat 7rpos ttjv Slktjv nos : Trpos rr)v olktjv /cat. 

3 TJ7T€Lyov] 6.7Trjyov Pohlenz (after Wyttenbach), omitting 
Trpos rrjv St/cry v. 

4 ivLCLis Reiske : evta?. 

5 rerpiyvias] TrepneTpiyvLas C. 

6 ecr^ara] ea^aras" hki C. 

7 to. /xev /coAAaWa>v /ACpi) /cat avveXavvovTOJV, ra 8e Pohlenz : ra 
fiev oXcov Tdv fJL€prj Kal a. ra Se X 1 (N resumes with oAa>v) Y 

296 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 567 

31. Most piteous of all, he said, was the suffering 
of the souls who thought that they were already 
released from their sentence,® and then were appre- 
hended again ; these were the souls whose punish- 
ment 6 had passed over to descendants or children. 
For whenever the soul of such a child or descendant 
arrived and found them, it flew at them in fury and 
raised a clamour against them and showed the marks 
of its sufferings, berating and pursuing the soul of the 
other, which desired to escape and hide, but could 
not. For they were swiftly overtaken by the tor- 
mentors and hastened back once more to serve 
their sentence, lamenting from foreknowledge of the 
penalty that awaited them. To some, he said, great 
clusters of the souls of descendants were attached, 
clinging to them like veritable swarms of bees or 
bats, and gibbering shrilly c in angry memory of what 
they had suffered through their fault. 

32. He was viewing the final spectacle of his vision, 
the souls returning to a second birth, as they were 
forcibly bent to fit all manner of living things and 
altered in shape by the framers of these, who with 
blows from certain tools were welding and hammering 
together one set of members, wrenching another 
apart, and polishing away and quite obliterating a 
third, to adapt them to new characters and lives, 
when among them appeared the soul of Nero, already 
in a sorry plight and pierced with incandescent rivets. d 

° In the Greek dike. b In the Greek poine. 

c Cf Homer, Od. xxiv. 5 ff. 

d Cf Mor. 718 d and Plato, Phaedo, 83 d. 

C X W; ra (to>v M 2 ) fiev oXa ra ficprj /cat a. ra o€ G hki M 1 ; 
rtov /i€V oXa ra iMCprj a. r&v (ret X 3 ) 8e F Ry Vv. 
8 vipcovos] all but G X F add ^vx^jv after vipejvos. 

297 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(567) rjAois hiaiTvpois. TTpoKe^eipia\iivcov 8e /cat ravrrj 1 
tcov Srjfjuovpywv NiKav8piKrjs 2 e^8vr]s ethos, ev & 
Kvrjdeicrav /cat 8ia(f>ayovaav z rrjv pprpepa j3icoaecr6aL, 
(/>cos €<f>aaK€V e^ac^vrjs SiaAdfjafjai pueya /cat cfrcovrjv 
€K rod <f>coTos yeveodai TTpoGrdrrovaav els aAAo 
yevos r\\xepcoTepov fxer afiaAelv , ojSikov* tl fjurj^avr)- 
cra/JLevovs rrepl eArj /cat Aipuvas t ) coov b ' &v puev yap 
tj8lkt]g€V SeSa>/cevat 6 Slkols, ocfrelAeodaL 8e tl /cat 
568 XP 7 ] 01 "^ a VTto napa decov on tcov vTrrjKocov to 
PcAtiotov /cat Oeo^iAeoTCLTOV yevos rjAevOepcoae. 7 

33. Me^pt puev ovv tovtcov elvai deaTTjs. obs 8e 
avaoTpecfyeiv efJieAAev, ev TravTi yevecrdcu, 8 Sta cfrofiov 
yvvcuKa yap avTov Aa^ofievrjv 9 SavpLaoTrfV to el8os 
/cat to fxeyeuos, oevpo orj, enreiv, ovtos, 

o7Toos e/caara /jl&AAov pLvr]iJLovevG7]s , " Kai tl pajSSt'ov, 
coorrep ol £,Goypd(f)oi, 8iairvpov Trpoadyeiv eTepav 

e KcoAveiv, avTov oe coairep airo uajpuyyos 
e£aL<j)vr]s oiraodevTa TrvevfiaTi veavLKco crcf)68pa /cat 
jSiata) Tip GoofiaTL TTpooTreaelv /cat dva^Aei/jat G)^e86v 

dlT* aVTOV TOV {JLvrffJiaTOS . 

1 Kal ravrrj Reiske : /cat rax>rr\v (ravrrjv Y). 

2 Nu<av8piKr}s Morel : 7nvoapiK7}s. 

3 Kvrjdelaav Kal hiacjiayovoav X 3 : KvrjOeTaa Kal hia<f>vyovoa 
{-<j>ayovaa G 4 F M 3 ). 

4 djhiKov G 3 F Ry M 2 V : oZikov. 

5 twov X d * M 2 Vv : !&<*»- 

6 oebojKevai Reiske : SeSwKC (-cv N 1 Y ; Z&cdkc Vv). 

7 rr)v e'AAaoa deleted by Hartman after rjXevOepojoe. 

8 yeveodai Wyttenbach : kokco yeveodai G X F : yeveoOat 

KOKCp. 

9 avrov AaftojjL€vr)v G X F : riva Aa[3op,evr)v avrov. 

10 elirfv X 3 hki Y 2 : eUev. , 

11 and dcopayyos nos (Std avpiyyos Reiske ; euro paqpivdov ? 

298 



THE DIVINE VENGEANCE, 567-568 

For his soul too the framers had made ready a form, 
that of Nicander's ° viper, in which it was to live on 
eating its way out of its pregnant mother, 6 when 
suddenly (he said) a great light shot through and 
a voice came out of the light commanding them to 
transfer it to a milder kind of brute and frame instead 
a vocal creature, frequenter of marshes and lakes, 
as he had paid the penalty for his crimes, and a piece 
of kindness too was owing him from the gods, since 
to the nation which among his subjects was noblest 
and most beloved of Heaven he had granted freedom. d 
33. Thus much he beheld. He was about to turn 
back, when he was driven frantic with terror, for a 
woman marvellously beautiful and tall took hold of 
him and said : " Come hither, sirrah, the better to 
remember everything," and was about to apply to 
him a red hot rod, such as painters use e ; but another 
woman interposed, and he was suddenly pulled away 
as by a cord f and cast in a strong and violent gust of 
wind upon his body, opening his eyes again almost 
from his very grave. 

a Nicander, Theriaca, 133 f. For the story that the young 
of vipers eat their way out of the womb cf. Herodotus, iii. 
109 ; Aelian, Nat. Animal, xv. 16 ; Antigonus, Hist. Mir. 
chap, xxi ; Pliny, N.H. x. 170 ; Hierax in Stobaeus, vol. iii, 
p. 428. 20-22 Hense (of the muraena). 

6 Nero had his mother murdered in a.d. 59. 

c That is, a frog (cf. M. P. Nilsson, Gesch. d. gr. Rel. vol. 
ii, p. 529) ; Nero was a vocalist. 

d Nero emancipated Greece in a.d. 67 ; cf. Life of Fla- 
mininus, chap. xii. 13 (376 c). 

e In encaustic painting : cf. the Life of Cato the Younger, 
chap. i. 7 (760 a). 

/ Cf. 566 d, supra, and note. 

Wyttenbach ; vn tvyyos J. G. Schneider and Pohlenz ; vtto 
E<£iyyos Kronenberg) : vtto avpiyyos, 

299 




ON FA^E 

(De\^ATO) 



INTRODUCTION 

It has long been recognized that the manuscripts are 
mistaken in ascribing the treatise On Fate to Plutarch. a 
There is no need to repeat here all the arguments 
that have been adduced against its authenticity ; it 
is enough to point out that the incidence of hiatus is 
far greater than in passages of comparable length in 
the works admittedly genuine. 

The writer, evidently a Platonist, is apparently 
either a teacher or fellow student of the unknown 
Piso to whom the treatise is addressed. 5 Doctrine 
very similar to his own, and doubtless derived from 
a common source, is found in Nemesius and in the 
commentary of Chalcidius on the Timaeus c ; echoes 

° Cf. K. Ziegler in Pauly-Wissowa, vol. xxi. 1, col. 726. 
O. Apelt, however, accepts the work as genuine, and seems to 
be unaware that its authenticity has even been called in 
question : cf. the introduction and notes to his translation 
(Plutarch Moralische Schriften, Zweites Bandchen, Leipzig, 
1926, pp. 133 ff.). It is also accepted without comment by 
P. Duhem, Le Systeme du monde (Paris, 1913-1914), vol. i, 
p. 288 ; vol. ii, pp. 398 ff. 

b A. Gercke, Rheinisches Museum, xli (1886), p. 277, feels 
that the words " as we learned before, and as later, in the 
lectures in the school, we shall know yet better " (568 d) are 
those of a fellow student and not of a teacher. Other passages, 
however, point rather to a teacher : thus, the author speaks 
of his reluctance to write as well known to Piso, refers to a 
previous exposition (568 f) and to a subsequent detailed 
examination (574 f), and throughout the treatise is quite free 
with the use of the first person. 

c Cf. A. Gercke, " Eine platonische Quelle des Neupla- 
tonismus " in Rheinisches Museum, xli (1886), pp. 266-291. 

303 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

of this doctrine appear in Albinus a and Apuleius. 6 
Nemesius c alludes to the work of a certain Philopator 
On Fate and couples him with Chrysippus. The 
formulation of the doctrine presented in Nemesius 
can, then, be traced with some probability to the time 
of Philopator, and as the doctrine in Chalcidius and 
in the treatise On Fate is of the same origin as that 
of Nemesius' Platonists, we may conjecture that it 
was formulated in the early part of the second cen- 
tury A.D., d possibly by Gaius, the teacher of Albinus 
and the most celebrated Platonist of the day. Our 
treatise, then, was probably not written before the 
first decades of the second century. 

Our author's aim is to construct a theory of fate 
compatible with providence in God and free will in 
man. His view is opposed to the Stoic view that 
" everything conforms to fate," and a polemic against 
Stoicism is implicit in the treatise. Yet in several 
respects the argument reveals the influence of Stoic 
doctrines. 

Chrysippus and the Stoics maintained that the 

a Cf. Epitome, chap. xxvi. 

b Cf. De Platone, i. 12. 

c Chap, xxxv, pp. 291. 9 and 293. 14 (ed. Matthaei). 

d Galen attended the lectures of Albinus at Smyrna in 
151 or 152 (cf. De Libris Propriis, chap, ii, vol. xix, p. 16 
Kuhn) ; he heard a Stoic, pupil of Philopator, and a Platonist, 
pupil of Gaius, at Pergamum in 143 or 144 (cf. De Cogno- 
scendis Curandisque Animi Morals, chap, viii, vol. v, p. 41 
Kuhn). Thus both Philopator and Gaius would belong to 
the first half of the second century. Alexander (De Anima 
Libri Mantissa, p. 186. 30 f. Bruns) mentions a book On 
Fate by Polyzelus, presumably a Peripatetic, but otherwise 
unknown. It may well belong to this period. Cf. W. 
Theiler, " Tacitus und die antike Schicksalslehre " in 
Phyllobolia fiir Peter von der Milhll (Basle, 1946), pp. 71, 
81 f. 
304 



ON FATE 

universe is governed by an immanent divine power, 
variously called God, providence, fate, or nature. 
They explained the continual change that occurs in the 
universe asa u chain " of causes, a series of situations 
in which an antecedent leads to a consequent, the con- 
sequent in its turn becoming the antecedent of the 
next consequent. In such a series, however, different 
kinds of causes were distinguished. In the sphere of 
human conduct, for example, the impression that a 
person receives from an external object often initiates 
a course of action, but the exact character of that 
action is in large part determined by the nature of 
the person, as revealed in his assent and impulse. 
A cause which initiates a sequence but does not 
determine its course is called by the Stoics a procat- 
arctic (" initiatory ") cause, a whereas causes that 
determine completely the character of their effects 
are called autotele (" complete in themselves "). & In 
such an analysis the continuity of fate is provided by 
the procatarctic causes, whereas the determination 
of particular events depends on the nature of the 
objects involved. It is in some such way as this that 
the Stoics reconciled fate and free will. c 

The Stoics used the relation of antecedent to con- 
sequent to refute the " indolent " argument, which 

° On the procatarctic cause cf. 574 d, infra. 

5 For the meaning of the term cf. W. Theiler, " Tacitus 
und die antike Schicksalslehre," in Phyllobolia fur Peter von 
der Muhll, p. 62. 

c The views of Chrysippus are most conveniently con- 
sulted in A. Gercke, " Chrysippea," in Jahrbiicher fur class. 
Philol., Vierzehnter Supplemented. (Leipzig, 1885), pp. 
689-779. Cf. also M. Pohlenz, " Grundfragen der stoischen 
Philosophic," in Abh. d. Ges. d. Wiss. zu Oottingen, Philol.- 
Hist. Klasse, Dritte Folge, Nr. 26 (1940), pp. 104-112, and 
W. Theiler, op. cit. pp. 61-66. 

305 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

maintained that what is fated to occur cannot be 
altered by any acts of ours. To this the Stoics replied 
that a consequent is " co-fated " with its antecedent, 
and that the one will not occur without the other. a 
It is not fated simply that the patient shall recover 
whether he calls a physician or no ; rather, his calling 
a physician is co-fated with his recovery. 

Our author accepts the Stoic formulation of fate 
as a relation of antecedent to consequent, but 
rejects the view that the antecedent is in conformity 
with fate. He considers fate to be a law which states 
that a certain consequent will follow upon a certain 
antecedent, but which does not thereby determine 
the antecedent. He says further that fate, like 
human law, is hypothetical b and universal, the 
particular being co-fated c with the universal in the 
sense that it is an instance of the universal law. 

The antecedents, which are free, include " what 
is in our power," chance, the possible and the con- 
tingent (570 e). Our author proceeds to define them 
and describe their relations to one another and to 
the spontaneous (which is not expressly mentioned 
here, but dealt with later). As human law " includes " 
our acts, but legislates their consequences only, the 
acts themselves not being " lawful " or "in con- 
formity with law," so fate " includes " the possible, 

a For the " co-fated " cf. Cicero, Be Fato, 13 (30) ; Seneca, 
Nat. Quaest. iii. 37. 1 ; Diogenianus quoted in Eusebius, 
Praep. Evang. vi. 8. 16-24. 

6 The Stoic doctrine of fate could have been formulated 
hypothetically ("if the physician is called the patient will 
recover "), but there is evidence that Chrysippus did not so 
formulate it: cf. Cicero, Be Fato, 6 (12) and 8 (15), and Zeller, 
Bie Philos. d, Or. iii. I 5 , p. 108, note 5. 

c 569 f, infra. Here the Stoic term is used with altered 
meaning. 

306 



ON FATE 

the contingent, what is in our power, chance, and the 
spontaneous, and is in its turn included in providence. 

Providence is defined as the intellection or will or 
both of the primary God ; fate is the rule or law pro- 
claimed by him to the gods who are his offspring. 
These gods in turn have their own intellection and 
will, which singly or in combination constitute 
secondary providence ; while the intellection and 
will of daemons, who are guardians of the acts of men, 
constitute, singly or in combination, a third kind of 
providence. While primary providence includes fate, 
tertiary providence is included in fate, and secondary 
providence and fate exist side by side, neither in- 
cluding the other. The author, however, does not 
insist upon this view of the relation of secondary 
providence to fate, but countenances another view, 
that secondary providence is contained in fate. 5 

The author's distinction between fate and provi- 
dence, his interruption of the " chain " of causes by 
the introduction of antecedents that are not fated, 
and his assertion that fate is primarily universal serve 
to differentiate his view from that of the Stoics. In 
the final chapter he makes this difference explicit by 

° We have here, it seems, two different sorts of inclusion : 
the inclusion of the possible and the rest in fate, and of our 
good and evil acts in the law is of one kind, whereas the 
inclusion of fate in providence is of another. In the former 
kind, the thing included is not determined or brought about 
by what includes it ; in the latter, the thing included is so 
determined and brought about. 

6 In the definition of providence as " intellection " or 
I will " or both, and in the inclusion in it of fate, we observe 
the influence of the Stoic psychology which attempted to 
preserve free will : as our intellection and will is free, but 
is the antecedent cause of fated actions, so here the intellec- 
tion and will of God is free and leads to fate itself. 

307 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

contrasting the Stoic view with his own and listing the 
arguments for each in their proper order. He never- 
theless shares with the Stoics the doctrine that the 
universe passes through recurrent cycles, the events 
of each cycle being repeated in all the rest ; he con- 
cedes that the argument of the " chain " may cor- 
rectly apply to celestial phenomena ; and he uses 
in his discussion a number of Stoic terms (though 
often with altered meanings). He agrees with the 
Stoics that fate is " not transgressed " (aparabatos) 
and that it " determines the course " (dieocagetai) of 
everything that comes to be. Yet he gives alternate 
interpretations to the Stoic view that " everything 
conforms to fate," and in calling fate a logos he is using 
the term in a sense quite different from that intended 
by the Stoics. The latter meant by logos the " reason" 
of the supreme God, whom they identified with pro- 
vidence, nature, necessity, and the rationale of the 
universe ; our author, to judge by the passages he 
cites from Plato, takes logos to mean " statement," 
" formula," or " proposition." This recasting of 
Stoic language and doctrine into a form acceptable 
to a Platonist is one of the many causes of the notori- 
ous obscurity of the treatise. Others are the con- 
densations and omissions inevitable in an epitome, our 
imperfect knowledge of the views which the author 
is attacking, modifying, or defending, the abstruse 
nature of the subject, and the corruptions and lacunas 
in the text. a 

a Our author appears to have used the Peripatetics as he 
used the Stoics : although he borrowed much from them, yet 
he differed from them on some points. But in general his 
views are less at variance with the Peripatetics than with the 
Stoics. His debt to Aristotle is especially great in his dis- 
cussion of chance and the spontaneous (571 e to 572 e). 

308 



ON FATE 

There are translations by Adrian Turnebus a and 
Hugo Gro tius. 6 

The treatise does not appear in the catalogue of 
Lamprias, which mentions instead a lost work On 
Fate, in two books (No. 58). 

The text is based on a and X. Conjectures are 
occasionally quoted from descendants of a : Ay 
/3m/xcrEns, and from a e P, an epitome, breaking off at 
569 e, on folios 273 v and 275 r of a. 

Possible allusions to differences with the Peripatetics have 
been indicated in notes to 568 d, 569 r, and 573 a. 

a Adriani Turnebi . . . Opera . . ., Argentorati . . . 
M.DC, vol. ii, pp. 48-57. 

b Philosophorum Sententiae De Fato . . . Collectae 
partim, & de Graeco versae, per Hugonem Grotium. An> 
sterodami , . , MDCXLVIII, pp, 42-61, 



m 



(56 ^ nEPI EIMAPMENHS 

JB 

Ta 7T€pl rrjs ZLpLappLevrjs SoKovvra rjpZv ohs olov 
C re aa(f>cx)s kcll avvrofxcos ireipdoopLai eTTLcrrelXai 
goi, (f)iXrar€ II elorajv, €7T€t8rj av rovro rjtjiojaas ovk 
dyvooov r\v e^oo npos to ypd<j)€iv evXdfieiav. 

1. UptOTOV TOIVVV LG01 OTL €LfXapjJL€V7] Sl^dJ? Kdl 

Xeyerai kcll voelrai- 77 fiev yap ianv ivepyeia, rj 

€ ovaua, 

Ilpoorov pi€V ovv ivepyetav tvttcq VTreypoafjev 6 

HXdroov ev re rep OaiSpa) Xeyoov " deapios T€ 

'ASpaoretas oSe 1, tjtls av i/^X 7 ?* ^ €( ? ^vvorraoos 

yevopuevrj " ev re z rco Tipiaicp " vopbovs " ovs eirl 

rfj rod Travros (frvaei 6 deos etrrev raZs adavdrois 

D ifjvxcus' £v oe rfj UoXireia " 'AvdyKrjs Ovyarpos 

Kopi)s Aa^eaecos" Xoyov " </)7]cfIv elvai rrjv elpiap- 

pi€vr]v 3 ov TpayiK(x)s dXXd deoXoyiK&s to dpeoKov 

avrw diro<f>aiv6pLevos . el 8e Koivorepov edeXoi ns 

ravra pberaXa^oov VTroypdifjat, cos f^ev iv OaiSpco 

1 o&€ Plato and a ep : c58e. 2 iffvxrj added from Plato. 

3 h t€ Leonicus : iv Se. 

a Cf. Chalcidius, chap, cxliii, p. 203. 9-13 (ed. Wrobel), and 
Nemesius, chap, xxxviii, p. 303. 9 f. (ed. Matthaei). 

b 24.S c, quoted more fully 570 a, infra. 

c 41 e, quoted more fully 573 d, infra, d 617 d. 

e " Word " translates logos, which is used by our author 
in the sense of " statement " or " proposition." 

310 



ON FATE 

I shall endeavour to send you my views on fate in 
as clear and concise a form as possible, dear Piso, 
since you have asked this of me although not unaware 
of my scruple about writing. 

The two senses of fate 

1. You must know, then, to begin with, that the 
term " fate " is used and understood in two senses : 
one fate is an activity, the other, a substance. a 

Active fate : its substance 

In the first place, Plato has roughly indicated an 
activity (a) in the Phaedrus b with these words : " This 
is the ordinance of Adrasteia : if a soul have accom- 
panied a god ..." and (6) in the t Timaeus, G when he 
speaks of the " laws" applying to the nature of the 
universe, which God proclaimed to the immortal 
soul ; while (c) in the Republic d he calls fate the 
" word 6 of Lachesis, maiden daughter of Necessity," 
expressing his view not in high tragic style, but in 
the language of theology/ Should one wish to recast 
these descriptions and phrase them in more ordinary 
language, fate as described in the Phaedrus might 

' Cf. Chalcidius, chap, cxliii, p. 203. 13-16 (ed. Wrobel). 

311 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(568) Xeyoir av rj elpLappbevrj Xoyos deios dnapd^aros 
hi alriav dvaTTohpaorov * d>s Se ev rep Ti/xcuaj, 

VOpLOS OLKoXovOoS TTj TOV 7TCLVTOS (f)VG€L KdO* OV 

hie^dyerai ra yivopueva, <hs S' ev UoXiTeca, vopuos 
Oeios Kad* ov avfjLTrXeKeraL rots' yeyovoai km tols 
yivo^ievois ra yevrjoopueva 2 - tovto yap rf Adxeais 
epyd^erai, rj rrjs 'Avay/c^s dXiqdcos dvydrrjp, ws 
kclI TTporepov rrapeXafSopbev Kal varepov en pu&XXov 
elcropieOa ev tols Kara gxoXtjv Adyois*. rjhe 41 pLev 
ovv rj kclt ivepyeiav elpLappbevrj. 
E 2. *H he 5 kolt ovoiav eoLKev elvai avpLTraaa rj 
rod Koopiov 0fX°7 T P l Xfl heave pLrjdetaa, ets re ttjv 
dnXavfj piolpav Kal els rrjv irXavaodai vopLL^opLevrjv 
Kal rpirrjv els rrjv vrcovpdviov ttjv Trepl yrjv virdp- 

1 avaTroSpaoTov nos (cf. Alexander, De Fato, chap, ii, p. 166. 
2, and De Anima Libri Mantissa, p. 180. 1 Bruns ; Nemesius, 
chap, xxxviii, p. 303. 12 Matthaei ; Chalcidius, chap, cxliv, 
p. 203. 18 Wrobel ; Plutarch quoted by Stobaeus, vol. i, p. 
81. 26 Wachsmuth) : ave^TTohioTov (defended by Post, who 
refers to ifjurobajv 571 b, infra). 

2 (hs 8' eV IIoAiTcta through yevrjao/jueva our addition from 
Chalcidius, chap, cxliv, p. 203. 22 f. (ed. Wrobel), and Aetius, 
i. 28. 3, p. 328 b 19-21 (ed. Diels), to fill a lacuna indicated by 
Drexler. 

3 7j] €%€l Tj X (€K€L 7} ?). 

4 -qhe s Turnebus : tjSt]. 5 rj be s Turnebus : rrj. 

a " Formula " translates logos. 

b The words " while . . . present " translate a conjectural 
supplement. Cf. Chalcidius, chap, cxliv, p. 203. 17-23 (ed. 
Wrobel) : " Possumus ergo inevitabile quidem scitum inter- 
pretari legem minime mutabilem ex inevitabili causa ; leges 
vero quas de universae rei natura dixit animis deus, legem 
quae mundi sequitur naturam et qua reguntur mundana 
omnia ; Lacheseos vero, hoc est necessitatis, orationem, 
divinam legem qua praeteritis et item praesentibus conec- 
tuntur futura." 

312 



ON FATE, 568 

be called " a divine formula a which, owing to a cause 
from which there is no escape, is not transgressed " ; 
as described in the Timaeus it would bea" law con- 
forming to the nature of the universe, determining 
the course of everything that comes to pass " ; while 
as described in the Republic it is a " divine law deter- 
mining the linking of future events to events past 
and present/ ' b For this is what Lachesis, in very 
truth c the " daughter of Necessity/' performs, as 
we learned before, and as later, in the lectures in the 
school, we shall know yet better. This, then, is fate 
in the sense of activity.** 



Substantial fate 

2. Fate as a substance appears to be the entire soul 
of the universe in all three of its subdivisions, the 
fixed portion,* 5 the portion supposed to wander, and 
third, the portion below the heavens in the region 

c Perhaps a glance at the Peripatetics : cf Anon. In Eth. 
Nic. Comm. p. 150. 2-4 (ed. Heylbut) : €irj 8e av «rai rj elfxap- 
fjLtvrj Aeyo/jLevT) Kara rovoh€ rovs avhpas [that is, the Peripatetics] 
vtto TTjv <f>v<jw. ov yap airapafiarov ro clfJLapjxevov ovb* avayKalov. 
" According to these philosophers fate would be classed under 
nature ; for what is fated is not incapable of being trans- 
gressed and not necessary." 

d Cf, the three definitions of Chrysippus in Aetius, i. 28. 
3, p. 323 (ed. Diels) : Xpvoiinros . . . TroAvrponcos ano- 
<f>aiv€rai XiyaiV elpuapfxevr) ioTtv 6 rod Koofxov Aoyos, rj vopcos 
[vofios Plutarch : \6yos Stobaeus] rcov eV tw Koopap npovola 
bioLKOvpudvcov, T] Xoyos KaO* ov ra pukv yeyovora yiyove, ra 8c 
yivop,zva ytverai, ra o€ y€vr}o6pL€va yevrjcreraL. The terms apara- 
batos and diexagein both appear in Stoic accounts of fate: 
for the former cf, Stoicorum Vet. Frag. ii. 917 f. pp. 265 f. 
and 1000, pp. 293 f. (ed. von Arnim) ; for the latter, Diogenes 
Laert. vii. 149. 

e Moira (" portion ") can also mean " Fate/' 

313 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(568) x ovaav ' & v V ^v dvajraroj KAoj^oj TTpooayopeve- 
TOu> rj Se pier avrrjv "Arporros, rj Karcordra) S' av 
Adxeois, Sexopbevrj puev rds ovpavias rcov doeX^wv 
evepyeias , ovp^rrXeKdvoa 8e koI StaStSouaa 1 ravras 
els rd err* avrrjs reraypueva rd errtyeLa. 

Avvapuei puev ovv eLprjToa, OTTOia xprj Xeyeodai 
F Trepl rrjs kclt ovglclv ecpLappievrjs' kcll yap yjris 

€(JTl /Cat 7TOG7] TLS Kdl OTTOia KCU 0770)9 T€TaKT(ll 
KOLL 07760? €^6t ai)T7] T€ TTpOS iaVTTJV Kdl 8r) Kdl 
TTpOS rjpL&S OJS €V eTTlTOpbfj €Lp7]T0LL' rd 8e Kdd' 

e/caara irepl tovtojv 6 erepos pivdos, 6 ev rrj 
HoXirela, pier picas alvirrerai, kclI rjpieis els 8v- 
vap.Lv 001 ravra eTreipddrjpiev e^rjyrjoaodai. 

3. YidXiv ye pirjv rr)v Kar evepyeiav elpiappievrjv 
dvaXafiovres Xeyojpiev 2 ' irepl yap ravrrjv 3 rd 7roAAd 
£777-7^x0,7-0, (f)VGLKa re Kal rjdiKa Kal SiaXeKriKa 
rvyyavei ovra. ris piev ovv eoriv eTTieiKws dcfioj- 
piorai' OTTOia Se eoriv e^rjs prjreov, el Kal ttoXXois 
droTTOv <j>aiverai. 

1 Siaochovoa a 2 : SiSoucra. 

2 Xeycofxev Aid. 2 Turnebus : Xeyoficv. 

3 ravrrjv Sieveking : ravra. 

Cf. Chalcidius, chap, cxliv, p. 203. 23-25 (ed. Wrobel). 

b Literally, " receiving the celestial activities of her 
sisters." Mr. Post suggests that the figure is that of a reser- 
voir (dechomene in Greek). 

c Cf. Chalcidius, chap, cxliv, pp. 203. 26-204. 4 (ed. 
Wrobel), who assigns Atropos to the sphere of the fixed stars 
(cf. the etymologies of Chrysippus as given by Diogenianus, 
quoted in Eusebius, Praep. Evang. vi. 8. 9 f.). The order of 

314 



ON FATE, 568 

of the earth a ; of these the highest is called Clotho, 
the next Atropos, and the lowest Lachesis, who is 
receptive to the celestial activities of her sisters, b 
and combines and transmits them to the terrestrial 
regions subject to her authority. G 

What needs to be said, then, about substantial fate 
has been implicitly stated, as an abridged account 
has been given of its substance, quantity, quality, 
order, and relation both to itself and to us d ; the full 
account of these matters is well presented in the 
imagery of the second myth, that of the Republic, e 
and I have done my best to give you an exposition 
of that account/ 

Active fate 

3. But let us once more turn our attention to active 
fate, as the greater number of problems — physical, 
ethical, and dialectical — are concerned with it. a Its 
substance has been adequately defined h ; we must 
next tell its quality, strange though it may appear 
to many. 

Clotho and Atropos in our treatise depends on Plato, Re- 
public^ 617 c. 

d Its substance is the soul of the universe ; its quantity the 
triad of portions into which that soul is divided ; its quality 
the characters of these portions ; its order their sequence 
from highest to lowest ; and its relation the dependence of 
Lachesis on her sisters and her authority over the earth. 

e The first is that of the Phaedrus (245 c— 256 e). 

/ Apparently a reference to a previous book or lecture on 
the myth of the Republic. Proclus (In Plat. Rem Pub. 
Comm. ii, p. 96. 11-13 Kroll) mentions Numenius, Albinus, 
Gaius, Maximus of Nicaea, Harpocration, Eucleides, and 
Porphyry as expounders of this mvth. 

9 Cf. Chalcidius, chap, cxlviii, p. 206. 4-6 (ed. Wrobel). 

h 568 d, supra. 

315 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

569 *A.7T€ipa)v yap ££ aTreipov /cat els aireipov ovrayv 1 
tcov yivofjievcov, tol ttolvtol TrepifiaXovoa iv kvkXcq 
r) eljjLapjJLevr) ovk arreipos dXXa TTeTTepaop.evt] eariv 
ovre yap vojjlos ovre Xoyos ovre tl delov aireipov 
av etrj. en S' av fiaOois to Xeyopuevov voiqoas ttjv 
re oXrjv Trepiohov /cat tov avfjurravra xpovov, " orav 2 
twv oktoj rrepLoSajv,"* o)s c/)r)crLv 6 Tt/xatos', " ra 
TTpos aXXrjXa ovpLTrepavdevTa* rd)(rj a^fj K€<f)aXrjv 
to) tov 5 TavTOV /cat ojjlolojs lovtos dvafieTprjOevTa 
/cu/cAa)." iv ydp tovtco tcq xpovco, 6 ajpiopLevco tc 
ovtl /cat Oeaypovfievcp, rrdvTa oaa Te /car' ovpavov 
Bar' inl ttjv yrjv i£ dvdyKrjs dva>9ev auvtararat 
TrdXiv fjiev els to avTO KaTaoTTjoeTai? ttoXlv 8' i£ 
dpxrjs /cara 8 ra auTCt d>cravTOJS aTroSodrjcreTai. 
fMovrj yovv r) /car' ovpavov exeats avTrj re TTpos 
eavTrjv 9 /caret 10 irdvTa TeTayfievrj TTpos re ttjv yrjv 
/cat Trpos rd ezrtyeta TrdvTa §ta (juaKptov TreptoSajv 

1 ovrcov added here by Wyttenbach, after yivopevoDv in ?. 

2 orav] orav aTraotov Plato. 

3 TTCpiohcjv Plato : irohojv (77-dAajv a ep ). 

4 ovpurepavdivra a ep E : av}j,77€paQevra. 

5 rod added from Plato. 

6 xP° vc i> Maresch from Chalcidius, chap, cxlviii, p. 206. 18 f. 
(ed. Wrobel) : Xoyco. 

7 Karaorrjoerai LeonidlS : /cetrat orrjoerai. 

8 Kara nos (oAa Kara Wyttenbach ; Post deletes) : kcitch. 

9 ia.vrrjv a ep E : iavrov. 

10 Kara Vulcobius : Ktirai. 

° The phrase is Stoic, doubtless from Chrysippus, as 
Gercke (Chrysippea, Index, s.v, a-rreipos) points out : cf. 
Alexander, De Fato, chap, xxii, p. 192. 15-17 (ed. Bruns). 

b " Formula " translates logos. 

c Cf. Chalcidius, chap, cxlviii, p. 206. 7-11 and chap. 
cxlix, pp. 206. 25-207. 3 (ed. Wrobel). 

316 



ON FATE, 569 

Its quality 

Although events are infinite, extending infinitely 
into the past and future , a fate, which encloses them 
all in a cycle, is nevertheless not infinite but finite, 
as neither a law nor a formula b nor anything divine 
can be infinite. Further, you would understand 
what is meant if you should apprehend the entire 
revolution and the complete sum of time, " when," 
as Timaeus says, " the speeds of the eight revolu- 
tions, completing their courses relatively to one 
another, are measured by the circuit of the Same and 
Uniformly moving and come to a head/' d For in this 
time, which is definite and knowable, 6 everything in 
the heavens and everything on earth whose produc- 
tion is necessary and due to celestial influences, will 
once again be restored to the same state and once 
more be produced anew in the same way and manner/ 
Thus the arrangement of the heavenly bodies, the 
only one in all respects ordered both in relation to 
itself and to the earth and all things terrestrial, will 
eventually return, at intervals composed of long 

d Plato, Timaeus, 39 d ; cf. also Chalcidius, chap, cxlviii, 
p. 206. 12-18 (ed. Wrobel). Plato means that the " Complete 
Year " has elapsed when the eight bodies — the moon, sun, 
Venus and Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the sphere 
of the fixed stars — all return to the same relative position. 
This " great year " could be discovered by finding the least 
common multiple of the eight revolutions. The words " are 
measured by the circuit of the Same and Uniformly moving " 
mean that the great year must contain an integral number 
of sidereal days. e Cf. Cicero, Be Nat. Deor. ii. 20 (52). 

* Cf. Chalcidius, chap, cxlviii, p. 206. 18-22 (ed. Wrobel). 
This is the Stoic apokatastasis, or return of the cosmos to its 
former state : cf. Stoicorum Vet. Frag. ii. 599, p. 184. 35 (ed. 
von Arnim), and Nemesius, chap, xxxviii, pp. 309. 4-310. 3 
(ed. Matthaei). 

317 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

(569) ttolXlv eiravrj^ei ttot€' at 1 t€ \lzt avrrjv icfre^rjs /cat 
€^o/x€vat aAA^Aats 2 e^o/zeVa)? 7Tap€i/jovTCU, 3 iKaurrj 
tol avrrjs e£ avdyKrjs <f>epovoai. (eoTOo Se irpos to 
craves tcov Trepl rjfJL&s vvv ovtoov otl ov eju/x/3atVet 
St* clvtcov tcov* ovpayicov cog irdvTCOv atrtojv 5 ovtcov 
C /cat to i[JL€ ypd(f)€LV vvvl raSc /cat a>St ere T€ TrpaTTeiv 
aTTep /cat 0770)9 Tvyx&veis irpaTTCov.) irdXiv toivvv 
€7T€tSav 7] aur^ acfriKrjTCLL atrta ra aura /cat cboav- 
Tcog ol avTol y€v6jji€voi 7Tpd£ofA€v, 6 ovtco Se /cat 
7T(ivT€S avdpcoiror /cat ra re 7 e^? /cara, t?)v ^779 
atrtav yei^o-erat /cat 77pa^^a€rat /cat iravf? b'oa 
/cara 8 utav r?)v oAtiv TreptoSov /cat /ca0' €KaoT7jv 
tcov SXcov cbcravTCog a7To8odr}o€Tai . (f)avepov toivvv 
77877 6 tl e</>a/xev, ttjv elfJLapfJLevrjv dneipov Tpoirov 
Tuva ovoav firj direipov elvai, /cat to ye prjdev, otl 
kvkXos tls ecrrt, /jbeTptcog ttov /carom-rat* a>? yap 
/cat 77 rou /cu/cAou Kivrjaus 6 T€ tclvttjv TrapapieTpcov 
Xpovos 9 kvkXos tls ioTtv, ovtcos /cat TOOV KCLTO, 
kvkXov yivojjbevcov 6 Xoyog kvkXos av vojiioQtir). 
D 4. S^eoov [lev ovv /cat tovto StjXol ottoZov tl 
Tvyyavzi rj eLpLappLevrj, 7rA7)v otr\; 77 ye /cara [xepos 

1 at E : 17. 

2 aAAijAcus Leonicus (dAA^Aajv Post) : aAAr;Aa. 

3 irapixfjovrai Post (irapeoovTai Wyttenbach ; advenient 
Grotius ; irapahexovrai Drexler) : irapixovTau 

4 ovfLpaiveL St' avra>v tcov nos (following Post's cru/ij3cuWt Std 
to>v) : avfifiaiveiv avrcov. 

5 clIticov nos : alriuiv. 

6 7rpd£op,€v A 2 E : 7rpdfa)/xev a X. 

7 r' Wilamowitz (that is, t€ or 0') : ye. 

8 /caret Leonicus : /cetrai. 

9 xpovos' s : xP° V0Vt 

10 /cara Turnebus : /cctrat. 



318 



C/. Chalcidius, chap, cxlviii, p. 206. 22-24 (ed. Wrobel). 



ON FATE, 569 

revolutions ; and those arrangements that come after 
it in a series and are contiguous to one another, will 
occur in contiguous fashion, each bringing with itself 
of necessity its own set of events. a (Be it noted, how- 
ever, to make our present situation clear, that my 
writing these words at this moment as I write them, 
and your doing what you happen to be doing as you 
happen to be doing it are not events brought about 
by the agency of the heavenly bodies alone as causes 
of everything.) b And so, when the same cause 
returns again, we shall, once more becoming the same 
persons, do the same things and in the same way, 
and so will all men besides ; and what comes next 
in order will come into existence and be done in 
accordance with the cause that comes next in order, 
and everything that is found in a single entire revolu- 
tion will be repeated in similar fashion in each of the 
entire revolutions as well. c And so it is now plain 
what we meant by our statement that fate, although 
in a way infinite, is not infinite ; and our remark d 
that it is a sort of cycle has, I take it, been adequately 
understood : for just as the movement of a cycle 
and the time which measures that movement are 
cycles, so too the formula e of cyclical events would 
be considered a cycle/ 

4. Even this treatment, then, I venture to say, 
shows the quality of fate, except that it does not tell 

b That is, the heavenly bodies influence us, but we are also 
causes in our own right. This statement excludes astrological 
determinism. 

c Cf. Nemesius, chap, xxxviii, p. 310. 3-10 (ed. Matthaei). 

d 569 a, supra. 

e " Formula " translates logos. 

f Cf. Chalcidius, chap, cxlix, pp. 206. 25-207. 6 (ed. 
Wrobel). 

319 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(569) ov8* rj 1 kclQ' eKaara. iroia ns ovv Kal rj8e kclt av 
r68e 2 to el8os rov Aoyov; eon roivvv, d>s av ns 
elKaoac, otos 6 ttoXltlkos vojjlos, os z rrpcorov fiev 
rd TrAelora, el koll (jltj Trdvra, et; vrroOeoeojs rrpoo- 
r arret, erreira pJr]v KadoAov rd rroAei TrpoorjKovra 
els Svva/JLLV TTepiAapbfSdvei. 

YldAiv 8r) rovrojv eKovrepov orrolov ri eon 
oKerrreov, 

'AkoAovOojs roivvv 6 7ToAitlkos vofios irepi re 
dpioreojs kclI AirroraKrov hiaAeyerai Kal rrepl ra>v 
aAAojv woavrojs, aAA ov uepi rovoe 77 rovo o 

E vofjbLjJiov eonv, dAAd ro 5 fjuev KadoAov 7rpo7]yovfJLeva>s, 
rd 8e viroTTLTTrovra rovrco* eTTOfievcog. Kal yap 
rd rijJLrjaaL rov8e rivd rjptorevKora /cat rd KoAdoac 
rov8e rivd AirroraKrrjoavra vopufiov av (f>r]o aifiev y 
d>s Svvdjjiei Kal irepl rovrojv 8 larer ay \xevov rov 
vdfiov, ov rpoTTov 6 larpiKos Kal 6 yvfivaoriKos d>s 
elrrelv vojjlos Swdfiei rd /ca#' e/caora rols b'Aois 
GVfi7TepLAa[JLpdveL' ovroj 8e /cat 6 rrjs <f)voeajs 
vojjlos rd fxev KadoAov rrpo^qyovjievajs, rd 8e /ca#' 

F e/cacrra e7rop,evo)s. eon re el\iap\Leva rporrov nvd 
Kal ravra rravra, ovra 7 eKeuvois ovveifiap/xeva. 

1 1}] 1j E«. 

2 kclt av robe K. F. Hermann (/cara rooe Wyttenbach) : kolt 
avro 8e (kclt avro brj s). 3 os added by Wyttenbach. 

4 rouS' o nos (rovo* fj Wyttenbach) : rovSe, 

5 to nos : ra. 

6 tovtcq s (tovtols Wilamowitz) : tovtcov, 

7 rrdvTa, ovtlx nos (ovra Wyttenbach) : iravTa. 

a Cf. Albinus, Epitome, chap. xxvi. 1-2 ; Porphyry, On 
the Things in Our Power, quoted in Stobaeus, vol. ii, p. 169. 
3-20 (ed. Wachsmuth) ; Oenomaus, The Charlatans De- 
tected, quoted in Eusebius, Praep. Evang. vi. 7. 32 f. ; Aris- 
teides Quintilianus, On Music, iii. 26, p. 96. 8-12 (ed. Jahn). 

320 



1 



ON FATE, 569 

of that fate which is particular or individual. What, 
then, is the quality of this fate, considered in turn 
as this kind of formula? It is, we may conjecture, 
of the quality of the law of a state, which in the first 
place promulgates most, if not all, of its commands as 
consequents of hypotheses, and secondly, so far as 
it can, embraces all the concerns of a state in the form 
of universal statements. 

Let us go on to examine in turn the meaning of 
these two points. 

The universality of fate 

The law of a state uses the form of a supposition 
and its conclusion b to speak of a " soldier distinguish- 
ing himself in action " and of a deserter," and so 
with the rest ; it does not lay down the law for this 
or that individual, but speaks primarily of the general 
case, and only secondarily of what comes under it. c 
Thus we should say that it is lawful to honour this 
particular man who has distinguished himself in 
action, and to punish this other who has deserted his 
post, on the ground that the law has potentially pro- 
vided for them, just as the " law " (if one may use 
the expression) of medicine and of gymnastics d em- 
braces the particular cases potentially in its general 
provisions ; so also the law of nature, while dealing 
with universals primarily, deals secondarily with par- 
ticulars. The latter too are all fated after a fashion, 
since they are co-fated with the former. Perhaps a 

h That is, it uses a statement of the form : if p 9 then q : 
cf. akolouthia, 570 a, infra, 

c Cf. Chalcidius, chap, clxxix, p. 22%. 20 f. (ed. Wrobel). 

d For the relation of statesmanship and legislation to 
medicine and gymnastics cf. Plato, Gorgias, 464 b-c. 

vol. VII M 321 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(569) T<*>X a ^ ^ v Tts> T ^ v &7 av dKpif3oXoyovpLeva>v ra 
roiavra Kal rovvavriov <f>air) TTporjyovfieva avv- 
TeTayQai ra 1 kol9' eKaara elvai 2 re tovtoov eVe/ca 
/cat to KadoXov, TrpprjyelTai* 8e tcjv eveKa tov to 
ov eveKa. dXXa rrepl p,ev tovtcov ev dXXois a/ce- 
ttt€OV OTi 8e ov ttolvtol KaOap&s ov8e 8iapprj8r)v rj 
elfjiapfjievr] TTepiexeL, dAA' oaa KadoXov, tovto 8e 
ev tco irapovTi prjdev irpos T€ tov etjrjs Xoyov kcll 
570 tov oXiyov eparpooQev yjuopav e^66. to jjl€V yap 
<hpio\xivov oIkzZov* ttj Beta (frpovrjaei, iv to> kclOoXov 
jjl&XXov decDpeLTOLi (tolovtos fievToi ye 6 delos vo- 
jxos Kal 6 7toXltlkos 5 ) , to 8' aireipov ev tco kolO' 
e/cacrra. 

Mera 8rj tclvtcl olov fiev eoTi to* e£ vrrodecrecos, 

OTL 8e TOLOVTOV Kal Tj 6 LfJiap fJL€ V7] , (hpioda). 1 

'E£ vrroOeoeajs 8rj e(f>afiev to firj Kad' eavTO 
Tidefjuevov, dXXd ttcos* eTepco tlvI d>s dXr]9d)g vtto- 
Tedev, oTToaa aKoXovdiav orjf&dlvei,' " deapios re 
'ASpaareia? o8e- tjtls dv fax?} Oeco 9 ovvo7Ta86s 

1 ra a 2m s : /cat. 2 elvai Wyttenbach : ev. 

3 7rpo7]y€irai] Trpo^yeladai Wyttenbach. 

4 oIk€LOv] OLK€LOV OV Post. 

5 tolovtos fievroL ye 6 Qelos vofxos Kal 6 ttoXltikos Wyttenbach : 
tolovtos Kal 6 Qelos vojaos' 6 fievroL ye 7toXltlk6s (for o fi. ye s has 
Kal p. ye 6). 

6 eon to Pohlenz : Iotlv. 

7 optaOco (that is, cbpiodaj) Wyttenbach : oleodco. 

8 7Ttos Wyttenbach : npos. 

9 6ea> added from Plato. 

° Such a view is attributed to Boethus and Alexander the 
Peripatetics : cf. Dexippus, In Aristot. Cat. Comm. ii. 12, 
p. 45. 12-31 (ed. Busse), and Simplicius, In Aristot. Cat. 
Comm. chap, v, p. 82. 22 f. (ed. Kalbfleisch). 

322 



ON FATE, 569-570 

stickler for precision in such matters might insist 
that on the contrary it is the particulars that have 
priority, and that the universal exists for their sake 
— the end being prior to what serves it. But these 
questions have their place elsewhere, whereas the 
statement that fate does not contain everything 
plainly or expressly, but only universals, when made 
at this point, is properly placed both in respect of the 
point made shortly before b and of the one that is now 
to be made : the determinate, which is appropriate to 
divine wisdom, is seen rather in the universal — and 
the divine law and the political are of this description 
— while the unlimited is seen in the particular. 

The hypothetical character of fate 

Let us next determine the character of what is a 
" consequent of an hypothesis," and show that fate 
is of that character. c 

We meant by " consequent of an hypothesis " that 
which is not laid down independently, but in some 
fashion is really " subjoined " d to something else, 
wherever there is an expression implying that if one 
thing is true, another follows : " this is the ordinance 
of Adrasteia : if a soul have accompanied a god and 

6 569 a, supra. 

c Cf. Nemesius, chap, xxxviii, pp. 304. 7-305. 1 (ed. 
Matthaei). Chalcidius (chaps, cl-clii, pp. 207-210 Wrobel) 
uses ex praecessione for the Kad y virodeoiv of Nemesius, and 
secundum praecessionem or iuxta praecessionem (in chap, cl, 
p. 208. 1-6 Wrobel the mss. appear to vary between secundum 
praecessionem and secundum concessionem) for his i£ vtto- 
diot(x)s. Cf Willy Theiler in Phyllobolia fur Peter von der 
Muhlh pp. 72 f. 

d Hypothesis has the literal sense of " putting under " or 
" subjoining." 

323 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

(570) yevofievrj /cart'S^ tl tojv dXrjdcos, 1 /xe'xpt re 2 rfjs 
€T€pas Trepiohov elvai 07777 fjLova , kolv del SvvrjTac 
B tovto rroL€LV, del 3 dfiXapfj elvai." tolovtov \xev 8rj 
to eg VTToveoecos a/xja /cat koluoAov. otl be /cat 7) 
elfiapiJLevr] tolovtov TvyyaveL ov e/c Te 7-779 ovoias 
avTrjs /cat €/c 7-779 Trpoorjyopias SfjXov el\xap\xevr\ 
T€ yap TrpooayopeveTai <bs dv elpo/JLevr] rt9* Oeopios 
Se /cat vojios virdpyei tlo to, aKoXovOa toZs yivo- 
jievois ttoAltlkws StareTa^at. 

5. *E^9 Se OKeTTTeov /cat ra /caret to 77po9 rt* 
7760? /xev 77/009 7-77V npovoiav rj elfiappLevrj e^et, ^^ 
Se 77009 ttjv Tv^r\v /cat to Te* i(f>' rjfuv /cat to evSe- 
Xo/juevov 5 /cat oaa rotaura* 77009 Se tovtco huopioOto 
tttj fjbev dXr]6es } 7777 Se ipevSos to " irdvTa kcl6* 
eLjJLapfJLevrjv." 
C Et [lev ovv to ev ttj elfMappLevrj irdvTa irepieyeoQai 
SrjXol, ovyyoypyyreov etvat dXrjOes (etre 6 oaa Trepl 1 
dv6pu)7rovs etVe 77ept 8 yrjv dnavTa eiTe /car' ovpavov 
yivofieva jSouAerat rt? ev tt\ el/jbapfjievrj TiBeodai, 
/cat TavTa ws 77009 to rrapov ovyKexo)prjo6a>) • et 
8', oVep /cat jJbdXXov epi^aLvei, to /ca#' elfJLapjjLevrjv 

1 dA^a* (c/. Chalcidius, chap, clii, p. 209. 19 Wrobel)] 
dX-qdcov Plato. 

2 re added from Plato. 3 act added from Plato. 

4 re nos : ye. 5 eVSexo/zevov Victorius : cVtScxd/xcvov. 

6 etre] et 0' Sieveking. 7 xrept a : rrapa X. 

8 7T€pt a : 7rapa X (/card Sieveking). 

a Plato, Phaedrus, 248 c. Chalcidius, chap, clii, pp. 209 f. 
(ed. Wrobel) makes a similar use of the same quotation. 

b This is Chrysippus' etymology : cf. Diogenianus, quoted 
in Eusebius, Praep. Evang. vi. 8. 8. 

324 



ON FATE, 570 

beheld aught of reality, it shall suffer nought until the 
next revolution, and if able to do so ever, it shall ever 
go unscathed." a What is both consequent upon an 
hypothesis and universal is, then, of the description 
given above. That fate is actually of this description 
is evident from its substance alone and from its name : 
it is called fate (heimarmene) as being a thing con- 
catenated (eiromene) b ; and it is an ordinance and a 
law because it has laid down the consequences which 
follow upon occurrences, as in the legislation of a 
state. 

The relations of active fate 

5. We must next examine what comes under the 
heading of relation — how fate stands in relation to 
providence on the one hand, and on the other to 
chance, to what is in our power and the contingent, 
and to the like ; we must moreover distinguish in 
what way the dictum " everything conforms to fate " 
is true, and in what way false. 

Examination of the dictum u Everything conforms 
to fate " 

Now (a) if the statement means that everything is 
contained in fate, we must grant that it is true 
(whether it is all human events, or all terrestrial or 
all celestial events one wishes to place in fate, let us 
for the present d grant these points too) ; but (6) if 
the expression " conforming to fate," as would rather 
seem to be its implication, designates not everything, 

c The topics are discussed in the reverse order of their 
listing here. This is a mannerism of our author. 

d The author has in mind his later discussion of the relation 
of the secondary providence of the astral gods to fate (574 b-d, 
infra). 

325 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(570) ovx clttclvtcl, aAA avro fiovov to errofievov avrfj 
orffiaivei, ov TravTCL pryreov kclO* elfiapfievrjv , ouS' 
et Kad* elfiapfievrjv* Trdvra. ov8e yap vofitfia ov8e 
Kara vofiov Trdvra oiroaa 7repieiX r q<f>ev 6 vdfios* Kal 
ydp irpohoaiav Kal XtTTora^Lav Kal /xot^etav /cat 
D TToXXd erepa rouavra rrepiXafifidvei 9 a>v ov8ev dv 

Tt? €L7TOL VOfllflOV, 67TOT€ Ov8k TO dpiOTeVOai Tj 

rvpavvoKTOvrfoai rj tl dXXo KaropOcooai (frairjv dv 
eyojye vofiifiov. to fiev yap 8r) vofiifiov rrpooTayfia 

VOflOV ioTL' TO* 8' €L7T€p 6 VOflOS 7TpOOTaTT€l, 

ttcjs ovk dv drreidoiev /cat rrapavofiolev ot ye fir) 

dplOT€VOVT€£ /Cat TVpaVVOKTOVOVVT€S Kal OOOt T(Z 

TOiavTa fir) KaTopOovoiv ; rj ttcos, el rrapdvofioi 
ol8e, ov St/catov KoXd^eiv tovs toiovtovs ; el ye 
fir)v raura Xoyov 5 ovk eyei, fiova pryreov vofiifid Te 
Kal Kara vofiov ra vtto tov vofiov opiodevTa errl 
rot? ottojgovv TTpaTTOfievois' fiova he elfiapfieva 
E /cat KaQ' elfiapfievrjv ra aKoXovOa rot? ev tjj deia 
Stara^ct TTporjyrjoafievoLS . cocrre rrdvTa fiev ra 
yivofieva r) elfiapfievrj 7repiXafifidveL, 77oAAa 8e tcov 
ev avTrj Kal cr^eSov oaa Trporyyevrai ovk opOov 
Xeyeiv* /ca#' elfiapfievrjv. 

6. Tovto)v 8e ovtojs eypvToov, e£r)s pryreov ws 
to y y ecf)' rjfiiv Kal r) Tvyyi* T ° T€ 8vvaTov Kal to 
ev8exdfievov, Kal ra tovtwv ovyyevrj, TayQevTa ev 
tols Trporjyovfievois, aura 7 Te oco^olt dv Kal Tr)v 

1 (jlovov j8 1?ss a 2 5 : /xe'vov. 

2 avrfj Pohlenz (omit ?) : aurco. 

3 Kad* €Lfiap{i€V7)v] Kav €LjjLapiJL€V7) Sandbach. 

4 to] ra Pohlenz. 5 ravra X6yov\ Xoyov ravra X 1 . 

326 



ON FATE, 570 

but only the consequences of fate, we must not say 
that everything conforms to fate, even if " everything 
conforms to fate." a For neither is everything in- 
cluded in law " lawful " or " in conformity with law " ; 
for law includes treason, desertion, adultery, and a 
good many other things of the sort, none of which 
one would term lawful ; indeed I should not even 
call an act of valour, the slaying of a tyrant, or the 
performance of any other right action lawful. For 
the lawful is what the law enjoins ; but if the law 
enjoins such conduct, how then can we deny that 
persons who display no valour, slay no tyrant, and 
perform no such right action, disobey and violate it ? 
Or how, if such persons are lawbreakers, is it not right 
to punish them ? If, however, all this is unreasonable, 
we must call " lawful " and " in conformity with law " 
only what the law determines as applicable to any 
action performed, whatever its character ; and we 
must call " fated " and " in conformity with fate " 
only the consequents of antecedents in the divine 
appointment of things. 5 Fate, then, includes every- 
thing that occurs, but much of what is thus included, 
and I might say all antecedents, could not rightly be 
said to be in conformity with fate. c 

6. Such being the case with these matters, we must 
next discuss how it is that what is in our power and 
chance, the possible and the contingent, and what 
is akin to these, by being classed among antecedents, 
might find a place themselves and leave a place in 

a That is, in the sense given to the dictum in (a). 

6 Cf. Chalcidius, chap, clxxix, p. 228. 9-25 (ed. Wrobel). 

c Cf. Chalcidius, chap, cli, p. 209. 5-8 (ed. Wrobel). 

6 opdov Aeyetv Turnebus : SpOoXoyetv. 
7 avrd Wyttenbach (ipsa Turnebus) : ravra. 

327 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(570) elpLappLevrjv crdj£oi. r) /zev yap elpbappLevrj iravra 

7T€pi€X€i Ka6(X7T€p KOLL 8oK€L' TCL S' OVK ££ dvdyKrjS 

F yevrycrerat, a\X €Kclgtov clvtcov olov /cat 7T€</>vk€V 
elvai . 

Yl€(f)VK€ Se to Svvarov ojs yevos irpov^eoTavai 
rod ivSexofievov, to Se 1 evhex°l JL€VOV **)$ vty T ^ v 
e<£ 5 rjfuv 7rpov7TOK€Lcrd at, to Se e<£' rjpuv ojs Kvptov 
Xpfjadat Tto eVSe^o/zeVar rj Se Tvyr\ 7rape/x77 turret 

Tip €(/>' rjpUV 8lOL TTjV €(/>' €KOLT€pa p07T7JV TOV eVSe^O- 

pcevov. piadois 8* dv to Aeyd/xevov aa<f>tos evvorjoas 

<hs to yivop,€vov dirav koX r) ylveais avTrj ov St^a 

571 8vvdpL€a>s, rj Se Svvapus ovk avev ovoias (olov 

TO St' dvdpOJ7TOV, 2 €LT€ y€V€GLS €LT€ yeVTJTOV, OVK 

avev ttjs hvvdpitojs, avTrj Se rrepl dvdpojTrov, ovoia 
Se 6 avd pojTTos) . dno Se ttjs Suva/zeco? pL€Ta£v 
ovgtjs r) /xev ovoia Svvdpievov, r) Se yiveois Kal to 
yivopievov dpicfroj hvvaTa. Tpicov toLvvv tovtojv, 

1 §€ added here by ? Leonicus ; after ivbexoficvov in /x. 

2 to St' avdpd>7Tov is our supplement of a lacuna of 19 
letters in a X (avQpayrrov Aid. 2 ). 

a Cf. Chalcidius, chap, clxxvii, pp. 226. 23-227. 1 (ed. 
Wrobel). 

b " Prior in reality " (prohyphestanai) implies the terms 
" subsist " (hyphestanai) and " subsistence " (hypostasis). 
Galen (Instit. Logica, p. 7. 19-22 Kalbfleisch) asserts that in 
his day " subsist," " exist " (hyparchein), and " be " were 
synonymous ; other writers observe a difference, as Chry- 
sippus, who said (Stoicorum Vet. Frag. ii. 509, 518, pp. 164. 
27, 165. 35) that present time " exists " while time past and 
future merely " subsist." Our author seems to use the word 
in the sense of real existence (cf. Porphyry, Isagoge, p. 1. 
9-13 Busse), implying thereby that what is universal and 

328 



ON FATE, 570-571 

turn for fate. For fate contains them all, as indeed 
it is held to do ; yet these things will not occur neces- 
sarily, but each will follow its own nature in its 
manner of occurrence.** 

The possible 

It is the nature of the possible, as genus, to be prior 
in reality b to the contingent c ; of the contingent, 
as matter, to be prior as substrate to the things which 
are in our power ; of what lies in our power, as sove- 
reign, to make use of the contingent ; and chance is 
incidental to what is in our power because of the 
variation of the contingent in either direction.** You 
will apprehend my meaning clearly if you reflect that 
everything that comes to pass, as well as the process 
itself of coming to pass, is always accompanied with 
potency , e and potency with a substance. For ex- 
ample, what comes about through the agency of man, 
whether we take the process or the thing which has 
been brought to pass, is never found without the 
potency which produces it ; this is found in man ; and 
man is a substance. It is owing to the potency, which 
is intermediate/ that the substance is potent, and 
the process of coming to pass and the thing which 
comes to pass are both possible. Of these three, then, 

what is intangible has a higher reality than what is particular 
or concrete. 

c Cf Chalcidius, chap, civ, p. 211. 12-14 (ed. Wrobel). 

d Cf 572 e, infra; Chalcidius, chap, clxii, p. 217. 24 f. 
(ed. Wrobel) ; Albinus, Epitome, chap. xxvi. 3. 

e Dynamis (" potency ") can also be translated " capacity " 
or " capability." 

' Between the substance on the one hand and the process 
of coming to pass and the thing that comes to pass on the 
other. 

329 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(571) Swdfjieajs Kal Swapcevov kcll Svvarov, Svvdpuecos 
fJLev cos to 1 elvai TTpoviroKeiTai to Swdfievov, Sv- 
varov Se rj SvvafJLis 77 pov^ioi -arai. craves pLev ovv 

KOLL OVTCOS TO SwOLTOV TV7TC0 S' dv d(j>OpLodeir] 

Koivorepov pLev to Acara SvvafMV ttzcJivkos ycveodac, 
KvpicoTepov Se tolvto tovto ottotov purjSev e^codev 
B €XJ] irpos to yiveod ai epLrroScov . 

Tcov Se ovvaTCov tol puev ovk av KCoXvOecr) 7TOT€, 

OOOTTep TOL KCLT OVpCLVOV, OLVCLToXal Kol SvGCLS KOLL 

tol tovtois TTapaTrXrjoia- tol Se old re KcoXvOrjvat 
eoTiv, cos 77oAAa pcev tcov dvOpcoTTivcov, tto XXd Se 
/cat TCOV fJ,€TapOLCOV. TOL fJL€V ovv irpoTepa cos e£ 
avayKrjs yivofieva dvayKala TTpooayopeveTai, a 2 Se 
7rpos z TOvvavTiov eTriSe'^erai eVSe^o/xeva. d<f>opi- 
£,olto S' av Kal /cara 4 raura* to ptev dvayKalov, 
Svvarov to avTiKeifxevov dovvaTCp' to Se evSe^o- 
fievov, SvvaTov ov Kal to avTCKeifievov SvvaTov. 5 
C to fJLev yap KaTaSvvai tov tJXlov dvayKalov re a/xa 
Kal SvvaTov avTiKtiTai dSvvaTOV to firj KaTaSvvac 

1 to] ra> ? 2 a s : ra. 

3 777)0? a 2 X (a lacuna of 7 letters in a 1 ; -n-cos Bern. ; /cat s ; 

/cat TTpOS?). 

4 /cat Kara, nos (ad hunc quoque modum Turnebus ; Kara 
Pohlenz) : /cat. 

5 bvvarov s" Leonicus : ahvvarov. 

a The potent and potency are apparently regarded as 
relatives, and as such neither is prior to the other ; but the 
potent, in its quality of substance, is prior to potency. Cf. 
Ammonius' discussion (In Porphyrii Isagogen, pp. 47. 6-48. 
10 Busse) of the priority of genus to species, where, as re- 
latives the two are " simultaneous," while as substances, 
the genus is prior to the species, 

330 



ON FATE, 571 

potency, the potent, and the possible, the potent, 
in its quality of substance, a is prior as substrate to 
potency, while potency is prior in reality to the 
possible. It is plain, then, even from this statement, 
what the possible is ; it might, however, be roughly 
denned in two ways : in a looser fashion as that whose 
nature it is to occur in conformity with potency, 6 
while we might define it more strictly by adding the 
clause " when there is nothing outside it interfering 
with its occurrence/' G 

The contingent 

Of things possible some can never be prevented, 
as celestial phenomena — risings and settings and the 
like — whereas others are preventible, as for example 
much of what pertains to man and many meteoro- 
logical phenomena d as well. The former sort, as 
occurring necessarily, are termed necessary ; while 
those things which in addition allow (epidecketai) their 
contrary are contingent (endechomena). e They might 
also be denned as follows : the necessary is the 
possible whose opposite is impossible ; whereas the 
contingent is the possible whose opposite is also 
possible. Thus, that the sun should set is necessary 
as well as possible — it has an opposite, its not setting, 

6 With the preceding discussion of potency cf. Nemesius, 
chap, xxxiv, p. 287. 2-10 (ed. Matthaei). 

c Cf. the Stoic view in Alexander, De Fato, chap, x, p. 176. 
15 f. (ed. Bruns) : Svvarov [xev elvai yeveodai rovro o vtt* 
ouScvo? kco\v€toll ytviod ai, Kav /X17 yivrjTai . . . " that thing is 
capable [literally " possible "] of occurring which nothing 
prevents from occurring, even if it does not occur." 

d For this use of metarsia cf. Achilles, Isagoga, chap, xxxii, 
p. 68. 1-6 (ed. Maass). 

e Cf. Nemesius, chap, xxxiv, pp. 287. 14-288. 2 (ed. 
Matthaei). 

331 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(571) to Se k(itcl6vvtos tjXlov Sfjippov yeveodai /cat pur] 
yeveoOai 1 afitfiorepa Svvara /cat evSexopueva. 

HolXlv Se /cat em rod ivSe^ofxevov to puev (hs €7tl 

TO 7TOAV, TO 0€ OJS €77 CAaTTOV, TO 0€ COS €7TL07JS 
/Cat OTTOT€pOV €TVX€V TOVTO (JL€V <f)OLV€p6v COS OLVTO 

avTcp avTiT€TOLKTai, to Se ojs errl to ttoXv /cat €77* 

€\clttov aAAryAots" /cat raura /xey em rr} <f>voei to 

TrXeloTov, e<£' rjpuv Se 2 to in terms', to jitev ya/> i;7ro 

Kwa Kavfxa tj iftvxos, cov to fiev z cos eVt to ttoXv, 

TO 8' COS €7T* eXdLTTOV, T7] (f)VG€L djJL(f)00 VTTOTeTOLKTOU' 

D to Se TTepnrcLTelv /cat {irj /cat ocra rotaura, cSv 
eKovrepov eTrtorjs* ttj o\vQpco7rivr\ oppifj VTrorera/crat, 

St) €</>' ry/xtv /cat /cara irpoalpeoiv Aeyerat. yevt- 

KOJTepov Se fjL&XXov to efi rjpuv Svo yap e'^et 5 et'Sry, 

to Te e/c TT&dovs /cat dvpuov rj eTnOvpLias to re e£ 

emAoyta/zou rj Siavoias, oirep rjSrj /caTO, Trpoaipeoiv 

av tls eiTToi. e^€t be Aoyov pur) to ovvcltov /cat 

evSexppievov tovto oirep Koff oppLrjv kcli e$* rjpuv 

1 /cat ("5 s) jjiif yeveodoLL added by j Leonicus. 

2 8e Gercke : re. 

3 <5V to /xev added by Wyttenbach (to fxkv Leonicus). 

4 errlcrqs Maresch, Gercke : em. 

5 e^et Wyttenbach : elvai, perhaps rightly. 

6 av added by Bern. 

a Cf. Nemesius, chap, xxxiv, p. 288. 2-4 (ed. Matthaei). 
The same threefold division of the contingent is found in 
Ammonius, In Aristot. De Int. Comm. chap, ix, p. 142. 1-5 
(ed. Busse) ; cf. also his remark {ibid. p. 143. 3-6) that only 
to the eV la-qs is the phrase onorepov eVi^e applied. 

b Cf. Nemesius, chap, xxxiv, p. 286. 13 f. and chap, xl, 
p. 318. 4 f. (ed. Matthaei) ; Ammonius, ibid. chap, ix, p. 143, 

1 f. (ed. Busse). 



ON FATE, 571 

which is impossible ; whereas the falling and not 
falling of rain after sunset are both of them possible 
and contingent. 

What is in our power 

Again, in the case of the contingent, one form 
occurs usually, another is unusual, and another is as 
usual as its opposite and an " even chance.' ' a This 
last is evidently opposed to itself, whereas the usual 
and the unusual are opposite to each other ; and the 
latter are for the most part determined by nature, 
while the form which is as usual as its opposite is in 
our power. b Thus, that during the dog days there 
should be hot weather or cold weather, the former 
of which is usual, the latter, unusual, is in both cases 
under the control of nature ; whereas walking and 
not walking and the like, either of which is as usual 
as its opposite, are under the control of human im- 
pulse, and what is under its control is said to lie in 
our power and be a matter of choice. d Of these what 
is in our power is the more general, as it has two 
species, the one comprising actions proceeding from 
passion — anger or desire, the other, actions that 
proceed from calculation or thought, in which last 
case we may now speak of " a matter of choice." It 
is reasonable that the form of the " possible and con- 
tingent " which has been said to conform to our 
impulse and lie in our power should, in a different 

c The same example appears in Aristotle, Physics, ii. 8 
(199 a 2 f.), and Metaphysics, xi. 8 (1064 b 36 f.). 

d Cf. Nemesius, chap, xxxiv, p. 288. 2-11 (ed. Matthaei), 
and for the whole preceding discussion of the possible and the 
contingent Chalcidius, chaps, clv-clvi, pp. 211. 11-212. 12 
(ed. Wrobel). 

333 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

(571) €ipr)TOU to 1 avro kclt dXXo Xeyeodac 2 - Kara fiev 
yap to fieXXov Svvarov re /cat evSexopuevov, Kara 
Se to Trapov e<jS rjfjuv re Kal Ka0 y oppsqv. d(j)opi- 
£oito 8' av cSSe* sro fiev evSexofxevov oirep avro 
re Svvarov 3 Kal to avTiKeifxevov y to Se i</>* tjjjllv 
E d&Tepov jxepos tov evSexojJLevov, to Acara ttjv 
rjfjL€T€pav opfJLTjv rjSr] yivopievov. 

"OtI JJL€V OVV TO SwaTOV TOV €vSeXOfJi€VOV 7Tp6- 

Tepov ttj c/)vo€L y to Se evSexo^ievov TOV IcjS rjJJLLV 
7rpov(f)LOTaTai , Kal otov avTcov Tvyxdvei ov eKaoTov 
Kal iroOev 6vopid^€TaL Kal tol ye TrapaKeifxeva av- 
toIsj o^eSov eiprjTai. 

7. He pi Se ttjs rvx^S KCLL T °v CLVTOfiaTov Kal el 
tl rrapa TavTa deojpelTOA vvv rjjjuv XeKTeov. 

Altlov piev St^ tl rj tvx 7 )* t ^ v ^ aiTiwv tol (lev 

Kad' avTa, to. Se /co/rd ovjJL^e^rjKog' otov OLKias fj 

vecbs Kad* avTO p,ev avriov to oIkoSo[likov koX to 

F vavirrjyiKov, /card ovfjL^e^rjKog Se to jxovolkov fj 

yeaj/xeTpLKOv, Kal rrav 6 tl av tco oIkoSojjliko) fj 

vavTTJ)yiK<jo e'lSei ovfJL^e^Krj^ etTe /card cra>/xa eiTe 

1 to Schwartz : firj to. 

2 <fcat aAAo ?> AeyeoOaL nos : \iyerai (XdyrjraL E lss ). 

3 SwaTov added here by us, by Pohlenz after oirep. 

4 avfi^eprJKr) Stephanus : ov/j,l3€firjK€i. 

a This distinction is no doubt meant to answer the con- 
tention that the contingent is concerned exclusively with the 
future, for which cf. Alexander, De Fato, chap, xxvi, p. 197. 
12-15 (ed. Bruns). 

b Natural priority appears here to refer to the priority of 
genus to species: c/. Aristotle, Metaphysics, v. 11 (1019 a 
2-4) ; Alexander, In Aristot. Metaph. Comm. p. 384. 35 (ed. 

334, 



ON FATE, 571 

connexion, be spoken of under a different name ; 
for in connexion with the future it is called " possible 
and contingent,' ' in connexion with the present, " in 
our power " and " in conformity with our impulse." a 
They might be defined as follows : the contingent 
is that which is both possible itself and has a possible 
opposite, whereas what is in our power is one of the 
two parts of the contingent, namely, the one that is 
already occurring in conformity with our impulse. 

Our discussion of the natural priority b of the pos- 
sible to the contingent, of the real priority c of the 
contingent to what is in our power, of their respective 
characters, of the sources of their names, and of 
related matters, is now, I trust, complete. 

7. We must now speak of chance and the spontane- 
ous and matters the theory of which depends on 
these. d 

Chance 

Chance is a kind of cause/ Of causes some are 
essential/ some accidental ; thus skill in house- 
building and skill in shipbuilding are essential causes 
of a house or of a ship, whereas skill in music or in 
geometry, and everything accidental, whether in the 
body, in the soul, or in externals, to the housebuilding 

Hayduck) ; Simplicius, In Aristot. Cat. Comm. chap, xii, pp. 
421. 12, 422. 21-24 (ed. Kalbfleisch) ; Dexippus, In Aristot. 
Cat. Comm. ii. 11, p. 45. 5-11 (ed. Busse). 

c For " real priority " cf. note on 570 f, supra. The con- 
tingent appears to be prior in reality to free will (to £j>* tj/juv) 
and prior as substrate to the things which we are free to do 
(to. £(/>* rjfXLp). 

d Cf. Chalcidius, chap, clviii, p. 213. 14-18 (ed. Wrobel). 

e Cf. Aristotle, Physics, ii. 4 (195 b 31) ; Aetius, i. 29. 3, 
p. 326 b 16 (ed. Diels). 

f Literally, per se. 

SS5 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(571) Kara ifjvxrjv eire Kara ra €Ktos. odev Kal SrjXov 
cos to Ka8* avro copiopiivov Kal ev, to Se Kara 
572 avjJL^€^7]Kos ovx eV re koX dopiorov 7roAAa yap 
Kal aireipa Tip ivl pirdpyjzi TravTanaoiv aKkqkuyv 
hia<j)€povTa. to jievTOi Kara avpL^e^rjKoSy orav 
pur) piovov iv tols €V€Ka tov yiyvryrai, dXXd Kal iv 
ots rj npoaiptois, tot€ St) Kal to 1 diro tvx^JS 
TrpoaayopeveTai' olov to evpetv y^pvolov GKovrrTovTa 
Iva (f)VT€varj, r) iradelv tl r) opaoat tcov rrapa to 
edos c/>€vyovTa rj SicoKovra rj dXXoos /?aSi£ovra rj 
avro piovov e7TiOTpa(f>evTa ov tovtov eVeAca oirep 

aVV€7T€G€V, dXX* €T€pOV TWOS X^P LV ' ^ L ° K€LL ^P " 

votjtov air Lav Kal dSrjXov dvdpooTTivop Xoyiopiop tt)v 
Tvyrp> dirihooav tcov iraXaicov evioi. Kara Se tovs 
B diro HXdroovos y eyyiov en rrpoaiovTas atfTrjs too 
Xoycp, ovtoos d(f)oopLGTai r) tvx 7 )' alria Kara cru/x- 
jSe/Jry/cos" tcov eveKa tov iv tols Kara Trpoaipeoiv 
€7re tra rjSrj Kal to dmpovorvTOV Kal to d8r)Xov dvOpco- 
7TLVC0 XoyLopucp TrpooTideaoiv (KaiToi ye Kara ra 
avTCL Kal to andvLov Kal TrapdXoyov ipaf)aiV€Tai 
Tip Kara ovpLpePrjKos) . olov Se' ion tovto, et Kal 

1 to] omitted in n. 

a The form is in the mind of the artisan : cf. Aristotle, 
Metaphysics, vii. 7 (1032 a 32-b 1). 

b Cf. Aristotle, Physics, ii. 5 (196 b 24-27), and Chalcidius, 
chap, clviii, p. 213. 24 f. (ed. Wrobel). 

c Cf. Aristotle, Physics, ii. 5 (196 b 27-29). 

d The example comes ultimately from Aristotle : cf. Eth. 
Nic. iii. 5 (1112 a 27), Metaphysics, v. 30 (1025 a 15 f.). 

e Cf. Aristotle, Physics, ii. 5 (197 a 17 f.). 

t Cf. Aristotle, Physics, ii. 6 (197 b 23 f.). 

9 This view is mentioned by Aristotle, Physics, ii. 4 (196 
b 5-7), who may be alluding to Democritus : cf. Diels and 

336 



ON FATE, 571-572 

or shipbuilding form, a is an accidental cause. 6 Hence 
it is evident that the essential is determinate and one, 
whereas the accidental is not one and is indeter- 
minate ; for a single thing has a multiplicity, indeed 
an infinity, of attributes that are quite different from 
one another. The accidental, however, when found 
not simply in things directed toward an end, but 
further in those among them in which choice is found, 
is then called " by chance " as well ; examples are : 
discovering a sum of gold when one is digging for the 
purpose of planting,^ or doing or undergoing some- 
thing unusual when one is pursuing or being pursued e 
or proceeding on foot f in some other way, or merely 
turning around with some other end in view than the 
actual result. Hence some of the ancients described 
chance as a cause unforeseen and not evident to 
human calculation. g But according to the Platonists, 
who formulate it yet more closely, chance is defined 
as follows : " chance is an accidental cause found in 
the class of things directed toward an end which take 
place in conformity with choice," h and only then do 
they add " unforeseen " and " not evident to human 
calculation." (For that matter, " rare " and " un- 
expected " are also similarly implied in the term 
" accidental.") * What sort of thing chance is, if not 

Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 6 , ii, p.. 101, Democritus, a 70. 
It is also the Stoic definition : cf. Aetius, i. 29. 7, p. 326. 3-4 
(ed. Diels) ; Stoicorum Vet. Frag. ii. 956 f., 970 f., pp. 280 f. 
(ed. von Arnim). 

h This is Aristotle's definition : cf. Physics, ii. 5 (197 a 5 f.). 

** Cf. Chalcidius, chap, clviii, p. 214. 4-14 (ed. Wrobel) ; 
Nemesius, chap, xxxix, pp. 312. 11-313. 1 (ed. Matthaei). 
Alexander {Be Animi Libri Mantissa, p. 170. 2-9 Brans) says 
that by the doctrine of accidental causes it is possible to hold 
that nothing happens without a cause and at the same time 
to save chance, the spontaneous, and what is in our power. 

337 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(572) fir) if< tojv dpri prjdevTOov, 1 aAA' €/c ye 2 tojv iv 
tw Oat'Soovt yeypafJLjjLevajv oa^iorara TTpooTTiTTTei. 
yeypaTTTaL oe code* Ufoe ra 7T£/)t r^s olk7]s apa 
invOeode 3 ov rporrov eyevero ; Nat- ravra [xev r^plv 
TJyyecXe tls' /cat idavpLa^opiev ye otl ttolXcli avrrjg 
yevofjLevrjs 41 vorepov (f>aiverai aTrodavtov tl 5 rjv 
C tovto, to OatSa>v; Tvx 7 ] Tts> avTto, a> 'E^e/cpares", 
avveftr]' ervx^ yap rfj Trporepaia ttjs Sikyjs rj 
TTpvjJLva iarepLfJievr] rod ttXolov o els ArjXov *A6r)- 
vatot TrepLTTOvciLV." iv ydp tovtols to ovvefirj ovk 
dvrl tov yeyovev aKovareov, dXXd ttoXv fxaXXov e/c 
avvSpofJLrjs twos alriajv 6 air e fir] , dXXov rrpos dXXo 
yeyovoTOS. 6 fxev yap lepevs eorecfre to ttXoZov 
dXXov yd? lv > ttAA* ov HojKpaTOVs 7 ' ol 8e St' eTepov 
KaT€i/jr](f)LoavTO avTOV' avTO Se to diro^dv rrapd- 
Xoyov Kal tolovto dm/fa) olov k&v e/c rrpovotas 
iyeyovet tjtoi dvdpamivov twos rj tcov €tl KpeiT- 
D TOVOJV. Kal TT€pl jJL€V ttjs tvx^s TavTa t/cava. 

'E£fjs 8e prjreov 8 oh ovvv(j>LOTaod ai dvdyKr). 
tov fxev air* avTrjs TTapojvvfJLOJs /cat tov ifi tj/jllv 

1 apTi prjOevrcov Wyttenbach : avripprjdevrcov. 

2 ye Diibner : re. 

3 eTrvOeode Plato : invOovro. 

4 avTTJs y€Vop,€vr}s] y€VO[jL€vr]s avrrjs Plato. 

5 rl] rl ovv Plato. 

6 alrlcDV Sieveking : alriwv. 

7 GcoKpdrovs a : -7)9 X. 

8 egrjs Se prjreov our supplement of a lacuna of 12 letters 
in a, 13 in X (i£rjs he oKenreov Sieveking). 

338 



ON FATE, 572 

evident from the preceding remarks, is to be seen 
very clearly in the words of the Phaedo. a The passage 
runs as follows : " — And did you not hear of the 
course of the trial either ? — Yes ; a report came to 
us about that ; and we were astonished that he was 
evidently put to death long after the trial had taken 
place. What was the reason, Phaedo ? — There was 
a certain chance coincidence, 6 Echecrates ; the stern 
of the ship which the Athenians send to Delos chanced 
to have been garlanded on the day before the trial.' ' 
In this passage we are not to take " coincidence " 
as equivalent to " occurrence " ; the meaning is 
rather that the outcome resulted from a concourse 
of causes, each of them having a different end. 
Thus the priest placed a garland on the ship for some 
other purpose, and not for Socrates' sake ; and the 
court condemned him with a different end in view ; 
while the actual outcome was unexpected and fell 
out as if it had occurred as a result of forethought,^ 
whether human or that of some still higher power. 
So much, then, will suffice for our discussion of 
chance. 

The spontaneous 

We must next speak of the things with which it 
necessarily co-exists. The contingent, we said/ is 

a 58 a. 

b " Coincidence " translates the verb oW/fy, " fell out," 
which has the literal meaning " came together." 

c Cf. Nemesius, chap, xxxix, p. 313. 1-4 (ed. Matthaei), and 
Chalcidius, chap, clix, pp. 214, 15-215. 3 (ed. Wrobel). 

d " Forethought " (pronoia) is also translated " provi- 
dence." 

e 570 f, 571 e, supra. 

9 ols Wyttenbach : (Ls. 

339 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(572) tt povTTOKeloQ ai iXexOr) to eVSexo/zevov/ to Se 
avTO\xojTOV €77i 7rAetov ttjs tvx*)S> *l yctp /cat aVTTJV 
7re/)tAaj3ov e^et /cat 7roAAa tojv aAAoTe aAAoj? crtyx- 

7TL7TT€LV TTecfrvKOTCOV . - eOTt Se /Cat 2 /Car' OVOjJLCL O7T6/0 

avTOfJLCLTOv* Aeyerat to rre^VKos dXXov eVe/ca orav 
ju/r) e/cetvo TTepaLvrj ov eVe/ca 4 e77e</>u/cer otov So/cet 

TO U7TO /CUVa ifjVXOS. TTOT€ ydp ijjVXOS OV fJLaTTJV 

ouSe avro ye'yove X^P^ °v €V€'icd €gtlv. 5 to Se 6 
E 6'Aov, cos to e</> 5 9^/xtv jJL€pos tov ivSexofievov, OVTCxJS 

7) TVXy\ TOV CLVTOpLOVTOV. €GTL T€ ? €KCLT€pOV €KOLT€pOV 
OVfJL7TTCDjJia, TO JJL€V CLVTO/JLCLTOV TOV eVSe^OjL-teVoU, 7] 
Se TU^O] TOU 6^' ^j^j ^Ctt TOVTOV OU% aTTCLVTOS , 

dXy o7T€p av /cat /caTa rrpoaipeaiv fj, d>s 7rpo€Lpr}Tai. 
S to /cat to jLtev avTOfiarov kolvov i/jujjvx^v T€ ^ai 
aifjvxojv, r) oe tu^ totov avupwrrov rjor) TTpaTTeiv 
hvvajievov. TeK/jirjpiov Se 6Vt to evTtr^etv /cat 
euSat/xovetv TauTa etvat So£a£eTar rj Se euSat/xovta 

1 rou /iev . . . evbexofievov nos : to ptev ovv evbexofievov tov 
i<l>' 17/uv 7Tpov7TOK€iaBai iXexdr) Sieveking ; to puev evhexoyuevov 
twv /caret npoalpeoLV /cat tov e<f>* rjfjuv TTpoviTOKeZodai iXexfh] Sand- 
bach (who reads in the next sentence oVeo oltto tov clvto [iaTT\v 
7rapojvvpLOJS XeyeTai) ; tov fiev avTOfiaTov onep oVo/za^erat 0:77' 
avTov Trapojvvjxojs /cat tov €</>* rjpuv TTpovvoKeloOai eXexOrj Post : 
to fiev air* avTov irapcuvv fiojs koX tov e<f>* rjpuv TTpoviroKelod ai 
iXex$r). 

2 /cat our addition. 

3 avTOfiaTov] avTo fJLOLTrjV m 2ss . 

4 irepalvr) ov eveKa supplied by Bern, for Trap followed by a 
lacuna of 8 letters in a, 10 in X {irepaivri ov eveKa rjv /cat Wytten- 
bach). 

5 avTo yeyove x<*>pls ov eveKa eoTiv our supplement of a lacuna 
of 37 letters in a, 26 in X. 

6 Be omitted in X. 

7 Te\ SO a X. 8 tStov avdpo)7TOv\ avOpojirov Ihiov X 1 . 

340 






ON FATE, 572 

the pre-existent substrate of what, by an expression 
derived from " chance,' ' is said to be " by chance," 
and of what is in our power, whereas the spontaneous 
has a greater extension than chance, a since it com- 
prises both the latter and moreover many of the 
things whose nature it is to fall out differently at 
different times. What is meant by the term " spon- 
taneous " (automaton), as the very name shows, 6 is 
that which has a certain natural end when it does 
not accomplish that natural end. c An example is 
held to be cold weather during the dog days d ; for 
at some times cold weather is not purposeless (maten), 
and does not occur in isolation (auto) from its end. 6 
To put the matter generally, as what is in our power 
is a part of the contingent, so chance is a part of 
the spontaneous. Taken two by two, the one set is 
incidental to the other, the spontaneous to the con- 
tingent, and chance to what is in our power — not to 
all of the latter, but to that part of it which is also 
a matter of choice, as has been previously stated/ 
Hence the spontaneous is common both to living 
things and things without life, whereas chance is 
peculiar to a man who has reached the stage of being 
able to act. 9 ' A sign of this is the belief that enjoying 
good fortune h and enjoying happiness are the same ; 

° Cf. Aristotle, Physics, ii. 6 (197 a 36-b 1). 

b Cf. Aristotle, Physics, ii. 6 (197 b 29 f.). 

c Cf. Aristotle, Physics, ii. 6 (197 b 22-27). 

d Cf. Aristotle, Metaphysics, x. 8 (1064 b 36). 

e The words " occur . . . end " translate a conjectural 
supplement. f 572 a-b, supra. 

g Cf. Aristotle, Physics, ii. 6 (197 b 2-6) ; Aetius, i. 29. 3, 
p. 325 b 16-18 (ed. Diels) ; Chalcidius, chap, clviii, pp. 213. 
18-24 and 214. 10-14, and chap, clix, p. 215. 9-11 (ed.Wrobel); 
Nemesius, chap, xxxix, p. 313. 8 f. (ed. Matthaei). 

h Literally " good chance." 

341 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(572) evirpa^la ris, rj 8e ev7rpa£la irepl jiovov /cat re- 
Xecov dvdpcoTrov. 

8. Kat ra fiev ivros rfjs eLfJLapfJievrjs roiavra, 
to T€ iv$€x°l JL€VOV K , ac T( ^ 1 8vvar6v, rj re irpoal- 
peois /cat to €</>' rjpuv, r\ re Tvyi) /cat to avTOfiaTOV, 
F tol T€ TrapaK€LfJL€va clvtoIs, cov /cat to Taya /cat to 
locos* a 8r) iravTa irepieyei \xev r) elpLappLevrj, ov8ev 
S' avTtov eart /ca#* el\xap\ievr\v \ Xoittov S' av elrj 
/cat rrepl Trpovoias elrrelv, cos avTr\ ye 7TepieLAr)cf>e 
ttjv el\iap\ievr]v \ 

9- "Earty ovv irpovoia rj fiev avcoTaToo /cat rrpcoTr] 

TOV TTpOJTOV 0€OV VOTjOLS €LT€ /Cat f$OvAr)OlS OVOa 

evepyeTts a7rdvTCov y Koff rjv rrpcoTCos e/caoTa tcov 

deltOV 8t(Z TTCLVTOS dpLOTOL T€ /Cat /CClAAtCTTa KeKOOjJLT]- 

rat, r) 8e 8evTepa 8evTepcov detov tcov /car' ovpavov 
573 Iovtcov, kclO' rjv tol t€ Qvryra ytVerat TeTay\xevtos 
/cat oaa irpos 8iafJLovr)v /cat ocoTrjplav eKaoTiov tcov 
yevcov, TpiTrj S' av eiKOTCOs 2 prjOeirj rrpovoid T€ /cat 
rrpopjffieia tcov Soot irepl yrjv Saifidves reTayfievoi 

TCOV dv0pCO7TLVCOV 7Tpd^€COV cf>vAaK€S T€ /Cat eTTLOKOTTOl 
etCTt. TpLTTTJS TOLVVV TTJS TTpOVOlOLS OeCOpOVfievrjS, 

KvpicoTovra 8e /cat /xaAtara Trjs rrpcoTrjs XeyofJLevrjs, 
ovk av OKvrjoaiixev elrrelv, el /cat <j>i\oo6<f>ois 
dv8pdai TavavTia Aeyeiv 86^aijxev > cos rrdvTa fiev 

1 to added by Pohlenz. 2 cIkotcos o 2 s Turnebus : cIkotl. 

a Cf. Aristotle, Physics, ii. 6 (197 b 3-5). 

b Literally " the perhaps and the peradventure." For the 
" perhaps " cf. note on 574 d, infra. 

c Cf. Nemesius, chap, xliii, p. 343. 1 1 f. (ed. Matthaei), and 
Chalcidius, chap, cxliv, p. 204. 6 f. (ed. Wrobel). 
342 



ON FATE, 572-573 

now happiness is a kind of doing well, and doing well 
is found in man alone when he has reached his full 
developments 

8. What is included in fate — the contingent and the 
possible, choice and what is in our power, chance and 
the spontaneous, as well as matters associated with 
these, such as what is designated by the words 
M perhaps " and " peradventure " b — is of the de- 
scription we have given above ; and fate contains 
them all, although none of them conforms to fate. It 
remains to speak of providence, as it in turn includes 
fate. 

Primary providence 

9- The highest and primary providence is the 
intellection or will, beneficent to all things, of the 
primary God c ; and in conformity with it all things 
divine are primordially arranged throughout, each as 
is best and most excellent. Secondary providence 
belongs to secondary gods, who move in heaven, and 
in conformity with it all mortal things come into 
being in orderly fashion, together with all that is 
requisite to the survival and preservation of the 
several genera. The providence and forethought 
which belongs to the daemons stationed in the 
terrestrial regions as watchers and overseers of the 
actions of man would reasonably be called tertiary.^ 
As providence, then, is seen to be threefold, and as 
primary providence is providence in the strictest sense 
and to the highest degree, e I should not hesitate to 
say, even at the cost of appearing to contradict certain 
philosophers, that while all that conforms to fate 

d Cf. Apuleius, Be Platone, i. 12, p. 96. 2-15 (ed. Thomas), 
and Nemesius, chap, xliv, pp. 345. 2-346. 7 (ed. Matthaei). 
e Cf. Nemesius, chap, xliv, p. 346. 7-10 (ed. Matthaei). 

343 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(573) to} Kad' ei/xap/xev^v Kal Kara rrpovoiav, ov fjbrjv 
B Kal Kara (j>voiv aAA' evta /xev Kara tt povo tav (ko\ 
aAAa ye kclt aXXrjv), eVta Se /ax# 5 €LjJLap[JL€vr)v. 
/cat 9] /xev eljJLapiJLevr) TrdvTOJS Kara rrpovoiav, rj 8e 
npovoia ovScljjlcos Kaff eljJLapfjLivrjv (earoj Se o Adyos" 
to, iw 7T€pt ttJ? TTpojTiqs Kal dvcorarco)* to ju,ev yap 2 
Kara tl varepov eVeiVou Kad* 6 tl av Kal Aey^rai 
(olov to Kara vo\iov rod vojjlov Kal to /cara cj>voiv 

TTjS (f)VO€OJs)* OVTOJ Se Kal TO Ka6* €LfJLaplJL€Vr)V TTJS 

elpLapjJLevqs veojTepov av elf)' rj Se avajTOLTO) Trpovoia 
TTpeofivTaTOV dirdvTGov, 7rXrjv ovirep ioTiv etT€ 

fiovXrjCFLS €LT€ V07]OLS €LT€ Kal €KaT€pOV* €GTL 8', 

cos TTpOTepov eiprjTai, tov ttolvtwv iraTpos re Kal 
C Srjfjbiovpyov. " Xeyoopiev " 3 yap " S77," <j>r)olv 6 
TLpLaios, " St' rjvTLva alriav yeveoiv Kal to ttolv 
ToSe 6 £vviotcls crvveoTrjoev. ay ados vjv*' dyadcp 
Se ovhzls ouSeVore rrepl ovSevos 5 eyytyverat c/)66vos m 
tovtov Se €Ktos oov, TTOLVTa otl jxdXiGTa ifiovXrjdri 
yeveodat 6 irapaTrXrjOia iavTto. TavTt]v Srj 1 yeveaeoos 
Kal KoafJLov fxaXtoTa av tls <*PXV V KvpLa)TaTr]v Trapa 

1 ra added by Wyttenbach. 

2 yap added by Sieveking. 

3 XeycDfiev Plato : Xiyopuev. 4 rjv Plato : <x>v. 

5 OVO€7TOT€ 7T€pl OvbtVOs] 7T€pl OVO€VOS OVO€7TOT€ PlatO. 

6 ipovXydr) yevevdai] yevioQai ipovAijdr] Plato. 
7 o-q] be Plato. 

a Zeno called fate providence and nature (cf. Stoicorum 
Vet. Frag. i. 176, pp. 44. 35 ff. von Arnim). The later Peri- 
patetics held that the fated and the natural were the same 
(Alexander, De Fato, chap, vi, p. 169. 18-22 Bruns, De An. 
Libri Mant. p. 182. 4-11 Bruns, and Aetius, i. 29. 4, p. 325 
b 30-32 Diels). The Peripatetics, however, were thought to 
leave no room for providence (Alexander, Quaest. ii. 21, pp. 
70. 33-71. 2 Bruns). Atticus (quoted by Eusebius, Praep. 



ON FATE, 573 

conforms to providence (though not to nature as 
well °), yet some things conform to providence (some 
to one, some to another), some to fate. And whereas 
fate most certainly conforms to providence,** pro- 
vidence most certainly does not conform to fate 
(here it is to be understood that we are speaking of 
the primary and highest providence) : for what is 
said to " conform to " a thing is posterior to that, 
whatever it may be, to which it is said to conform 
(for example, " what conforms to law " is posterior 
to law and " what conforms to nature " to nature) ; 
thus " what conforms to fate " is younger than fate, 
while the highest providence is eldest of all, save the 
one whose will or intellection or both it is, and it is 
that, as has been previously stated, 6 of the Father 
and Artisan of all things. Timaeus says : " Let us 
state for what reason the realm of events and this 
universe were framed by him who framed them. 
He was good ; and in the good no grudging ever 
arises about aught ; and being exempt from this, 
he wished all things to become as similar as might 
be to himself. To accept from men of wisdom this, 
rather than any other, as the foremost principle of 

Evang. vi. 12. 1) ascribes to Plato the doctrine that since soul 
and nature are identical, and everything occurs in conformity 
with nature, everything occurs in conformity with providence. 
See also W. Theiler in Phyllobolia fur Peter von der Miihll, 
p. 46, note 2. 

Of. also Chalcidius, chap, cxlv, p. 204. 19-22 (ed. Wrobel) : 
" Et divina quidem et intellegibilia quaeque his proxima sunt 
[scil. Platoni placet esse] secundum providentiam solam, 
naturalia vero et corporea iuxta fa turn ..." 

6 Cf. Nemesius, chap, xxxviii, p. 304. 5-7 (ed. Matthaei) ; 
Chalcidius, chap, cxlvii, p. 206. 2 f. and chap, cxliv, p. 204. 
9-14 (ed. Wrobel) ; and Boethius, Philos, Cons, iv. 6. 14. 

c 572 f, supra. 

345 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(573) dv8pd)v (f)povipiOJv drroSexopLevos opdorara airo- 
Sexoir' dv. fiovAiqdels yap 6 Beds dyadd fxev rravra, 
(fravAov 1 Se fjbrjSev elvai Kara, Svvapuv, ovra> 8r) rrdv 
oaov rjv oparov rrapaXafitbv oi>x rjovx^dv diyov dXXd 
Kivovpuevov TrArjjjLjjLe^tbs kcu drdKTCOs, els rd^iv 
avro rjyev 2 £k rrjs dra^las, rjyrjodpLevos eKeivo 
rouSe 3 rrdvrojs dpueivov. depas Se ovr rjv ovre 

D ecrrl ra> dpiorco 8pav dXXo ttAtjv to KaAAiorov." 
ravra pbev ovv Kal rd rovrojv e^o/zeva p<eXP l 'A U X < ^ V 
dvOpamivtov Kara rrpovoiav vopaoreov rrjv ye rrpoj- 
rrjv ovveorrjKevaL* rd Se evrevdev — ovroj Aeyo/xeva* 
" ovorrjoas Se ro rrdv 8iel\ev tyvyps loapidpbovs 
rots dor pots eVei/xeV #' 4 eKaorrjv rrpos eKaorov, 
Kal e/x/3t/3acra9 ws els 5)(rjfjLa rr)v rod rravros <f>vcnv 
ehei^e vopuovs re rovs elpuappievovs elrrev avrals " 5 — 
ravra Se ris ovk dv ScapprjSrjv Kal oa^eorara 
olrjdelrj rr)v elpbappievrjv SrjAovv, toorrep rivd fidatv 
Kal TroXiriKrjv vofiodeolav rats dvOpamivais ifsvxcus 
rrpoorjKovoav, rjs 8rj Kal rrjv air lav e£fjs emcfyepei; 
Trjv Se Sevrepav rrpovoiav &8e ttojs emor)p,aiverai 

E Aeyojv " 8 ia6 eopboOerrjo as rrdvra avrols 6 tva rrjs 7 
erreira etrj KaKias eKaarajv dvairios, eorreipe rovs 

1 <f>av\ov] <f>\avpov Plato. 2 rjyev] rjyayev Plato. 

3 rovoe] rovrov Plato. 

4 SielXev . . . €V€ifX€V y Plato : IcapiOpLOVs rots aorpois 
fTagev (a has here a lacuna of 12 letters ; X has erafc and a 
lacuna of 13 letters) SiciAc re ipvxas. 

5 elrrev avrals Plato : a lacuna of 13 letters in a, 17 in X. 

6 rravra avrois] ok irdvra avrols ravra Plato. 

7 rrjs E 2ss £ lss (with some mss. of Plato) : rols (with other 
mss. of Plato). 

a Plato, Timaeus, 29 d— 30 a. 

b Plato, Timaeus, 41 d-e. 

c Our author seems to have obtained this notion of 

34>6 



ON FATE, 573 

Coming into being and of Order, is to accept most 
rightly. For God, wishing that all things should be 
good, and naught, so far as possible, evil, took over 
all that was visible, which was in no state of rest, but 
in discordant and disordered motion, and brought 
it into order out of its disorder, deeming the former 
in all ways better than the latter. It neither was nor 
is right for him who is best to do aught save that 
which is most excellent." a These matters and what 
is mentioned after them, as far as and including the 
souls of men, we must take to have been framed 
in conformity with providence — primary providence ; 
but the words that follow (" and when he had com- 
pounded the whole, he divided it into souls equal in 
number to the stars and assigned to every star a soul, 
and mounting them thereon as on a vehicle, showed 
them the nature of the universe and proclaimed to 
them the laws of fate "), 6 who would not suppose 
to indicate fate, explicitly and in the plainest of terms, 
as a sort of foundation c and political legislation 
appropriate to the souls of men, the very legislation 
for which he next proceeds to state the reason ? d 

Secondary providence 

He indicates secondary providence in the following 
words : " Having prescribed all these ordinances to 
them, to the end that he might not be chargeable 
for the future wickedness of which they would be 

11 foundation " (basis) by pressing Plato's words " mounting 
(embibasas) them thereon as on a vehicle." It is perhaps 
significant that the astrologers called the horoscope a basis, 
as foundation of a man's lot in life (cf. Cumont, " Ecrits 
hermetiques " in Rev. de Philol. xlii, p. 71, note 5). 
d Plato, Timaeus, 42 d ; cf. 573 f, infra. 

347 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(573) fxev els ttjv 1 yrjv, tovs Se els ttjv 1 aeXrjvrjv, tovs Se 
els ra aAAa 2 opyava y^povov. to Se jxera rov 
oiTopov rots veois 7rape8a>Ke Oeols Gcjjxara ttXolt- 
reiv dvr^rdy to re eTriXoiTrov ooov en rjv* ifsvxfjs 
avOpQjTTLvrjs Seov rrpoayevead at, tovto /cat Trdvra 
ocra OLKoXovOa eKeivois arrepyaaaixevovs , apyeiv koX 
■F Kara hvvapav on KaXXiara koll apiora to dvqrov 
SiaKvfiepvav l^tpov, 6 tl firj /ca/caw 4 clvto avrco 
yivoiro o\iriov! y ev yap tovto is to puev " tva ttjs 5 
eirevra elrj kclkicls avaiTios eKaaTCO " 6 aa^earara 
ttjv 7 auriav GrjjjLaiveL ttjs eipLapfJLevrjs, rj Se tcov 
veuiv Oecjv tol^ls kcli Srjfjuovpyia ttjv SevTepav 
TTpovoiav 8t]Xol. 

K.al ttcos Kal TpiTTjs irape^aiTTeoQ ai eoiKev, el 
ye Srj tovtov x^P lv V Seaixodeola y " tva ttjs eireiTa 
etrj kolklols eKOLGTCp 8 avaiTios "' 6eos Se kolklols 
afjioipos ovTe vojjlojv ovTe eljJiapiJLevrjs eTTiSeoiT av, 
aAAa ttj irpovoia tov yevviqaavTOS avveTTiaTrojpLevos 
574 ehcavTos clvtcov TTp&TTei TO. aVTOV. tclvtcl Se otl 9 

1 ttjv omitted in Plato. 

2 t<z aAAa] rd AAa oaa Plato. 

3 ert rjv Plato : earl. 

4 kolkcov Plato : kcikov a ; fiaKpov X. 

5 ttJs- E 2ss (with some mss. of Plato) : rots (with other mss. 
of Plato). 

6 avaiTios e/cacrro)] avairios e/caaTa>v E 1 ; iKaarcov avairtos 
Plato. 

7 aa<f>eoTara rr\v nos : aa^eardr-^v, 

8 iKOLGTCp] eKaGTajv Plato. 

9 ort our addition (Bern, adds on be before raura). 

a Plato, Timaeus 1 42 D-E t 
348 



ON FATE, 573-574 

severally guilty, he sowed some on the earth, some 
on the moon, and others on the remaining instruments 
of time. After the sowing he delegated to the new- 
made gods the task of modelling mortal bodies, and, 
when they had completed all the rest of the human 
soul that it was necessary to add and all that this 
involved, of ruling and guiding the mortal animal, 
so far as lay within their powers, in the fairest and 
best fashion possible, except for those evils which it 
should incur from its own guilt." a In this passage 
the phrase " to the end that he might not be charge- 
able for the future wickedness of which they would 
be severally guilty " indicates in the plainest language 
the reason for fate, while the government and crea- 
tion which is in the hands of the new-made gods refers 
to secondary providence. 



Tertiary providence 

He appears, moreover, to allude to a third provi- 
dence as well, inasmuch as the enactment of ordin- 
ances is " to the end that he might not be chargeable 
for the future wickedness of which they would be 
severally guilty " : a god, having no part in evil, can 
stand in no need of either laws or fate, but each of 
them b fulfils his own office c as the providence of his 
begetter draws him along in its train. d The words 

b That is, each of the new-made gods. 

c Gf. Plato, Phaedrus, 247 a. 

d Evil is found in daemons, mortal beings created by the 
secondary gods. The will or thought (or both) of these 
daemons constitutes tertiary providence. Hence our author 
finds an allusion to tertiary providence in the words " to the 
end that he might not be chargeable for the future wickedness 
of which they would be severally guilty." 

349 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(574) dXrjOrj kcll dpeoKovra rep IlXdrajvL cfravepd puoi 
SokeI /Jbaprvpia 1 elvai rd TTpos rod Nopboderov iv 
rots Nopioig ovtoj Aeyopueva- €tt€l tovt ei ttot€ 
tls dvdpamojv (f)vaet iKavos, deiq p^oipq yevvrjdeLS, 
TrapaXafteLV Svvaros etrj, v6p,a>v ovSev dv hioiro 
avrov dp£6vTO)v 3 ' eTnorrjpLiqs yap ovre voptos* oxire 
rd^is ovSepLta Kpeirrcov, ov§€ Oepus earl vovv 5 
ovSevos vtttjkoov ovSe SovXov dXXd rravToyv* dpypvra 
elvat, idvirep dXrjdivos iXevdepos re ovra>s fj Kara 

10. 'Eyco piev ovv rd TTpos 1 rod YiXdrojvos 
B toiclvt r) 7rap6pL0ia 8 XapL^dvoj. rpLrrrjs yap 
oiiorjs rrjs irpovoias r) piev, are yevvqoaoa rrjv 
elpLappievrjv, rpoTrov nvd avrrjv TTepiXapifSdvei, r) oe y 
GvyyevvrjOelaa rfj elpbappLevrj, Travrajs avrfj avpi- 
TTepiXapifidveTai , rj Se, cos vorepov rrjs elpbappiivrjs 9 
yevvcopLevrj, Kara ra avra or) tpmepieyzTai vtt 
avrrjs Kad' a Kal to e</>' r\plv Kal r) 7vyy) €iprjrai. 
" ols " yap " dv crvXXdprjTaL rrjs ovvovoias rj 11 rov 
SaipLoviov Svvapus," a>s (/>rjoL iLojKpdrrjs, piovovovxl 
deopuov riva {KaLroi ov rov 12 'ASpaorelas) ote^iwv 
TTpos rov Qedyrjv, 1 * " ovroi eloiv &v Kal ov rjodrjoac 
ra)(v yap Trapaxprjp,a cmSiSdacrtv." ovkovv iv 

1 {xaprvpia y : fxapTvpia. 

2 €TT€L TOVT* €L llOS (€TT€L TCLVTCL €1 Plato) : 6TT7] TOV Tt. 

3 avTOv ap£6vTO)V a X : tcov ap£6vTO)V iavTov Plato. 

4 vojjlos Plato : voficuv. 

5 icrrl vovv Plato : ioTiv. 6 iravTOiv Plato : rravTa. 

7 TTpos] omitted by m and Wyttenbach. 

8 Toiain rj Trap6p,oia Pohlenz : TavTt] tt\ TTapoLfiia. 

9 TTfc elfiapfxev-qs o 2 Leonicus : ttjv elpLapixivrjv, 

10 y€wa>fjL€V7] nos (yevofievrj s Aid. 2 ) : yeivafjidvr]. 

11 ttjs ovvovoias r) Plato : r) ttjs ovoias. 

12 kclLtoi ov tov Turnebus : Kal tolovtov. 

350 



ON FATE, 574 

of the Lawgiver in the Laws a are, I think, clear 
testimony that this is true and the doctrine held by 
Plato. They are to this effect : " Since if ever any 
man, gifted by nature, born under a divine dispensa- 
tion, should be capable of apprehending this, he 
would need no laws to govern him, for no law or 
ordinance is mightier than understanding, nor is it 
permitted that intelligence should be subject or slave 
to aught ; it must rather be ruler in all things, if it 
be genuine and really free in conformity with its 
nature.' ' 

The three providences and fate 

10. Now I take Plato's meaning to be as described 
or very near it : as providence is threefold, the first, 
since it has begotten fate, includes it in a sense ; the 
second, having been begotten together with fate, is 
most certainly included together with it b ; and the 
third, since it is begotten later than fate, is contained 
in it in the same way as what is in our power and 
chance were said c to be contained in fate. d For, 
" those persons with whom the daemonic power 
encourages me to associate," as Socrates says in 
recounting to Theages what is all but an ordinance, 
although not that of Adrasteia, " are the ones you 
have remarked ; for their progress is immediate and 

° Plato, Laws, 875 c-d. The argument implicit in our 
author is this : if a man should be gifted with understanding 
he would need no law to govern him ; how much less, then, 
would a god have need of laws, and of fate, which is a kind 
of law ! b That is, in the first or primary providence. 

c 570 e, supra. 

d Cf. Chalcidius, chap, clxxvii, pp. 226. 18-227. 1 (ed. 
Wrobel). 

13 ©eay^v Xylander : OeaTrjv. 

351 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

I TOVTCp TO fJL€V GvXXajJL^dveLV TLgI TO SoUjJLOVlOV KCLTO. 

TTjv TpiT7]v rrpovoiav deTeov, 1 to Se ra^u 7Tapaxpfjp<a< 

emStSdvat kcl9' eljJLapfjLevrjv to 8e oXov ovk d8rjXov 

(1)9 clvto tovto el/JLapfJievr] tls Igti. 

Ta^a S' dv ovto) 2 rroXv TTidavwTepov Sd^ete /cat 

ttjv 8evT€pav irpovoiav vtto ttjs eL/JLapjJLevrjs irepi- 

eyeG$ai /cat rrdvTa dirXcos to, yivopueva, el ye /cat rj 

/car' ovgiclv eipLappbevr] opdtos rjpuv els Tas Tpeis 

(JLolpas hiavevenrjTai /cat 6 ttjs dXvGecos Xoyos Tag 

TTepl ovpavov rrepioSovs tols e£ virodeoecjos aVo- 

jSatVouat avyKOLTaXeyei. dXXd TTepl puev tovtcov 

D ovk dv 3 eycoye errl rrXeov hieve)(deiriv rroTepov* i£ 

VTTodeGetos Xeyofieva 5 r) ojs fi&XXov ovv elpLapnevrj, 6 

TrpoKCLTdpxovTOS olvttjs ttjs eljJLapjJLevr]s eljJLapiJLevov. 

1 Oereov Wyttenbach : avaderiov. 

2 ovro)] av rco Wyttenbach. 

3 av added by Bern. 

4 irorepov Leonicus : TTporepov. 

5 Xeyofieva] av etr) opdcJos Xeyofxeva Pohlenz ; yevofieva Post. 

6 avv el/jbapfjievrjl Gweifiapfieva Wyttenbach. 

a Theages, 129 e. In the context of the dialogue the 
" daemonic power " is of course the sign of Socrates. 

b That is, while primary providence includes fate, tertiary 
providence is included in fate, being the " hypothesis " which 
leads to a fated result. 

c 568 e, supra. 

d To the Stoics the " chain " — that is, the chain of causes 
— represents the whole course of cosmic change : cf. Cicero, 
Be Biv. i. 56 (127) ; Alexander, Be Fato, chap, xxiii, p. 193. 
6 and chap, xxiv, p. 194. 3 (ed. Brims) ; and Eustathius on 
Homer, II. viii. 19. See also W. Theiler in Phyllobolia fur 
Peter von der Miihll, p. 44, note 5. 

352 



ON FATE, 574 

rapid." a In this passage we must posit that the 
encouragement given to association with certain 
persons by the daemonic power conforms to tertiary 
providence, while their immediate and rapid progress 
conforms to fate ; and the whole complex is plainly 
enough none other than a form of fate. b 

On this view, however, it might appear much more 
credible that secondary providence also, and indeed 
all things, without any limitation, that come to pass, 
are contained in fate, if we were right c in dividing 
substantial fate into the three portions and if the 
argument of the " chain " d brings the revolutions 
in heaven e into the class of consequences of an hypo- 
thesis. Yet with regard to this question I for one 
would not pursue the quarrel further whether these 
matters are to be termed consequences of an hypo- 
thesis, the initiatory cause of fate itself being fated/ 
or, as I rather take to be the case, they exist side by 
side with fate. 

e The author means the planetary movements. The 
planets constitute the second division of substantial fate. 

f The Stoics called a cause external to the thing affected 
" procatarctic " or " initiatory." Thus the man who starts 
a cylinder rolling down a slope is the procatarctic cause of 
the course of the cylinder. He does not determine what that 
course shall be ; he merely sets the cylinder in motion. Cf. 
Stoicorum Vet. Frag. ii. 346, pp. 119 f. (ed. von Arnim) ; 
Cicero, De Fato, 19 (43) ; Galen, De Causis Pulsuum, i. 1, 
vol. ii, p. 261 (ed. Kiihn) ; Proclus, In Plat. Rem P. Comm. 
ii, p. 261 (ed. Kroll) ; M. Pohlenz, Die Stoa (Gottingen, 
1948), vol. i, pp. 104 ff., vol. ii, pp. 60 f. Our author's mean- 
ing appears to be that on the theory which presents secondary 
providence as included in fate, we shall find that secondary 
providence or the planets initiate certain terrestrial situations, 
which are fated, while the movements of the planets are 
themselves fated, inasmuch as they are the results of certain 
antecedent conditions. 

vol. vii N 353 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(574) 11. e O fJiev 1 ovv rj/JLerepos Aoyos irrl K€<f>a\aitov 

€L7T€LV TOIOVTOS TIS O.V €L7], 6 §€ TOVTOJV ivCLVTLOS 
OV llOVOV €V €LfJLap^L€Vrj aAAd KCLl KOlO' €LfJLapiA€V7]V 

7rdvra rlderai. Trdvra 8e darepcp ovvd8ei- rd 8e 
tlo irepco ovvcoSd SrjXov otl /cat Oarepo). 2 

Kara Liev ovv roVSe tov Xoyov to ivSexofxevov 

TTptOTOV* €Lpr)TCLl KCLL TO y€ €<f>' TjfMV 8eVT€pOV /Cat 

TpiTOV r\ T€ Tvyy) koll to avTOjJLCLTOV /cat ocra /car' 
aura* enatvos 8e /cat ifjoyog /cat ra tovtcov ovy- 
yevfj T€TapTa, rrefjLTTTOV 8e /cat inl iraoiv ^.vyoX 
E 6ea>v /cat Oepairelai AeyeoOoj* apyol* 8e /cat Oepl- 
t^ovTes Xoyoi /cat 6 Trapd ttjv eljjLapjjLevrjv ovofxa- 

1 fj,€v added by Stephanus. 

2 Oarepcx) Turnebus (/caret Oarcpov Pohlenz) : ddrepov. 

3 TTpu)Tov added by Drexler. 

4 dpyol Leonicus : dypol. 

a The Stoic view. 

b That is, praise and blame are not made meaningless by 
the author's view of fate : cf. Cicero, Be Fato, 17 (40) ; 
Albinus, Epitome, chap. xxvi. 1 ; Chrysippus in Stoicorum 
Vet. Frag. ii. 998, pp. 292 f. (ed. von Arnim) ; Alexander, 
T>e Fato, chap, xxxiv, p. 206. 1 (ed. Bruns). 

c For the " indolent argument " cf. Cicero, De Fato, 12 f. 
(28 f.) ; Gellius, vii. 2. 4-5 ; Stoicorum Vet. Frag. ii. 957, 
p. 278. 19-26 (ed. von Arnim). Addressed to a sick man, it 
runs as follows : " If it is fated for you to recover from your 
illness, you will recover whether you call a physician or no ; 
again, if it is fated for you not to recover, you will not recover, 
whether you call a physician or no ; now it is fated for you 

354 



ON FATE, 574 

The order of points in the present argument 

11. Our argument, then, presented under its main 
heads, would be as described ; the contrary argument/ 1 
on the other hand, posits that everything is not only 
in fate but also conforms to it. But everything is 
consistent with the former contention, and what is 
consistent with the latter is evidently consistent with 
the former as well. 

In our argument the contingent is placed first ; 
what is in our power, second ; third come chance and 
the spontaneous and all that conforms to them ; 
fourth, praise and blame and whatever is related to 
them b ; while the fifth and final place must be given 
to prayers to the gods and worship of them. But the 
" indolent argument," c that of the " reaper," d and 

either to recover or not recover : you therefore call a physician 
in vain." 

d For the argument of the reaper cf. Diogenes Laert. vii. 
25 and Ammonius, In Aristot. Be Int. Comm. chap, ix, p. 131. 
25-32 (ed. Busse) : el depieZs, <j>r)oLv [scil. 6 Xoyos], ovxl 
rdxa ftcv depieZs ra^a he ov depicts, aAAd iravrajs QepieZs, /cat el pur) 
QepieZs, woavrajs ov\l Ta^a fiev depieZs rdxa be ov depceZs, dAAa 
7rdvTO)S ov depieZs' dAAd pbrjv e£ avdyKrjs tjtol Bepiels ^ ov Qepiels' 
dvr)pr)Tai dpa to rdxa, etirep [i.r\re Kara rrjv dvrtdeoiv tov depieZv 
7rpos to fir) depieZv exei x^ ) P av » *£ dvdyKrjs rod erepov tovtojv 
eKfiatvovTOS, [vr\re Kara to enopLevov orrorepaovv ra>v vTrodeoeoiV 
to he rdxa rjv to elcrSepov to evhexo^evov olxerai dpa to eVSc^o- 
fxevov. 4t If you are going to reap (the argument runs) it does 
not follow that you will perhaps reap, perhaps not, but you 
will certainly reap ; and similarly if you are not going to 
reap : it does not follow that you will perhaps reap, perhaps 
not, but you will certainly not reap. But necessarily you are 
either going to reap or not going to reap. 4 Perhaps ' then 
is eliminated, since it has no place in the opposition between 
' going to reap ' and ' not going to reap ' — as one of these 
two must necessarily occur — nor yet in what follows on either 
supposition. But 4 perhaps ' is what introduced the con- 
tingent. The contingent therefore disappears." 

S55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(574) ^ojxevos ao^LGfiara cos dXy]6cog Kara rovrov rov 
Xoyov rvyyavei ovra. 

Kara Se rov evavriov fidXiora fiev /cat npoorov 
av 1 elvai Sotjeuev ropi'qSev avairioos yiyveoOai aXXd 
kara TTporjyovfJLevas airias, Sevrepov Se ro c/)vg€l 
8ioiK€LO0aL rovSe rov KocrfJLov ovpmvovv koI ovpi- 
TraOrj avrov avrco ovra, rpirov Se a 2 irpos rovrois 
fj,aprvpia fiaXXov eoiKev elvai' /JLavriKrj fiev dVaoxv 3 
av6pa)7T0is evSoKifAos ws aXrjOoos Oeco ovvvrrdp- 
F ^oucra, 4 7] 8e roov crocfrcov rrpos ra avfifiaivovra 
€vapeaT7]Gis tbs iravra Kara fxoipav yiyvo\xeva 
Sevrepa, 5 rpirov Se ro TroXv6pvXr)rov 6 rovro on 
TTav d^LOJfJia rj aXrjOes iortv fj ifjevSes. 

Tovrojv ye {irjv errl rooovrov ejJLvrjoOrjfjLev Iva 

1 av added by Bern. 2 a Wyttenbach : ra. 

3 dVaoxv] irpwrov ttSloiv Patzig. 

4 0€w crvvvirdpxovcra Schwartz (avv Otto vTrdpxovaa von 
Arnim) : Otto VTrdpxovaa. 

5 hevrepa Patzig : Sevrepa. 

6 7ToXv6pvXr)Tov Diibner : TroXvOpvXXrjrov. 

a The argument " contrary to fate " is not mentioned else- 
where by name ; for a conjecture cf. Zeller, Die Philos. der 
Griechen, iii. I 6 , p. 171, note 1. 

b Chrysippus had tried to show that the " indolent argu- 
ment " was a fallacy : cf. Cicero, De Fato, 13 (30). Our 
author would regard all three arguments as valid against the 
Stoic position, while fallacious against his own. 

c Of. Alexander, De Fato, chap, ix, p. 175. 12 (ed. Bruns). 

d " Spirit " (pneuma) in Stoic theory is a corporeal sub- 
stance pervading the whole universe and holding it together 
(cf. Stoicorum Vet. Frag. ii. 439-444, pp. 144-146 and 543, 

356 



ON FATE, 574 

that termed " contrary to fate " a turn out on this 
view to be sophisms indeed. b 

The order of points in the Stoic argument 

According to the opposing argument the chief and 
first point would appear to be that nothing occurs 
without cause, and that instead everything occurs 
in conformity with antecedent causes c ; the second, 
that this universe, at one with itself in spirit and in 
affections/* is governed by nature ; and in the third 
place comes what would rather seem to be evidence 
added to these points in corroboration : the good 
repute in which the art of divination is held by all 
mankind, in the belief that its existence and that of 
God are in fact involved in one another e ; the ac- 
quiescence of the wise * in whatever befalls, in the 
belief that everything that occurs is in order, 9 ' in the 
second place ; and third, that oft repeated dictum, 
that every proposition is either true or false. 71 

I have dealt with these matters thus briefly in order 

p. 172. 19 von Arnim). Sympathes (here rendered " at one 
with itself ... in affections ") points to their theory of 
" sympathy " : that the universe is so perfectly integrated 
a whole that when one part of it is affected all its other parts 
are affected as well. 

6 For the proof of the existence of fate from that of divina- 
tion cf. Stoicorum Vet, Frag. ii. 939-944, pp. 270-272 (ed, 
von Arnim) ; for the appeal to all mankind cf. Cicero, De 
Div. i. 6 (1 1) ; for the involvement of the existence of God in 
that of divination cf. Cicero, ibid. i. 5 (9) and i. 38 (82-83). 

f Cf. W. Theiler in Phyllobolia fur Peter von der Muhll> 
p. 86, note 3. 

9 The expression /card fiolpav (" in order ") can mean 
" duly " or " in conformity with fate." 

h Cf. Stoicorum Vet, Frag, ii. 962, p. 275, 23-27 (ed. von 
Arnim). 

357 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(574) cos* €7Ti jSpa^u ra rrjs elfJLapfjLevrjs K€<f)dAaia S^Aco- 
Oetrf' a XPV SiepevvtfcraadaL Kara rrjv aKpif$r\ 
fidaavov eKarepov rtov Aoycov ra 8e kol9' e/caara 
tovtcov eoavdis pL€Tip,ev. 

1 K€<f>a\aia S-qXcoOelr) supplied by Wyttenbach to fill a lacuna 
of 13 letters in a, 7 in X. 



358 



ON FATE, 574 

to present the main headings of the topic of fate in 
a compendious form ; these we must investigate 
when we subject the two arguments to exact scrutiny. 
The details that come under these headings we shall 
enter into at some later time. 



359 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES 

(DE GENIO SOCRATIS) 



INTRODUCTION 

In the De Genio Socratis Caphisias, Epameinondas' 
brother, gives Archedamus and a distinguished circle 
at Athens an account of the recent exploits and dis- 
cussions at Thebes. a The exploits were those of the 
conspiracy that freed the city from Spartan domina- 
tion ; the discussions took place at the conspirators' 
meetings, and were concerned with the meaning of 
an ancient inscription, the question when benefac- 
tions should be rejected, and above all with the in- 
terpretation of Socrates' sign. 

Thebes was liberated in December, 379 b.c. 5 The 
story is also told by Plutarch in the Life of Pelopidas 
(chapters vi-xiii), and brief accounts are preserved 
in Xenophon's Hellenica (v. 4. 1-13), in Nepos' Pelo- 
pidas (ii. 1-iv. 1), and in Diodorus Siculus (xv. 25-27). c 
There are irreconcilable differences between the 

a That Plutarch composed his dialogue with Plato's 
Phaedo in mind was long ago pointed out by R. Hirzel (Der 
Dialog, Zweiter Theil, Leipzig, 1895, pp. 148-151 ; cf. also 
W. Christ, " Plutarchs Dialog vom Daimonion des Sokrates," 
in Sitz. Munich, 1901, pp. 59-110, K. Kahle, De Pint. Rat. 
Dialogorum Componendorum, Gottingen, 1912, pp. 17-19, 
and G. M. Lattanzi, II " De genio Socratis " di Plutarco, 
Rome, 1933, pp. 15-17). 

b E. Meyer, Gesch. des Altertums, vol. v, pp. 373 f. 

c Cf. also Polyaenus, ii. 3. 1 and ii. 4. 3. 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES 

accounts of Xenophon, Diodorus, and Plutarch a ; 
and there are even a few discrepancies between 
Plutarch's briefer account in the Life of Pelopidas and 
his fuller account here. & Such incidents, however, 
as the assassination of Androcleidas at Athens, the 
execution of Hismenias, the meeting at Charon's 
house, Chlidon's failure to deliver the message to the 
exiles, the letter from Archias of Athens to Archias 
of Thebes, and the banquet given for Archias by 
Phyllidas, appear in either Nepos or Xenophon (or 
both) as well as in the Life of Pelopidas. Xenophon c 
differs from Plutarch d in setting the number of re- 
turning exiles at seven, rather than at twelve, 6 and 

a For the fullest discussion of the different accounts cf. 
the two works of Ernst von Stern : Gesch. d. spart. u. theb. 
Hegemonie vom Konigsfrieden bis zur Schlacht bei Mantinea, 
Dorpat, 1884, and Xenophons Hell. u. d. boot. Geschichts- 
iiberlieferung, Dorpat, 1887. 

b In the dialogue (576 c-d) a messenger arrives the day the 
exiles cross the frontier, informs the conspirators of the fact, 
and is told where the exiles are to lodge ; in the Life (chaps, 
vii. 4, viii. 3, 281 b, d) the house where they are to lodge is 
agreed upon in advance. In the Life (chap. x. 5, 283 a-b) 
Charon tells the truth about his interview to Pelopidas alone, 
inventing a fictitious story for the rest ; in the dialogue (595 
f ff.) he tells the truth to all. In the Life (chap. xi. 8, 283 f) 
Cephisodorus dies before Leontiades is killed, in the dialogue 
(597 f), after. Again, in the dialogue (596 d) only a few of 
the conspirators in Melon's group are dressed as women ; 
in the Life (chap. xi. 2, 283 c-d) all apparently are. Cf. 
Lattanzi, p. 81. c Hell. v. 4. 1 and 3. 

d 576 c ; cf. Nepos, Pel. ii. 

e Of the conspirators named in the course of the dialogue 
three, Pelopidas, Damocleidas, and Theopompus, evidently 
(594 d) belong to the twelve. We learn of two more, Melon 
and Menecleidas, from the Life of Pelopidas (chap. viii. 2, 
281 c, and chap. xxv. 5, 290 f). Possibly Eumolpidas, 
Samidas, Lysitheus, and Cephisodorus can be added to the 
number ; but there is no proof that they were exiles. 

363 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

in stressing the role of Melon ; he does not even 
mention Pelopidas' part in the exploit. Again, he 
places a day's interval between the return of the 
exiles and the revolt,® and he gives two versions of 
the entrance of the conspirators into the presence 
of Archias. In the first, three were disguised as 
ladies, the rest as maids ; in the second, they entered 
as revellers. b Plutarch says that some were attired 
as revellers, and a few disguised as women (596 d). 
Xenophon goes on to say that after the seven had 
killed Archias, Phyllidas went with three of them to 
kill Leontiades c ; whereas in Plutarch the exiles 
divide into two groups, Melon's group killing Archias 
and Philippus, Pelopidas' Leontiades and Hypates 
(577 c, 596 c-d, 596 f— 598 a). 

Most of the personages of the dialogue are known 
from other sources and may be considered historical. 
Archedamus is evidently an Athenian public figure 
with well-known Theban sympathies (575 d, f). Such 
a person was Archedemus of Pelex, surnamed " the 
blear-eyed," and mentioned by Aeschines (Or. ii. 139) 
as one who had risked much for the sake of Thebes. d 
There is no external evidence for Caphisias, whom 
Plutarch presents as a brother of Epameinondas, or 
for his embassy to Athens. But there is no reason 

° Hell. v. 4. 3. 

b Hell. v. 4. 6 f. 

c Hell. v. 4. 5-7. 

d Cf. Kirchner, Prosop. Att. no. 2326. The form Arche- 
damos is not Attic, although not unknown at Athens {cf. 
ibid. no. 2312 ; the name Archidamos occurs seven times : 
ibid. nos. 2482-2488). The forms Archedamos and Archi- 
damos both occur in Boeotian inscriptions : cf. the index to 
IG, vol. vii. Plutarch may have used the Boeotian form to 
show the bearer's intimacy with Boeotians and friendliness 
to Thebes, 

364 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES 

to doubt the existence of a brother of that name ; 
and embassies from Thebes must have been fairly fre- 
quent at Athens in the stirring times that followed 
the liberation. As the philosophical discussions are 
scarcely historical, there is no compelling reason to 
suppose that the personages exclusively concerned 
with them are authentic. Timarchus, the hero of 
the myth, is probably a fiction of Plutarch's, and the 
same may hold true of the Pythagorean Theanor 
(literally, " man of God ") ; no other ancient author 
speaks of them. No mention is found elsewhere of 
the conspirators Bacchylidas, Eumolpidas, Hismeno- 
dorus, Lysitheus, and Samidas ; but here there is no 
reason to suppose that the names were invented. 
Plutarch, a local patriot, was well read in Boeotian 
history, and there are other instances where he alone 
has preserved some detail of it. & 

The dialogue opens with a speech by Archedamus, 
who asks Caphisias for the story of the events he had 
taken part in and for an account of the discussions 
he had heard at the time. Caphisias asks where he 
shall begin ; and Archedamus, briefly sketching the 
events already known to himself and the audience, 
tells him to begin with the return of the exiles and 
the overthrow ° of the tyrants. 

a Like Plutarch, Timarchus is a Chaeronean, and his name 
was presumably modelled on Plutarch's own ; cf. also the 
unhistorical detail about Lamprocles (590 a with the note, 
and von Arnim, " Plutarch iiber Damonen und Mantik," in 
Verhandelingen d. K. Akad. van Wetenschappen te Amster- 
dam, Afd. Lett. Nieuwe Reeks, Deel xxii (1921), pp. 17 f.). 

6 Cf. Mor. 548 r — 549 a with Reiske's note : " Res Boeo- 
ticas alii auctores negligentius tractarunt, quas, ut patrias, 
attingere Plutarchus amat." 

c Plutarch avoids the terms " assassination " and " con- 
spiracy.' * 

365 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

The rest of the dialogue consists of Caphisias' 
narrative. A messenger from Athens informs the 
conspirators that the exiles will arrive at nightfall, 
and asks to what house they shall proceed. Charon 
offers his own. The party, which includes Charon, 
Caphisias, and Theocritus, a diviner, is now met by 
Archias (the leading spirit among the Theban oli- 
garchs), Lysanoridas (the Spartan commander), and 
Phyllidas, a conspirator who is secretary to the 
Theban polemarchs. Theocritus is called away for 
a private conversation with Lysanoridas, and Phyl- 
lidas, drawing Caphisias aside, learns that the exiles 
are to come that evening, and congratulates himself 
on having chosen that time for a banquet to which 
Archias will be invited and made drunk. At the 
house of Simmias, the meeting-place of the con- 
spirators, Pheidolaus asks the party to wait, as 
Simmias is closeted with Leontiades, an influential 
oligarch, interceding for the life of Amphitheus, an 
imprisoned democrat. 

While they are waiting, Theocritus asks Pheidolaus 
about the discoveries made by the Spartans who 
excavated Alcmena's tomb in the territory of Pheido- 
laus ' native city of Haliartus. An inscription in 
unknown characters was the most remarkable, and 
Agesilaus was reported to have sent a copy to Egypt 
for the priests to interpret. 

Meanwhile Leontiades leaves. The party enter 
and find Simmias very downcast ; his intercession 
had evidently failed. As Simmias had recently 
returned from Egypt, Theocritus asks whether the 
priests succeeded in reading the inscription. Simmias 
answers that such a document had been interpreted 
by a priest with whom Plato and he had studied 

366 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES 

philosophy ; and that it contained a divine command 
that the Greeks should settle their disputes by 
appealing not to arms, but to the Muses and dis- 
cussion. Plato had remembered this message when 
the Delians consulted him about the duplication of 
the cube : they had received an oracle to the effect 
that when the cubical altar at Delos had been doubled 
the miseries of Delos and of all Greece would be at 
an end. Plato promised help, but told them that 
Apollo's real purpose was to urge the Greeks to 
cultivate geometry, great proficiency being required 
for the solution, and to make an end of war by calming 
their passions in such mathematical and philosophical 
pursuits. 

So ends the first discussion. Polymnis, the father 
of Epameinondas and Caphisias, now enters with the 
news that Epameinondas is bringing a Pythagorean 
stranger who had spent the night at the tomb of 
Lysis, a Pythagorean who had trained the sons of 
Polymnis in philosophy. The stranger had intended 
to remove the remains to Italy, if no sign from heaven 
should prevent him ; and had brought a large sum 
of gold, with which he insisted on rewarding Epamei- 
nondas for supporting Lysis in his old age. 

Galaxidorus, in a burst of indignation at the 
stranger's superstitious practices, denounces religious 
mummery in general, contrasting it with the sim- 
plicity and frankness of Socrates. Theocritus retorts 
that Socrates after all had a divine sign ; to this 
Galaxidorus replies that Socrates allowed himself 
to be guided by the signs of ordinary divination — 
sneezes and chance remarks overheard — when the 
rational grounds for a decision were evenly balanced. 
Polymnis adds that he has heard that the sign was a 

367 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

sneeze, but is astonished that Socrates did not call 
it so. The sneeze, Galaxidorus answers, was a mere 
instrument, the real agent being Heaven ; and 
Socrates, who knew the proper use of words, spoke 
therefore of receiving intimations from Heaven (to 
daimonion), a not from its instrument. 

The conversation is interrupted by the entrance of 
Epameinondas and the Pythagorean. Theanor (for 
that is the stranger's name) begs the company to 
judge between them : Epameinondas rejects the 
proffered money. A dialogue follows between the 
two on the question when it is right to accept a 
benefaction ; and Epameinondas justifies his refusal 
by the need to refrain from even legitimate gain if 
he would harden himself against profiting from in- 
justice. Simmias' decision is that the disputants 
must settle the question themselves. 

Phyllidas now enters with Hippostheneidas, another 
conspirator, and draws Charon, Theocritus, and 
Caphisias aside. It appears that Hippostheneidas, 
alarmed among other things by an ominous dream, 
had sent a mounted messenger to meet the exiles at 
the frontier and tell them to turn back. Theocritus 
shows that the dream was actually a propitious omen, 
and the whole episode ends happily when the mes- 
senger appears and tells how a violent quarrel with 
his wife prevented him from setting out. 

Caphisias and Theocritus return to Simmias, who 
has answered Galaxidorus in the interval, and is now 
presenting his own theory. The sign was Socrates' 
perception of the unspoken language of the higher 
powers. Simmias goes on to tell the story or myth 

° To daimonion is also the name of the divine sign, the 
" genius of Socrates. 

368 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES 

of Timarchus. The substance of Timarchus* vision 
is this : all souls have understanding or intellect, 
but some are so deeply sunk in the body that their 
understanding loses its character and becomes irra- 
tional. Others keep partly clear of the body, and 
the portion not immersed in it is called the daemon. 
Souls that obey this daemon from their earliest years 
are those of seers and divine men, and such was 
Socrates. 

Theanor has the last word. Setting aside the myth, 
he combines parts of the explanations of Simmias and 
Galaxidorus, maintaining that the gods view certain 
persons with special favour and communicate with 
them directly by symbols. Others they help in- 
directly : when the cycle of birth is over, good men 
become daemons, and are allowed by the gods to 
call out to and help those who are approaching the 
end of their cycle. 

At the conclusion of the discussion Theocritus, 
Galaxidorus, and Caphisias urge Epameinondas to 
join them in killing the oligarchs. Epameinondas 
gives his reasons for refusing. 

Toward nightfall the exiles slip into the city and 
gather at Charon's house. When all the conspirators 
have assembled there two officers appear and summon 
Charon to the presence of Archias and Philippus. 
The rest, convinced that the plot is discovered, are 
preparing a desperate sortie when Charon returns 
with the joyful news that the magistrates have no 
definite information and are already the worse for 
drink. 

The conspirators now set out in two parties, the 
one to attack Leontiades and Hypates, the other, 
Archias and Philippus. Meanwhile a letter is brought 

369 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

to Archias, revealing the whole plot. The bearer says 
that it deals with serious business ; but Archias slips 
it under his cushion with the remark that serious busi- 
ness can wait for the morrow. Both parties are com- 
pletely successful : Archias, Philippus, Leontiades, 
and Hypates are all dispatched. Epameinondas 
and his followers join the conspirators and call the 
citizenry to arms. The Spartan sympathizers flee to 
the citadel ; and the terrified garrison makes no 
descent into the lower town. The Spartans capitulate 
and withdraw their forces. 

By the very nature of its dramatic setting the De 
Genio Socratis contains no reference to the events of 
Plutarch's own time. No absolute date can then be 
fixed. Von Arnim, a comparing the myths of the De 
Defectu Oraculorum, De Facie in Orbe Lunae, De Genio 
Socratis, and De Sera Numinis Vindicta, supposes that 
the four were composed in that order. If so — and 
many of his arguments are hardly cogent b — the De 
Genio Socratis was written after 95 or thereabouts, the 
approximate date of Plutarch's election to the Delphic 
priesthood. 

A few translations can be added to those listed in 
the Preface. d 

Only two manuscripts contain the dialogue, E and B. 
In estimating the length of lacunas we mention E first. 

a Op. cit. pp. 21-27, 42-46. 

b Cf. W. Hamilton, " The Myth in Plutarch's De Genio " 
in The Classical Quarterly, vol. xxviii (1934), pp. 175-182. 

c Cf. p. 173, note e, supra. For the question of the relative 
dates of the De Genio Socratis and the Life of Pelopidas see 
the papers quoted by K. Ziegler in Pauly-Wissowa, vol. xxi. 
1, coll. 842 f. 

d J. Mahly, Plutarch, Vber den Genius des Sokrates. Poli- 
tische Vorschriften (Stuttgart, 1890). 

370 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES 

The work is No. 69 in the catalogue of Lamprias, 
where it is called rrepl ^LcoKpdrovs Satfxovtov 7rpbs *A\kl- 
SajmavTa. 

K. S. Guthrie, Three Selections from Plutarch's Genius of 
Socrates (New York, 1904). 

A. O. Prickard, The Return of the Theban Exiles 379-378 
b.c. (Oxford, 1926). This is a revision of the excellent version 
Mr. Prickard published in 1918. 

A. Kontos, UXovrdpxov 'H0t/«r Hcpl rod Eojk/nxtous Aaifiovtov 
(Athens, 1939). 

W. Ax, Plutarch Moralia (Leipzig, 1942), pp. 202-261. 

E. des Places, S.J., Le Demon de Socrate de Plutarque 
(Paris, 1950), published with H. Pourrat, Le Sage et son 
demon. 



371 



(575) nEPI TOY 2QKPAT0Y2 AAIMONIOT 1 

B 1. — Tjcoypdcfrov twos, cS Ka^iata, 2 pLepLVYjpLat 
7tot€ z 7T€pl Ttov deajpuevajv tovs yeypapcpievovs 
TTivcLKas Xoyov ov tf>avXov clkovgcls iv €lk6vl AcAe- 
ypuevov. e<j)r) yap eoiKevai tovs ptev ISccoras Kal 
arexvovs Oearas o^Aov 6{jlov ttoXvv doTra^opLevoLs, 4, 
tovs 8e Kopapovs Kal ^lXot^xvovs , Kad* eKaarov 
I8ta Ttov ivTvyxavovTCov TTpoaayopevovai. tols 
peer yap ovk aKpifiiqs, dXXd tvttcq tlvI yiverai 
jjlovov, rj Ttov aTToreXeapidrajv avvoipis, tovs Se, rfj 
Kpicrei Kara p,epos to epyov hiaXapbfiavovras , ov8ev 
dOearov ovSe dirpoocfrwvrjTOV eKtfrevyei Ttov KaXtos 
rj rovvavriov yeyovorcov. olp,ai hrj Kal Trepl rdg 

C dXr)9cvds TTpd^ets opLotats Tto puev dpyorepcp 5 rrjv 
hidvoiav i£apt<€LV rrpos laropiav el to Ke<j)dXaiov 
avro Kal to Trepas nvdoiTO tov rrpdypiaTos, TOV 
he <f>iXoTip,ov Kal (friXoKaXov Ttov vrr* dp€Trjs tooirep 
T€X vr )S pieydXrjs aTTetpyaopievwv 6 OeaTrjv ra Ka6* 
eKaoTa fjbdXXov evcfrpatveiv, ths 1 tov puev t£Xovs 

1 rod YiO)KpaTOVs Satjitovi'ou] ocoKpdrovs baifiovlov trpos o\kl- 
Mfiavra Lamprias. 

2 Ka<f)i<7La Cobet : Kafeiata and so passim, ■ 

3 ti€fjLV7]jjLai 7tot€ Wilamowitz (ix€fMvr]pLaL Xylander) to fill a 
lacuna of 17-11 letters. 

4 dana^ofiGvoLs Basle edition of 1542 : ao7ra£ofi€vovs. 
372 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES 

(The persons who take part in the dialogue are Archedamus, 
an Athenian, and Caphisias, a Theban.) 

1. — I recall, Caphisias, that a painter once gave me, 
in the form of a comparison, no bad description of 
those who view pictures. Spectators who are laymen 
and without instruction in the art resemble, he said, 
those who greet a large company with a single salu- 
tation, whereas cultivated and artistic spectators 
resemble men who have a private word of welcome 
for everyone they meet ; for the general impression 
that the first obtain of the performance is inaccurate 
and as it were a mere sketch ; whereas the others 
use their critical judgement for a separate scrutiny 
of each detail, and thus allow nothing well or poorly 
executed to pass without a look or word of recogni- 
tion. I think the same is true of real events : duller 
minds are content with history if they learn the mere 
general drift and upshot of the matter, whereas the 
spectator fired with emulation and the love of noble 
conduct, when he views the works which virtue, like 
a great art, has executed, is more delighted with the 
particulars, feeling that in the outcome much is due 

5 rep yikv apyoripco Emperius : tcov fxev dpyorepcov. 

6 tov Se <J)lX6tlijlov koX (faXoKaXov tcov vn (vrrkp Emperius) 
apeTTJs . . . a7T€ipya(JiJL€vcov Reiske : ra>v 8e ^tAoTt/xa>v kclI 
<j>i\oKa\<x)v tov virkp aperrjs . . . aTreipyaGfxdvov, 

7 <l)s added by Sieveking, 

373 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(575) rroXXa kolvol rrpos rrjv Tvyrp eyovTOS> tovs 1 8' iv 2 
rats' air Lais /cat rot? epyois avrols errl 3 pbipovs 
dytovas aperfjs* rrpos ra ovvTvyyavovTa /cat roXpuas 
efufrpovas rrapa ra Setra Kadopcovra 5 Kaipco /cat 
Trade t prepay puevov XoyuapLOV. tovtov 8r) tov yevovs 
D tcjv dearoov /cat rjpbds vrroXapipdvajv elvat hieXde 
re rrjv TTpa^iv rjpuv 6 am apxys <**S enpaydri /cat tov 
Xoyov pierdSos ov aKovopuev 1 yeveadai Tore aov 8 
rrapovros, cos ipiov pL7]& av els Qtffias errl tovtco 
KaroKviqoavTOS eXOelv, el pirj /cat vvv 9 A07]vaiois 
rrepa rod heovros eSoKovv jSotama^etv. 9 

— 'AAAa eSet p,ev, <3 ' Apx^oapbe , 10 aov St' evvoiav 
qvtoj Trpodvpboos Ta rrerrpaypLeva puadeiv arrovod- 
^ovtos, epue /cat aa^oAtas* vrreprepov ueouai 
Kara Tlwoapov to Sevpo eXdeiv errl rrjv Sirjyrjow 
to Se rrpeafieias d<f)iypLevovs eveKa /cat axoXrjv 
ayovras a'xpi ov tols arroKpiaeis tov Srjpuov Xdfioo- 
E p,ev dvTiTelveiv /cat dypoiKi^eodai rrpos evyvoopiova 
/cat cf)iXov eraipov 11 hoKel /cav dveyeupetv 12 to /caret 
Bota>ra>v apxoXoy els paaoXoyiav oveihos rj8rj 
pcapaivopLevov rrapa HooKparr) tov vpierepov, rjpbels 
8e rrapa oval toov leptov arrovSai^ovres ovtojs Ste- 

1 rovs Pohlenz : rod. 2 8' iv Bern. : be. 

3 epyois avrols errl Pohlenz (em Turnebus) to fill a lacuna of 
19-23 letters. 4 dperrjs Turnebus : dperrj. 

6 Post reads the passage as follows : tov Se reus alrtais /cat 
tois TrpdyfxaoL (or ovvairiois) fxepovs [sc. exovros] dywvas dperrjs 
npos rd avvTvyydvovTa /cat roA/xa? e[M(f>povas rrepl (or rrpos or 
napd) rd Setva /cat dopvfiovvra. 

6 17/xtv Schaefer : i^tis". 

7 ftcraSo? ov aKovofiev Pohlenz, to fill a lacuna of 19-22 letters. 

8 rore ctou Pohlenz (aou Turnebus) to fill a lacuna of 15 
letters. 9 /tatamafetv Bern. : /?ota>Ttf€ti>. 

374 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 575 

to chance, whereas in the actions themselves and 
in their causes he observes the details of the struggles 
of virtue pitted against fortune, and the sober acts of 
daring in peril that come of reason blended with the 
stress and passion of the moment. a Take us to be 
spectators of this sort ; tell us of your enterprise 
from the beginning, and impart to us the discussion 
that we hear was held at the time in your presence ; 
for you may rest assured that to hear the story I 
should not have shrunk from journeying all the way 
to Thebes, except that the Athenians consider me 
unduly pro-Boeotian as it is. 

— Indeed, Archedamus, seeing this friendly eager- 
ness of yours to know what happened, I, for my part, 
should have been obliged to hold it a duty " tran- 
scending any business," as Pindar & says, to come 
here to tell the story ; as it is, when I am already here 
on an embassy and at leisure until the assembly 
delivers its reply, to refuse and be uncivil with one 
so sympathetic and friendly, would be enough, I 
think, to revive the ancient reproach against Boeotians 
of hostility to discussion, just when that reproach 
was dying out. . . , d Yet consider whether the 

° A desperate and much-emended sentence. The meaning 
is uncertain. 

b Isthmian Odes, I 2. c Of. Mor. 864 d. 

d The Greek is corrupt. The sense was possibly : " now 
that Simmias and Cebes have distinguished themselves by 
their zeal for philosophy through their association with your 
countryman Socrates, and we [that is, Caphisias and Epamei- 
nondas] through ours with the holy Lysis." 

10 'Apxe&aiAc nos (the mss. have apx^Safie 595 b, d and 596 d, 
infra) : d/>^t8a/x€ (c/. 'AA/aSa/Aavra Lamprias). 

11 <f>iXov iralpov Wilamowitz : <f>i\eTaipov. 

12 hoK€l kov av€y€ip€LV Post (Sofcicv av iy€tp€LV Holwerda) : 

hoK€LV OLV€y€Lp€LV. 

375 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(575) (frdvrjjjLev. 1 aAA' Spa tovs Trapovras el Trpos aKpoa- 
aiv a/xa rrpd^ecov 2 Kal Xoycov tooovtcov evKalpcos 
eypvow' ov yap Ppax v fjbfJKos ioTi Trjs Sirjyrjoecos, 
€7T€L ov Kal tovs Xoyovs rrpooTTepifSaXeodai KeXevets. 
— 'Ayvoeis, co Kafaola, tovs avopas. rj fxr)v 
d^iov eloevaiy rraTepcov ovtos dyadcov Kal 7Tp6s 
vpL&s oIk€lo)s cxovtcov. 681 fiev ioTtv doeX(/)ioovs 
F paovfiovXov Avoi0eior)s, 681 8e Ttpiodeos Ko- 
vcovos vioSy ovtoi 8k 'Apxivov TTaloes, oi he aXXot 
Trjs eratpetW 3 Kal avTol ttJ? 4 r)fJL€Tepas TrdvTes* 
tooT€ ooi to 5 deaTpov evvovv Kal olKeiav %X ov * ttjv 
oitfyrjoiv. 

v Aeyeis. aAAa tls av vpuv pbeTpios apXV 
yevoiTO Trjs Sirjyrjoecos 77/50? as lot€ rrpd^eis; 

— 'Hjnets, co Ka^tata, cr^eSov cos €t%ov al Qfjfiai 
irp6 Trjs KaQooov tcov <f>vyd8cov imoTdfieda. Kal 
yap cos oi rrepl 'Ao^tav Kal AeovTidSrjv 7 OotjStSav 
7T€ioavT€s iv 07rov8aXs KaTaXafielv Trjv KaS/xetav 
tovs [lev itjeftaXov tcov ttoXitcov, tovs 8e <f>6^co 
576 Kareipyov , dpxovTes avTol rrapavopbcos Kal fiiaicos, 

1 The passage is corrupt. Schwartz indicates a lacuna 
after fiapatvofxevov, supposing that some mention of Simmias 
and Cebes has dropped out ; K. F. Hermann reads Avoiv rov 
Upov (Bern. Avow rov yepovra) for ovol rwv lepaiv. Post reads 
as follows after ixapawofievov : eVet 7rpos ^coKparr) rov vpudrepov 
r)fJ>€LS ye nepl Xvolv diropicov OTrovodt,ovTes ovrcos hi€(f>dvrjfjL€V. 
We translate as if the following were written : eirel napd 
HcoKpdret rco v/JLerepco St/u^a'as fxev Kal KcjS^?, rjfiels he irapa 

AvOLOL TW lepCp OTTOVOat,OVT€S ovrcus Ol€<t>dv7)IJL€V. 

2 dfxa Trpd&ajv Basle edition of 1542 ; avaTrpdtjeojv, 

3 eraipeias Bern, : ircuptas. 

376 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 575-576 

company is disposed to hear a narrative involving 
so much history and philosophy combined ; it will 
not be short in the telling, as you would have me 
include the discussions with the rest. 

— You are unacquainted, Caphisias, with these 
gentlemen. I assure you that they are well worth 
knowing : their fathers were excellent men and good 
friends of your country. This is Lysitheides, a nephew 
of Thrasybulus b ; this, Timotheus, c son of Conon ; 
these are the sons of Archinus d ; and the rest, like 
these, are all men of our society. Your narrative, 
then, will have a friendly and interested audience. 

— Excellent. But at what point would it suit you 
for me to begin the tale so as to connect it with the 
events you already know ? 

— We know pretty well, Caphisias, how matters 
stood at Thebes before the exiles' return. Thus, the 
news that after inducing Phoebidas to seize the 
Cadmeia in time of peace, e Archias and Leontiades 
had expelled some of your countrymen and were 
holding the rest in terrified submission, exercising 
authority themselves in defiance of the laws and by 

° Cf. Kirchner, Prosop. Att. no. 9392. 

6 The celebrated Athenian statesman : cf. Kirchner, ibid, 
no. 7305. 

c The celebrated Athenian admiral : cf. Kirchner, ibid, 
no. 13700. 

d An Athenian statesman : cf. Kirchner, ibid. no. 2526. 

■ The " King's Peace " or Peace of Antalcidas of 386 b.c. 
is meant. The Cadmeia was seized in 382. 

4 kcu olvtoI rrjs Wilamowitz (tt}s Aid. 2 ) to fill a lacuna of 
14-10 letters. 5 vol to nos : ooi. 

6 OLKCiav e^ov] olk€lov €X€lv Madvig ; oIkclcos ^X ov ^pos ? Post. 

7 h.€ovTiahj)v nos {cf. Mor. 1099 e and Life of Agesilaiis, 
chaps, xxiii, 1 1 , 609 a and xxiv. 2, 609 b) : XeovTib-qv and so 
passim, 

377 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(576) eyvcopiev ivravda tcov rrepl McAcova /cat IleAo- 
ttlSclv, ojs oloOcLy l8io£evoi yevopcevoi /cat nap* 
ov y^povov e<f>evyov del avvSiarpL^ovres clvtols' 
/cat rraXiv ojs Aa /ceS at puov tot OotjSi'Sav fiev etprp- 
jjlioogolv errl rw Trp> KaSjLt€tav /caraAajSetv /cat ttjs 
els "OXvvdov orpaT7]yias dneoTiqaav, AvoavoplSav 1 
Se Tpirov olvtov dvT eKelvov 7repaftavTes ey/cpa- 
reorepov i(f>povpovv rrjv aKpav, rjKovoapLev eyvoj- 
fjiev Se /cat tov *IopL7]VLav 2 ov tov peXrlarov davdrov 
TvypvTa ev9vs oltto ttjs SiKrjs ttjs nepl avrov yevo- 
[JLevrjs, TopylSov rrdvra rots* <f>vydoi Sevpo Sta, 
B ypajjL/JLdrcxJV e^ayyeiXavTOS . wore crot AetVerat rd 
rrepl ttjv KadoSov avrrjv 3 tcov (f)i\a>v /cat ttjv 
dXojOLV tcov rvpdvvcov hirjyelodai. 

2. — Kat iX7]v eKeivais ye tolls rjpbepais, a> 'Ap^e- 
Safxe, Trdvres ol tcov npaTTopievcov pueTeyovTes elco- 
Oeipuev els rrjv TitpbpiLov ovvtovres ot/ctav e/c twos 
7rXr]yrjs Trepl to oKeXos dvaXafifidvovTOs clvtov ev- 
Tvyxdvetv piev aAA^Aoi? el tov Serjoeie, (fyavepcos 
Se hiciTpifieiv errl Xoyois /cat <f)iXooo<f>ia, rroXXaKis 
ecfyeXKopievoi tov 'Ap^tav /cat tov AeovTtdSrjv els 

TO dvVTTOTTTOVy OVK OVTCLS dXXoTpLOVS TTaVTaTTOLGl 
C TTJS TOtaVTTjS SiCLTpiPrjS. KOL ydp 6 TiipLpLLOLS TToXvV 

Xpdvov errl ttjs £evr)s yeyovcos /cat TrerrXav^pievos 
ev dXXo8ct7Tois dv9pd)7Tots oXiyco rrpoodev els 
Qrjfias dcf)LKTO pojOcov re 4 TravToSarrcov /cat Xoycov 

1 AvaavoptSav] Ziegler reads the form AvaavhpiSas in the 
Life of Pelopidas, chap. xiii. 3 (284 d), following Wade-Gery 
(in Classical Quarterly, xxi, 1927, p. 159, note 4), who com- 

378 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 576 

the use of force, reached us here, a as we had opened 
our homes to Melon and Pelopidas, as you know, and 
for the duration of their exile were constantly in 
their company. Again, we have heard that although 
the Lacedaemonians fined Phoebidas for seizing the 
Cadmeia and relieved him of the command against 
Olynthus, 6 they nevertheless sent in his place Lysano- 
ridas with two others c and strengthened the garrison 
in the citadel ; we have also learned that Hismenias, 
immediately after his trial, met death not in its 
noblest form ; all this Gorgidas reported in letters 
to the exiles here. So all that remains for you to 
tell is the story how your friends returned and over- 
threw the tyrants.** 

2. — In those days, Archedamus, all who were in 
the plot used to forgather at the house of Simmias, 
who was recovering from a wound in the leg. Our real 
purpose was to see each other as the need arose, but 
ostensibly we met for philosophical discussion ; often, 
to avoid suspicion, we brought Archias and Leontiades 
along, who were not entire strangers to such pursuits. 
Indeed, after a long stay abroad and much travel 
among strange peoples, Simmias had but recently 
returned to Thebes with a great store of all manner 

° At Athens. 

b The army sent against Olynthus had seized the Cadmeia 
on the way. 

c That is, Arcesus and Herippidas : cf. 598 f, infra, 

d The oligarchic usurpers in Thebes are meant : Leon- 
tiades, Archias, Philippus, and Hypates. 

pares Theopompus, Frag. 240 (Die Frag. d. gr. Hist., Zweiter 
Teil, pp. 587 f. Jacoby). 

2 'lofjLTjvlav nos (cf. the note on the text of Mor. 606 f) : 
lofjLTjvtav and so passim and in all related words. 

3 avrrjv Reiske : avrwv. 4 re Diibner : 8e. 

379 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(576) papfiapLKcov vrrorrXecos' cov 1 orrore rvyydvoL ayo\r)v 
dycov 6 'Apneas' rjSecos rjKpodro uvyKadiels 2 fiera 
tcov vecov koll ftovAopievos rjjJL&s iv XoyoLS Sudyeiv 
fJL&AAov rj TTpooeyjz.iv tov vovv ols errparrov eVeivot. 

Trjs Se rjfjiepas eKelvrjs iv fj gkotovs e'Set yevo- 
jxevov tovs cfyvydSas t]K€lv Kpvcfia rrpos to relyos 
a(f)iKV€LTai tls ivOevSe QepeviKov* rrepafjavTOS av- 
dpcorros ovSevl tcov nap rjplv r) Xapam 4 yvcopLfios' 
iSrjXov Se tcov cf>vyd8cov ovtols ScoSefca tovs veto- 
rdrovs puerd kvvcov rrepl tov J^tdatpcova OrjpevoaL, 
D cos rrpos iorrepav dcpL^opbivovs 5 ' olvtos Se rrepLcfydrjvaL 
TavTci re rrpoepcov kcxl tt)v olklolv iv fj KpvfirjoovTai 
rrapeXOovres os Trape^ei yvcooopuevos, cbs dv elSores 
evOvs e/cet fiahl^oiev . drropovpiivcov Se rjpucov koll 
okottovvtcov olvtos cbpLoXoyrjoev 6 Xapaw Trape^eiv. 
6 [xev ovv dvOpcoTTos eyvco ttoXlv drreXdelv orrovSfj 
rrpos tovs cf>vydSas. 

3. 'Ejtxou Se 6 [xdvris QeoKptros rrjv X € W a TTiiaas 
ocf>68pa koll rrpos tov Xapcova fiXiifjas rrpoepyp- 

fl€VOV, " OVTOS," €L7T€V, * CO K.0L<f)LOLa, cf>L\oGO(f)OS 

ovk eoTLV ouSe /xeretA^^e rraL&eLas SLacpopov /cat 

- rrepLTTrjs, coorrep ^rrapb€LVcov8as 6 ads dSeXcpos' 

E aAA' opas otl cf)vo€L rrpos to kolXov vrrd tcov vojjlcov 

dyojjievos tov pueyLOTOv vrrohveraL klvSvvov €Kovglcos 

urrep rrjs rraTpLhos. ^ErrapLeLVcovSas Se, Bolcotcov 

1 u7ro7rA€aj?- cov Wyttenbach : vttottXccos cov. 

2 ovyKadizls] avyKadels B. 

3 <I)€p€viKov Stephanus : (f>epeveLKov and so 577 a, infra, 

4 tcov Trap* rjfjuv r) Xapcovt Benseler : 77 ^a/)ajvt tcov imp* r]puv. 

5 atf>i£opLevovs Reiske : a^t/coaeVous". 

a A Theban exile at Athens : cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap, 
v. 3 (280 c) and chap. viii. 1 (281 c). 

6 A mountain ridge between Attica and Boeotia. 

380 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 576 

of foreign legends and information ; to this Archias 
delighted to listen in his leisure moments, mingling 
affably with the youthful company and preferring 
that we should spend our time in talk rather than 
attend to what he and his party were doing. 

On the day when the exiles were to come secretly 
to the walls after dark, a messenger from Pherenicus, a 
known to none of us except Charon, arrived from here 
with word that the youngest exiles, twelve in number, 
had taken hounds and gone out to hunt on Cithaeron, & 
intending to reach Thebes that evening c ; he had 
been sent, he said, to give notice of this and to learn 
who would provide a house for their concealment 
when they slipped into the city, so that with this 
information they could proceed to it at once. In the 
midst of our hesitation and perplexity, Charon offered 
to provide his own housed The messenger, then, 
determined to rejoin the exiles with all speed. 

3. Grasping my hand firmly, with his eyes on 
Charon, who was going on before, e Theocritus f the 
soothsayer said: " This man, Caphisias, is no philo- 
sopher, nor has he, like your brother Epameinondas, 
had any schooling of a distinguished and exceptional 
kind ; yet you observe that he is naturally guided 
to noble conduct by the laws, and willingly assumes 
the gravest risks for his country's sake. Whereas 

c Cf. Nepos, Pelopidas, chap. ii. 5. Xenophon, Hell. v. 
4. 3, sets the number at seven. 

d Cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap. vii. 4 (281 b). 

e We are not told where the messenger found the con- 
spirators ; no doubt it was at Charon's house, as Charon 
alone was known to him. At all events the conspirators now 
leave and meet Archias and his party on the way ; they then 
proceed to Simmias' house. Cf. G. M. Lattanzi, II " De 
genio Socratis " di Plutarco, p. 19 note 4. 

' Mentioned in the Life of Pelopidas, chap. xxii. 3 (289 c). 

381 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(576) a7T(ivTa>v rep 7r€7Tai$€vodai 77/309 dperrjv d£ia)V 
8ia(f)epeLy, afifiAvs ion kolI aTrpoQvjJLOs . . . tovtov 
7] rtva 1 fieXriova Kaipov avra> 2 7T€<f>VKOTi koX 
TrapeaKevaopbevcQ KaXcos ovtoj xP 7 ] a ^r l€V0S ' >> 
F Kayco npos avrov, " a> TTpodvpLorare,^ elrrov, 
" QeoKptre, la SeSoy/xeVa TrpaTTopuev r) peels' 'E7ra- 
p,€iva)v8as 8e, pL7] TreiOojVy d>s olerai fieXrtov etvat, 
ravra per) TTpdooeiv, €lk6tojs dvTireLvei 77009 a firj 
7T€<f)VK€ pL7]8e 8oKipidl ) €i rrapaKaXovpievos . ov8e yap 
larpov dvev oi8ripov koX nvpos vmoxvovpievov to 
voawpLCL TTdvcreLV evyvojpLovolrjs dv, otpbou, refiveuv 
rj diroKaUiv ftia^opLevos to vooovv." €K€lvov S' 
opLoXoyrjoavros , 3 " ovkovv Kal ovtos," ecfrrjv iyd), 
avros /zev 4 8rj7Tov pirjSeva 5 twv ttoXitcjv (f>r)OLV 
dvev pLeydXrfs dvdyKrjs aTTOKTevelv 6 aKpirov, dXXd 
kclI ai/xaros" arep 7 ipLcfrvXtov /cat o(f>ayrjs ttjv ttoXlv 
iXevOepovoi ovvayojvitlodai TrpodvpLcos. iirel 8e 
ov TretOei tovs ttoXXovs, dXXd tclvttjv coo/xry/ca/zev 
ttjv 686v, iav avrov KeXevei, cf)6vov KaOapov ovra 
577 f<al dvairiov, ecfreordvai roZs Kaipols, /xera rod 

1 There is here a lacuna of 60-56 letters followed by tovtov 
-rj Tiva. Emperius reads tooovtov ayoova Tiva ; van Herwerden 
ev to) irapoVTi fiorjOelv tols vrrep Qrjfioov KLvSvvevovoLV, ojs Aa/?a>v 
tovtov S77 Tiva ; Bern, porjdelv tols vrrep ttjs TroXeojs KLvBvvevov- 
olv, at? el iiT] irapa tovtov napa Tiva ; Holwerda cos 7Tpos tovtov 
877 riva ; Wyttenbach et fir) els tovtov, els Tiva. 

2 aurco] avToo Pohlenz. 

3 to aojjLta (vooovv nos). eKeivov 8' opLoXoyrjoavTOs Bern., 
to fill a lacuna of 40-32 letters ; to Tre-novdos Wyttenbach. 

4 e(j>r)v eyco, olvtos fiev Bern., to fill a lacuna of 20-19 letters ; 
Xoytp /cat TreiQol tclvtcl hiaTTpaTTeodai hiavoovfievos t /cat boKifid^oov 
Wyttenbach ; ovyyvoofjLTjs d£ios Pohlenz. 

5 fx-qSeva Wyttenbach : {xrjSe Sta. 

382 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 576-577 

Epameinondas, who feels that by reason of his 
schooling he is superior in virtue to all other Boeotians, 
is not keen or eager a to help the men who are braving 
danger for their country. Yet what better occasion 
can he desire than this for putting himself to use, 
splendidly equipped as he is by nature and training ? " 
I replied : " We, my eager friend, are carrying out 
our own decisions, whereas Epameinondas has been 
unsuccessful in his endeavour to persuade us to drop 
them, as he believes would be for the best. It is 
hardly surprising, then, that he refuses our invitation 
to proceedings that run counter to his nature and 
his judgement. Suppose a physician promised to 
cure a disease without recourse to the knife or 
cautery : here too it would be unreasonable of you, 
I think, to compel him to cut or sear the diseased 
member." Theocritus admitted this was true, and 
I pursued : " And is not Epameinondas in the same 
case ? He asserts, does he not ? that unless driven 
to it by extreme necessity, he will put no countryman 
to death untried, but will gladly join forces with all 
who endeavour without resorting to civil bloodshed 
and slaughter to set our city free. b But since the 
majority are against him, and we are already engaged 
in this course, he would have us allow him to await 
the favourable moment for intervention, remaining 
innocent and guiltless of bloodshed. Thus interest 

° There is a long lacuna in the text here ; we translate 
a conjectural supplement. 

b In the Greek text rendered by these three sentences are 
three considerable lacunas. The translation is conjectural. 

6 <f>r]Giv dvev jjueydX-qs dvdyKrjs diroKrevelv Bern., to fill a 
lacuna of 51-39 letters. 

7 /cat alfiaros drep (or /cat ^a>pt? at/xaros) nos (/cat rols hix 
at/xaro? or hi\ at/xaro? Post) : /cat alfMaros. 

383 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(577) hiKalov Kal rco ovp,<f)€povTi irpoaoiaopievov . ov8e 
yap opov e^ecv 1 to epyov, dXXd QepeviKov pcev locos 
Kal TleXoiTLoav iirl rovs alriovs pbdXiora rpei/jeadai 
Kal 7Tovr]povs, YiVpLoXirihav 8k Kal Sa/xi'Sav, 2 dvOptb- 
rrovs hiairvpovs TTpos dpyrjv Kal Ovjxoeihels, iv 
vvktI Xafiovras e^ovoiav ovk a7ro9rjG€o6aL rd ^i(/>rj 
irplv ifJLTrXrJGai rrjv ttoXlv oXrjv cj>6va)v Kal oiacfrOelpai 
ttoXXovs rtbv ioia 8ia<f)6pa)v ovtojv." 3 

4. Tavrd \xov oiaXeyopievov irpos rov QeoKpirov 
oiaicpovajv* 6 Y aXa£i8 a) pos 5 iyyvs 'Ap^tav yjyyeiXev* 
Kal Avaavopioav rov HrrapTidrriv and rrjs KaS/xeta? 
B tboTTep els ravrov r)pXv anevSovras. rjpLels p>ev 
ovv €7T€oxo[A€V' 6 8' ' Apx^S KaXecras rov QeoKpirov 
Kal rep Avoavopi8a irpoaayaythv I8ca AaAet 7 ttoXvv 
Xpovov eKvevaas €K 8 rrjs 68ov puKpov vtto to "ApLcfrtov, 
wad' rjpL&s dyojvidv paq ris virovoia TTpooTTeirrajKev 
rj parjvvoLS avrols, rrepi rjs avaKpivovui rov Qeo- 
Kpirov. 

'Ev rovrco 8e <&vXXi8as, ov otadas, 9 co 'Ap^eSa/xe, 
Tore rols 7T€pl rov 'Ap^tav rroXepLapxovoi ypap,- 
puarevajv, 10 crvvei8ths rovs (f>vyd8as pieXXovras 11 
rj£eiv Kal rrjs rrpd^eajs pierexojv, XafSoptevos p<ov 

1 e^euv Xylander : e^ci. 

2 £a/xt'8av Reiske : Gajjud&av. 

3 oia<f>6pa)v ovtcov Cobet : oia<j>ep6vTa>v. 

4 SiOLKpovajv nos (oUKpovvev or oi€Kpov€V Bern.) : olo.kovcov. 

5 Ta\a£iba)pos Salmasius : ava&ocopos. 

6 'Apxtav rjyyetXev nos (yap 'Ap^iav ecopa Bern. ; yap 'Ap^iav 
ISetfc Wilamowitz) : yap followed by a lacuna of 15-16 
letters. 7 AaAet] SteAaAet Wilamowitz. 

8 €K nos, to fill a lacuna of 2 letters in E : B omits, leaving 
no lacuna. 9 oladas] olada Aid. 2 . 

10 ypajjipLarevcov] ypafjufxarevovra Wilamowitz. 

384 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 577 

as well as justice will be served. For, he contends, 
no distinction will be drawn in the actual fighting ; 
Pherenicus perhaps and Pelopidas will turn their 
arms against those most deep in guilt and crime, but 
Eumolpidas and Samidas, a men white-hot in anger 
and passionate in temper, once they get a free hand 
in the night, will not lay their swords aside until 
they have rilled the entire city with slaughter and 
destroyed many of their personal enemies/' 

4. As I was thus conversing with Theocritus 
Galaxidorus b interrupted us to announce that 
Archias and Lysanoridas the Spartan were close at 
hand, hastening from the Cadmeia as if bent on 
meeting us. We, then, broke off; and Archias, 
summoning Theocritus and taking him to Lysanoridas, 
talked privately for a long time, withdrawing a short 
distance from the street to the foot of the Amphion, c 
so that we were in an agony of fear that some sus- 
picion or intelligence had reached them and they 
were interrogating Theocritus about it. 

Meanwhile Phyllidas d — you know the man, Arche- 
damus — at that time secretary to Archias and the 
other polemarchs, 6 who was in the secret of the exiles' 
intended return and one of the conspiracy, took my 

° The correct form is possibly Samiadas. 

b Mentioned in Xenophon, Hell. iii. 5. 1. 

c The Amphion or Ampheion was taken by Plutarch to 
be a hill in the neighbourhood of the Cadmeia : cf. F. Schober 
in Pauly-Wissowa, s.v. " Thebai " (vol. v. A, col. 1446. 34-62). 

d Cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap. vii. 4 (281 b) ; Xenophon, 
Hell. v. 4.2. 

e There were probably three polemarchs. The names of 
two, Archias and Philippus, are known. 

11 avvei&ws rovs (frvydbas {xeWovras Wilamowitz (avveihws 
Schadewaldt) to fill a lacuna of 23-19 letters. 

vol. vii o 385 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(577) rfjs X €L P°s &OTT€p elwOec (fxxvepcjs ecrKcoTrrev ets" ra 

yvpvdoia koll ttjv ttolXtjv, etra, rroppa) ra>v aXAcov 

arrayayayv , eTrvvOdvero rrepl ra>v <f)vyd8a>v el rr)v 

C rjjjiepav (f)vXdrrovoLV. e/xou 8e (fyrjaavros , " ovkovv," 

€L7T€V, <l OpdcOS iytb TTJV VTToSoX^ 7Tap€OK€VCLKa 

arffjiepov cos 8e^6p€Vos 'Ap^tav Kal rrape^ajv iv 
oivco Kal fJL€0r) tols dv8pdacv evye'ip a)TOV " 

' "Apiara puiv ovv," etrrov, " co (DuAAi'Sa, Kal 
7T€Lpddr)TL rrdvras r] 1 TrXeLovs els ravro tcjv i^Opcov 
ovvayayelv." 

'AAA' ov pdoiov," €(j)r], " p&XXov 8e dSvvarov 

6 yap 'Ap^ta? iXrrL^ojv tlvol tcov iv a^tco/xart yv- 

vaiKtov dc/tL^eadaL rrjviKavra rrpos avrov, ov j8ou- 

Aerax rrapelvai rov AeovTidSrjv. wad* vpZv 2 St^a 

Statpereov avrovs 3 irrl rds oi/aas" 'Ap^tou yap 

D dpa Kal AeovTid8ov TrpoKaraXr](j>9evTOJV olpai tovs 

aXXovs €K7to$(jl>v eoeodai cfrevyovras r) fieveZv* [xeO* 

r)av)(ias y dyarrcovrag av ns 8i8a> rrjv docfrdXe lav." 

Ovtws/' etfrw* " irovrjaofjusvi dXXd ri irpaypa 

tovtois rrpos QeoKpirov iortv vrrep ov 8 taXey 'OVT at ;" 

Kat 6 OvXXl8as, " ov 0"a<^a>s , / , elrrev, " e^a> Ae- 

yeiv 5 ov8e ojs imordpLevos , tJkovov 8e orjpeZa Kal 

pavrevpara 8vcr)(€p'Y] Kal ^aA67ra TrporeOeoTTLoOai,* 

TTj luTTapTTj. 

. . , 7 OetSoAaos 6 * AXidprios* aTTavrrjaas, " pu- 

1 ??] T] tovs ye Wilamowitz. 2 vp.lv] ij/xtv B. 

3 avrovs] avrovs B. 4 fxeveiv Stephanus : piiveiv. 

5 fyo) Xeyav added by Pohlenz (exco ctVetv Wyttenbach). 

6 tt pored eoTTiaOai Emperius : TTpoorLdeodai. 

7 There is a lacuna in the mss. here of 99-81 letters ; 
Amyot supplies eV tovtcq hk rod QeoKptrov rrpos rjiids iiraveXOov- 

TOS» 

8 f AAtaprto? Amyot : tZos. 
386 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 577 

hand and made a show of twitting me in his usual 
fashion about my fondness for exercise and wrestling ; 
then, when he had drawn me aside from the rest, he 
asked if the exiles were keeping to the appointed 
day. When I answered that they were, he said : 
" I did well, then, to prepare for to-day the entertain- 
ment in which I am to receive Archias into my house 
and make him an easy prey for our men at a drunken 
banquet/ ' 

" Well done indeed, Phyllidas," I answered ; " and 
endeavour to bring all or most of our enemies to- 
gether." 

" That is no easy matter," he said ; " or rather it 
is impossible, as Archias, who expects a visit at that 
very time from a certain lady of rank, does not desire 
Leontiades to be present. You must therefore split 
forces and take the houses separately ; for with 
Archias and Leontiades both disposed of I imagine 
the rest will take to flight and be out of the way, or 
make no trouble if they remain, only too glad to be 
offered safety." 

" That we will do," I said. " But what business 
have these men with Theocritus that they are talking 
about ? " 

Phyllidas answered : " I cannot tell you definitely 
and do not speak from knowledge, but I have heard 
that disquieting and ominous portents and prophecies 
bode ill for Sparta." 

Meantime Theocritus rejoined us and we proceeded 
to Simmias' house, where a we were met by Pheido- 
laiis b of Haliartus. " Simmias," he said, " asks you 

° The words " Meantime . . . where " are a guess at the 
sense of words that have been 1 ost in a long lacuna. 
b Otherwise unknown. 

387 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(577) KpOV," €L7T€V, " VfJL&S €VTCLv6a 7T€p6/X€tVat 1 77apa- 

KaXel 2 St/x/xtas" evrvyyjivei ydp ISiq, AeovridSrf 

7T€pi AjJL<f)i8€OV, 7TapaiTOVpL€VOS fl€LVOLL TO* §60,- 

E irpd^aodai c/)vyrjv dyrl Oavdrov too dvdpooTrop." 

5. J\cu o KveoKpLTOS, €t£ Koupov, ecprj , /cat 

COGTTep €TrLT7]8€S* KOLL ydp €J3ovA6fJL7]V TTvOeodoLL TLVa 

rjv rd evpedevra /cat ris oXoos rj oi/jls rod 'AAKfirjvrjs 
rd(/)ov Trap* vpuv dvot^devros, €t Srj 5 Trapeyevov 
/cat avros ore Trepufjas 'AyrjouXaos els YiTrdprrjv rd 
Xeti/java fieTeKOjJul^e." 

Kat 6 <$>€i86Xaos, " ov ydp, }> €(f>r], " irapirvyov > 
/cat 77oAAa Svaavaax^rcov /cat dyavaKroov Trpos rovs 
ttoXltols iyKareXeicfydrjv vtt* clvtoov. evpedrj §' ovv 
iv fJLev too fjLvrjpLaTL 7tXtjv XlOov Xeiifjavov ovSev rod 6 
F awpLaTOS, i/jeXXiov Se 7 ^aA/cow ov fieya /cat Svo 
dpL(f>op€LS KepapueoL 8 yfjv exovres ivros vtto xpovov 
XeXidcofJLevrjv rjSr] /cat ovpL7Te7T7]yvtav y epbrrpooOev 
e rov fJLvrjjjLaTOS €K€lto mvag ^aA/cous* ^X Cx)V 
ypdfJLjJLara 7roAAa dav/jLaord 12 obs 7rafjLTrdXaia * yvoovai 
ydp i£ clvtoov 13 ovSev 1 * rrapelx^ Kairrep eK(j>avevTa 
rod ^aA/cou KaraTrXvdevTOS , dAA' ISlos tls 6 tvttos 

1 7T€piyielvai Leonicus (/ccAeuei rrcot/ieivai Reiske) : rrcpiiict- 
vaai. 2 7rapaKa\€t added by Klaffenbach. 

3 t8ta AeovriSrj Reiske : Sid AcovrtS^r. 

4 peivai to] auTov Sieveking ; evelvai ro Post. 

5 et 817 Leonicus : 17S77. 

6 eV /Ltev through tou our supplement of a lacuna of 37-33 
letters ; Aetifiavov ixkv ovSev rov or 7rXrjV rj Afflos Aeliftavov ovSev rod 
Castiglioni ; Ai'0os dvrl rod Wilamowitz. 

7 Sc] t€ Emperius. 

8 dfjL(j)op€LS Kepafieol Bern. : dp,<f)op€€s K€pd(j,€ioi. 

9 epLTTpoodev Se nos (eVdvo; Se Bern.), to fill a lacuna of 15-14 
letters. 

388 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 577 

to await him here a moment ; he is conferring in 
private with Leontiades about Amphitheiis, a en- 
treating him to wait until he can arrange for a sen- 
tence of banishment instead of death.' * 

5. " You come most opportunely and as if by 
design," said Theocritus. " I had been desiring to 
hear what objects were found and what was the 
general appearance of Alcmena's tomb when it was 
opened up in your country — that is, if you were 
present when the remains were removed to Sparta 
on orders received from Agesilaiis." b 

" I was not present," Pheidolaiis replied ; " and 
although I expressed to my countrymen my strong 
indignation and exasperation at the outrage, they 
left me helpless. Be that as it may, in the tomb 
itself no remains were found, but only a stone, c 
together with a bronze bracelet of no great size and 
two pottery urns containing earth which had by 
then, through the passage of time, become a petrified 
and solid mass. Before the tomb, however, lay a 
bronze tablet with a long inscription of such amazing 
antiquity that nothing could be made of it, although 
it came out clear when the bronze was washed ; but 

a A leader of the anti-Spartan party, now in prison : cf. 
598 b, infra. 

b This act is elsewhere unrecorded. 

c For the disappearance of Alcmena's body at her burial 
and the substitution for it of a stone cf Life of Romulus, chap, 
xxviii. 7 (35 e) ; Pherecydes, Frag. 84 (ed. Jacoby) ; and 
Pausanias, ix. 16. 7. 

10 €K€lto Reiske, to fill a lacuna of 9-8 letters. 

11 xaA/cous Bern. : ^aA/ccos". 

12 davfjuaora] davfiaaTov Bern. 

13 avT&v Sieveking : avrwv. 

14 Qvhsv Leonicus : ovhe. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(577) /cat fiapfiapiKos tcov x a P aKT7 lP OJV epufepeoraTos 
AlyvTTTiois- Sto /cat 'Ayr]oiXaos, 009 ec/xxcrav, 
i^errepafjev avriypa^a 1 too jSaatAet Seojxevos Set£at 
toZs lepevviv el ^vvrjaovaiv . aAAa rrepl tovtoov 
[lev taoog dv e^ot tl /cat HipLpcias rjpZv dVayyctAat, 
578 /car' eKeZvov tov xpovov iv AlyvTrrop iroXXd toZs 
lepevGi Sta (f>iXoao(^iav ovyyevopievos. * AXiaprioi 
Se ttjv pbeydXrjv d<f>opiav /cat ttjv eTTL^aacv rrjs 
XcfMvrjg ovk oltto TavTopLOLTOV 2 yeveadou vopbi^ovaiv, 
aAAa, pa/jvipua tov rdcf)ov tovto irepieXSeZv dvao)(o- 
pievovs opVTTopievov." 

Kat 6 QeoKpiros, puKpov hiaXiiroov y " aAA' ov8k 
avrols" €(f>rj, " AcLKeSoupLovioLS dprqviTOV eot/cev 
etvat to SaipLoviov , obs TrpoheiKwai ra ar)p,eZa rrepl 
oov dpTL Avoavopihas rjpuv ihcoivovro' /cat vvv piv 

a7T€lCriV €LS *AXlapTOV €7TLXOOOOOV CLvdlS TO GTJpia 

B /cat x oa S TTOiiqoopLevos 'AXKpLTJvrj kcll 'AAea) 3 /cara 
8t^ rtva xpo^a/xoV, dyvooov tov* "AAeov ogtls rjv 
erraveXOoov Se eKeZdev olos £oti tov AlpKrjg dva^rj- 
TeZv Tacf)ov, dyvoooTov ovtol toZs Qrjfiaiois 7rXr)v tcov 
LTTTrapxrjKOTOov. 6 yap drraXXaTTopLevos tov rrapa- 
XapifidvovTa ttjv dpxrjv puovos dyoov puovov e'Set^e 

1 avriypa<j>a Reiske : avriypa^as. 

2 airo Tavrofidrov B : aTrauTO/xarou E. 

3 'AAcoj Diibner : dXcov. 

4 tov B : to E. 

° The king of Egypt is meant, doubtless Nektanebis, 
whose reign began about 380 (cf. M . Pieper in Pauly-Wissowa, 
xvi, col. 2234< ; Beloch, Griech. Gesch, iii. 2 t pp. 123 f.). On 

390 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 577-578 

the characters had a peculiar and foreign conforma- 
tion, greatly resembling that of Egyptian writing. 
Agesilaiis accordingly, it was said, dispatched copies 
to the king, a with the request to submit them to the 
priests for possible interpretation. But about these 
matters Simmias might perhaps have something to 
tell us, as at that time he saw a good deal of the 
priests in Egypt in the pursuit of his philosophical 
inquiries. At Haliartus the great failure of crops and 
encroachment of the lake b are held to have been 
no mere accident, but a judgement on us for having 
allowed the excavation of the tomb.'* 

After a short pause Theocritus replied : " No more 
do the Lacedaemonians themselves appear to have 
escaped the wrath of heaven, as is evinced by the 
portents about which Lysanoridas was consulting 
me just now ; indeed he is now leaving for Haliartus 
to close up the tomb and pour libations to Alcmena 
and Aleiis, in obedience to some oracle — though 
quite in the dark as to who this Aleiis was — ; and 
on his return he intends to search out the tomb of 
Dirce, which is unknown to any Theban who has not 
served as hipparch. For the retiring hipparch takes 
his successor and shows him the tomb in private and 

his visit to Egypt Eudoxus carried a letter of introduc- 
tion from Agesilaiis to Nektanebis (cf. Diogenes Laert. 
viii. 87). 

b These events are not recorded elsewhere. In modern 
times the Copaic lake reached its greatest height in February 
or March (cf. J. G. Frazer, Pausanias's Description of Greece, 
v, p. 1 12). This would be at the latest in the opening months 
of 379, as the Cadmeia was freed in the December of that 
year. 

c The people of Haliartus identified Aleiis with Rhada- 
manthys, whom Alcmena married after Amphitryon's death ; 
cf. Life of Lysander, chap, xxviii. 8 (499 d). 

391 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(578) vvKTtop, /cat nvas 1 err' avTto Spdaavres drrvpovs 2 
Upovpyias, a)v ra ar^eta ovyyeovai Kal d(f>avi- 
£,ovaiv, vrro a kotos aTrepxovrai yoopiodivTts. eycu 
Se ro z [lev, c5 OetSoAae, a7rouSa£etv ovtoj rrepl 
Ttbv Upovpytcov eTTaivo), tov Se rod rdcf)ov tottov 
ovk evKoXojs* i^evprjoetv avrovs vofxi^oj' cfrevyovoL 
yap ol rrXe Zotol tcov LTTTrapx'rjKOTOJV vofxtfJLOJS, [A&X- 
C Xov Se TTOLvres ttXtjv Yopyihov Kal TlXdrojvos , cSv 
ouS' av €7Tix€Lprjcr€Lav eKTrvvOdveodai, SeStores" 
rovs dvopas' 06 Se vvv dpxovres iv rij KaS/xeta to 
86pv Kal ttjv o<f)payloa irapaXapi^dvovoiv ovk 5 
etSores* ouSev oiire rrepl rcov Spcjofxevcov ovre rod 

TCMpOV. 

6. Taura rod QeoKpirov Xeyovros 6 AeovTidorjs 
e'^rjet fJLerd rcov (j)iXa)Vy rjfJLtLS Se eloeXdovres r}a7ra£o- 
/xe#a tov Hi/jLfjLiav irrl rrjs kXlvtjs Kade^ofievov ov 
KaraT€T€Vx6ra rrjs SerjoetDS, ol/jlcli, fidXa avvvovv 
koX 8iaXeXv7rr]iievov' arro^Xeijjas Se rrpos arravras 
D rjfJL&S, " to 'Hpa/cAetsV elrrev, " aypltov /cat /Jap- 
fSdpcov fjdcov etra oi>x vrrepev QaXr}s 6 rraXaios, 
arro £evr]s eXOcov Sta XP° V0V > T ^ )V 4 > ^ a>v epwrwv- 

TOJV 6 TL KaiVOTCLTOV LOTOpifjKOl, ' TVpaVVOV,' €(f)Tj , 

1 yepovra '; /cat yap a> fxrjSev tSta avfi^e^rjKev 
aSt/ceta#at, to fidpos avro Kal rrjv oKXrjpor'qTa 

1 TLVaS Aid. 2 : TLV€S* 

2 arrvpovs Leonicus : a-neipovs. 

3 to nos (to fivrjfxa Bern. ; tovto Pohlenz) : t followed by 
a lacuna of a single letter. 

4 erraiva) to ovtoj crnovha^eiv irepX tojv Upovpyicov (we read 

OTTOvhd^lV OVTOJ TTCpl TO)V UpOVpyiO)V e7T(HVcD), TOV Se TOV TOl<f)OV 

392 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 578 

at night ; and upon performing certain rites there 
in which no fire is used, they rub out and destroy all 
trace of them and return their separate ways in 
the darkness. Now I commend our opponents' zeal, 
Pheidolaiis, for the performance of the rites, but they 
will not, I think, find it easy to discover the place of 
the tomb, as most of those who have legally held the 
office of hipparch are in exile, or rather all of them 
except Gorgidas and Platon a — and from these they 
would not even attempt to secure the information, 
so greatly do they fear them — whereas the present 
magistrates on the Cadmeia take over the spear and 
the seal in utter ignorance of both the ritual and the 
tomb." 

6. While Theocritus spoke Leontiades and his 
friends left. We entered and greeted Simmias, who 
was sitting up on his couch, very downcast and dis- 
tressed, doubtless because his petition had failed. 
Looking up at all of us, he exclaimed : " Good God ! 
What cruel and barbarous natures ! Was that not a 
most excellent answer of Thales of old, when asked 
by his friends on his return from a long absence abroad 
for the greatest curiosity he had discovered : ' a 
tyrant in old age ' ? b For even if a man happens to 
have endured no personal injury, yet his disgust at 
the offensive and brutal society of such men is in 

a Gorgidas was boeotarch in 379 and founded the Sacred 
Band ; Platon is otherwise unknown. 

6 Cf. Mor. 147 b, Gnomologium Vaticanvm, 321 e (ed. 
Sternbach) and Philodemus, On Death, xxxviii. 29-31. 

tottov ovk €vk6\o)s Pohlenz, to fill a lacuna of 140-114 letters 
followed by /caAcos-. 

5 ovk Wilamowitz : ovre, 

6 TrepL tcjv bpa)fx4va)v ovt€ irepi rod Ta<f>ov Wilamowitz (we 
omit the second 7repi')» to fill a lacuna of 26-20 letters. 

393 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(578) Tr)<s opaXias hva^paivcov i^dpos iari tcov clvo/jlcov 

KCLL aVV7T€v8vVO)V 8waOT€lO)V . dXXd TCLVTa fl€V 

icrcus deep fJLeXrjaei* tov 8e £evov lore tov dfaypievov, 
<L K.a(j)L(jLa, 7rpos vpias ootls Iutiv; " 

Uvk oioa, e<prjv eya>, riva Aeyeis. 
" Kai psTjv" ecfyrj, " AeovridSrjs (frrjcrlv 1 dvdpa)- 
ttov cx)(f)6ai Trapd to AvolSos pLvypLelov €K vvktcov 
E avtardpLevov, aKoXovdias ttXtJOel koll KaravKevfj 
aofiapov, avroOi fcocnpAtcr/xeVov em OTifidoaiv 
fyaiveoQai yap dyvov koX pbvpLK7)s ^a/xeiW? en S* 
epbTTvpeov Xelifjava kolI ^oa? ydXaKTOS* ecodev 8e 
TTwddveodai tcov diravToovTCOv el tovs TloXvpbVios 
TratSas" ivSrjpLovvras evprjaeL." 

Kat tls av, einov, o gevos €ltj; TTepirrcp 
ydp a<£' a>v Xeyeis rivl ko\ ovk ISlcott] TrpooeoiKev." 
7. " Ov ydp ovv," €L7T€V 6 OetSoAaos" " dAAa 
tovtov piev, otclv tJkt) irpos rjpbds y Se^o/xefla- vvvl 
Se VTrep <Lv dprucos rjiTopovpL€v, a> 2tjLt/xta, ypapu- 
p,drojv, €L tl yiva)crK€LS rrXetov, i^dyyeiXov r/fuv 
F Xeyovrat yap ol /car' AlyviTTOV lepzls 2 r<x ypapipuara 
avpifSaXeZv tov TrivaKos a Trap* rjpicov eXafiev 'Ayrj- 
olXaos tov 'AXKpbrjvrjs rd(f>ov dvaoKevaodpbevos." 

Kai o St/x/xta? evdvs dvapLvqodels, " ovk ot8a } " 
€(f>r], " tov TTivaKa tovtov, cS OctSoAae, ypa/x^tara 
Se 77oAAa Trapd 'AyrjoiXdov KopLtl^ojv ' Ay7]Topi8as 

6 H7TapTt,dT7)S ^K€V €& M.€pL(j)W Q)S Y±.OVOV<f>LV TOV 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 578 

itself enough to make him an enemy to lawless and 
irresponsible domination. But these matters Heaven 
will perhaps attend to. Does your family, Caphisias, 
know who the stranger is that has come to see them ?" 

" I do not know whom you mean," I replied. 

" Yet Leontiades," said he, " asserts that a man 
making an imposing figure with a numerous and 
splendid retinue has been seen breaking camp before 
dawn at the tomb of Lysis, where he had lodged on 
rude beds, couches of chaste tree and tamarisk being 
found there — and traces of burnt offerings and liba- 
tions of milk as well — ; and that this morning he had 
asked passers-by whether he should find the sons of 
Polymnis in town." 

" Who indeed could the stranger be ? " I said. 
" From your description he seems to be of some con- 
sequence and not a private person." 

7. " He does indeed," said Pheidolaiis ; " and we 
shall make him welcome when he comes. But at 
present, Simmias, to return to the inscription we were 
wondering about just now, give us what further in- 
formation you may have ; for it is said that the priests 
in Egypt were able to read the inscription which was 
written on the tablet and which Agesilaiis took from 
us at Haliartus when he dismantled Alcmena's tomb." 

Simmias at once recollected : " Of your tablet, 
Pheidolaiis, I know nothing. But Agetoridas a the 
Spartan came to Memphis with a long document from 
Agesilaiis for the spokesman of the god, Chonuphis, & 

a Otherwise unknown. 

b Chonuphis of Memphis taught Eudoxus : cf. Mor. 354 e 
and Clement, Strom, i. 15. 69. 1. 

1 (/>7)olv added by Amyot and Wyttenbach. 
2 Upets Turnebus : tepees. 

395 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(578) 7rpo(/)rjTr]v, to TroXXd rore 1 orvpLcfriXoaoc/yovvTes hierpi- 
fiopuev eyco koI TlXaroov koI 'ILXXottlcov 6 YieTTaprj- 
dios. rjKe 8e Tre papavTOS ^aotXecog kcll KeXevoavTos 
tov Y±6vov(f>iv el tl cru/xj8aAAot tcov yeypapupLevcov 
epp/qvevocxvTCL Ta^ecos arroareiXai' Trpos iavrov 8e 
rpels rjpiepas avaXe£ d/Jievos fiifiXicov tcov ttclXcllcov 
579 iravTohaiTovs xapaKrrjpas dvreypaifje tco ^aaiXeZ 
koX Trpos f)fJLas ecfrpaoev cbs Mowat? dycova ovv- 
TeXeZoOai KeXeveu 2 ra ypoLfJifxara, tovs 8e tvttovs 
elvai rrjs eirl YLpcorel pacnXevovrL ypapLpLCLTLKrjs, 
rjv 3 'HpaAcAea tov 'Afufrirpvcovos* eKpuaBeZv, vcfrr)- 
yeZodcu pcevTOL /cat irapaiveZv toZs "EAA^ai Sia tcov 
ypajjLfJbdrcxJV tov deov dyeiv axoXrjv kcll elprjvrjv Sea 
c/)iXocro(f)ias dycovLC^opLevovs dec, M.ovcfclls kcll Xoyco 
hictKpivopLevovs rrepl tcov Slkollcov tcc 6VAa Aca/ra- 
OevTds. rjfieZs Se teal tot€ Xeyeiv kolXcos rjyovpLeda 

TOV XoVOU^tV, KCLL fJbtiXXoV OTTrjVLKCL KOfJLL^O[JL€VOi9 

rjpuv oV AlyvTTTOV rrepl Kaptav AtjXlcov TLves 
B dTTTjVTrjoav SeopLevoL IlXaTCovos cos yecopueTpLKod 
Aucrat xprjopLov clvtoZs aTOirov vtto tov deov Trpo- 
fiepXrjfjLevov. rjv 8' o 5 -^prjopios ArjXiois kcll toZs 
dXXois "EAA^crt ttclvXclv tcov rrapovTCOv kolkcov 
eoeod ai StirAacrtaaaat 6 tov ev AiqXcp ficopLov. oure 

1 a) ttoXXcl rore Schwartz (irap* conep totc van Herwerden ; 
trap' to Tore Bern.) to fill a lacuna of 9-8 letters followed by 

7TOT6. 

2 avvTcXeZadai KeXeva] KeXevet, avvrcXeladai B. 

3 rjv added by Cobet. 

4 *AfjLcj>LTpvcovos Stephanus : afj,cj>LTpvovos- 

5 S* o van Herwerden : Se. 

6 SurAacriacraox B : 8i7rAac7taai E, 

396 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 578-579 

with whom Plato, Ellopion a of Pepar ethos and I 
had many philosophical discussions in those days. 
He brought orders from the king that Chonuphis 
should translate the writing, if he could make any- 
thing of it, and send the translation to him at 
once. Chonuphis shut himself up for three days, 
conning scripts of all kinds in the ancient books, and 
then wrote his answer to the king, of which he also 
informed us. The document, he said, ordered the 
celebration of a contest in honour of the Muses ; the 
characters had the forms of the script current in 
the time of King Proteus, which Heracles, the son 
of Amphitryon, had learned ; and the god was using 
the inscription to instruct and urge the Greeks to 
live in the enjoyment of leisure and peace by always 
taking philosophy as their field of contention, laying 
their arms aside and settling their disputes about 
right and wrong by an appeal to the Muses and dis- 
cussion. As for ourselves, we felt at the time that 
Chonuphis was right ; we felt so yet more when on 
our return from Egypt a party of Delians met us in 
Caria and requested Plato, as a geometer, to solve a 
problem set them by the god in a strange oracle. The 
oracle was to this effect : the present troubles of the 
Delians and the rest of the Greeks would be at an 
end when they had doubled the altar at Delos. & As 

° Otherwise unknown. 

6 Cf. Mor. 386 e. For the " Delian problem," that of 
constructing a cube with twice the volume of a given cube, 
cf. Theon of Smyrna, p. 2 (ed. Hiller). Cf. also Mor. 718 
e-f ; E. Hiller, Eratosthenis Carminum Rel. pp. 122-137 ; 
M. Cantor, Vorlesungen uber Gesch. d. Math. 3 , vol. i, pp. 211, 
226-234 ; Sir T. Heath, A Hist, of Greek Math. vol. i, pp. 
244-270 ; I. Thomas, Selections Illustrating the Hist, of 
Greek Math. vol. i, pp. 256-308 (in the L.C.L.). 

397 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(579) 8e rrjv hidvoiav €K€lvol avpL^aXXetv Swdpuevoi Kal 
7T€pl rrjv tov ficofiov KaraaKevrjv yeXola Trda^ovres 
(iKdarrjs yap tojv reaadpajv rrXevpcDV St7rAaora£o- 
fjievrjs eXadov rfj av^iqaei tottov arepeov d/cra- 
irXdaiov aTrepyaadpLevoi hi direipiav avaXoyias fj 
C to 1 pb7jK€L SirrXdatov 77ape^€rat) UXdrcova 7-779 

CLTTOpiaS €7T€KaXoVVTO j3o7]96v. 6 §6, TOV AlyVTTTLOV 

puvrjodeisy TTpouTrai^eiv ecfrr) tov deov "EAArycnv 
oXiywpovai TTouoetas, otov e^v^pi^ovra rrjv apbadcav 
fjpbwv Kal KeXevovra yewpLerplas airreodai per) 
7rapepya>s' ov yap tol 2 cfravXrjs ouS' dpu^Xv oiavoias 
opojerrjs, dt<pa)s 8e rds ypapupids fjOKrjpievrjs, epyov 
elvai Kal z hvolv pueawv* dvdXoyov Xfjifjcv, fj piovr) 
8t7rAaaia^€Tat a^?J/xa KvfiiKov awpbaros €K 7rdor)s 
opLoiws avt;6pL€Vov hiaordoeajs. tovto p,ev ovv 
EuSo^ov avrols tov KvlSlov fj tov K.v£,iK7]vov c EAt- 
Kcova 5 ovvTeXeaeiv pcrj tovto 8' otzoOai* xprjvat 
D TToOelv tov deov dXXd TrpooTaooziv "EAA^crt ttoLol, 
rroXepuov Kal KaKo>v pieOepievovs, Mouaai? opuXeZv 
Kal Sia Xoyojv Kal pLaOrjpLaTOJV tol Trddr) /cara- 
TrpavvovTaSy ajSAa/Jeos* Kal axfyeXtpLajs aAA^Aots 1 
ovpLcfrepeaOai." 

8. Mera^u 8e tov HipLpblov XeyovTOS 6 rrai^p 
rjpucov TioXvpuvis 1 iireiGrjXde Kal KaQioas rrapa tov 
2i/xjLuav, u 'E7^a/x€tvcL)vSas'/ , ^V* " KCLL G ^ KaL 

1 rj to nos (rjv to Hartman) : rj tco. 

2 tol] rt E. 

3 Kal] Wyttenbach deletes ; ttjv Holwerda. 

4 il€oojv Leonicus : /ze'erov. 

5 'EAi/ccova Bern. : iXiK&va. 

6 S' oUadcu Reiske : hcioOai. 

7 UoXvfxvLs Kontos and Hatzidakis : ttoXv^vis and so 
passim (iroXviLiLias 585 d ; cf.w TroXv/jLfjLi E and B 1 (?) in 585 b, 
and E in 583 b, infra), 

398 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 579 

they not only were unable to penetrate its meaning, 
but failed absurdly in constructing the altar (for upon 
doubling all four sides they discovered to their 
surprise that in their ignorance of the progression 
from which the linear double a is obtained they had 
produced by this increase a solid eight times as large), 
they called on Plato for help in their difficulty. Plato, 
recalling the Egyptian, replied that the god was 
rallying the Greeks for their neglect of education, 
deriding, as it were, our ignorance and bidding us 
engage in no perfunctory study of geometry ; for no 
ordinary or near-sighted intelligence, but one well 
versed in the subject, was required to find two mean 
proportionals, that being the only way in which a 
body cubical in shape can be doubled with a similar 
increment in all dimensions. This would be done for 
them by Eudoxus of Cnidus or Helicon b of Cyzicus ; 
they were not, however, to suppose that it was this 
the god desired, but rather that he was ordering the 
entire Greek nation to give up war and its miseries 
and cultivate the Muses, and by calming their 
passions through the practice of discussion and study 
of mathematics, so to live with one another that their 
intercourse should be not injurious, but profitable." 

8. While Simmias was speaking my father Polymnis 
entered. Sitting down beside Simmias he said : 
" Epameinondas entreats you and the whole com- 

° The progression is a : x :: x : y :: y : 2a, where a is the 
volume of the given cube, 2a that of its double ; x then is 
the cube root of 2a, and the three ratios are each equal to 

3 _ 
the ratio 1 : <\J i The square root of 2 was called " double 
in power "of 1 ; and a similar expression was doubtless 
used for the cube root of 2. The " linear " double of 1 is 2, 

b Helicon is mentioned in the Life of Dion, chap. xix. 6 
(966 a). 

399 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(579) rovrovg rrapaKaXel Travras, el fjcrj tls do^oAia 
fiel^ojv, evravda Treot/zctvat, j3ovX6pLevos vpuv yvojpi- 
crat tov £evov, dv8pa yevvalov \xev avrov ovtcl, 1 fiera 
8e 2 yevvaias /cat KaXfjs dcf)LyjJievov rfjs irpoaipeoeojs 
diTOOTeiXdvTOJV z e£ 'IraXlas twv UvdayopiKcbv. 
d(/)LKraL 8e AvcflSl tw yepovTi ^oas X^ aa @ aL 7T€ P L 

E tov rd(f>ov e/c tlvojv ivvirvLCov cos (f>r)GL /cat (fyaapbdroov 
ivapycov, ovyyov 8e KOfit^ojv x? vaiov olerai 8elv 
y E / 7Tafji€Lvojv8a rds Avai8 os yr)porpo(f)las drroT tveiv 
/cat TTpoOvpLOTCiTos eoTiv ov Seofxevcov ov8e j8ou- 
Xofievcov rjfJLWV rfj irevia fiorjdelv." 

Kat 6 Hipbpiias rjodels irdvv? " OavpuaoTov ye 
Xeyecs," etTrev, " dv8pa /cat (f)tXooo<f)tas d£tov dXXd 
tls atrta ot rjv ovk evuvs r/zcet 77009 rjptas; 

F ' 'E/cetvov/' e^ 7 ?* " WKrepevaavra nepl tov Ta- 
<f>ov e/xot So/c€t tov Avol8os rjyev , E7ra/zetra>voa9 
irpos tov 'loptrjvov* air oXovo 6 p,ev ov , etr' d<f>it;ovTai 
8evpo irpos rjptds' Trplv 8' evTvyeiv rjpuv evrjvXioaTO 
Ta> Tacjxp 8tavoovptevos dveXeodat Ta Xetipava tov 
owpLCLTOS /cat KOfiL^etv els 'IraAtav, el ptrj tl vvKTOjp 
V7TevavTLQ)deL7) SaijJLoviov .' ' 6 fiev ovv 7TaTrjp tclvt 
elirtbv eoia)7T7]aev. 

9- '0 Se raAa^t8a>/oos', '• cS 'Hod/cAct^/' etTrev, 
" d)s epyov eoTiv evpetv dv8pa KadapevovTa tvc/)ov 
/cat 8etot8atptovtas. ot ptev yap a/covrcs" vtto tcov 
ttolOcov tovtojv dXloKovTai St' duetpiav r) St' d- 
aOevetav, ot 8e, d>s 6eocf>tXets /cat irepiTToi Tives 
elvai 8oKoiev, eTTtdetd^ovot rds" npd^ets, ovetpctTa 

1 ovra Reiske to fill a lacuna of 9-5 letters. 
400 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 579 

pany, unless you have some pressing business, to 
await him here, as he wishes to acquaint you with 
the stranger, a man of generous spirit who has been 
sent on a generous and noble errand by the Pytha- 
goreans in Italy. He comes to offer libations at the 
grave of the aged Lysis, in consequence, he says, 
of certain vivid dreams and apparitions ; and he 
brings with him a large sum of gold, thinking it proper 
to repay Epameinondas for the support of Lysis in 
his old age. This he is very intent on doing, although 
we neither ask nor desire him to relieve our poverty." 

Simmias exclaimed, in great delight, " An admir- 
able man, and worthy of philosophy ! But why does 
he not join us directly ? " 

" As he had, I believe, spent the night at Lysis' 
grave," my father replied, " Epameinondas was first 
taking him to the Hismenus to wash himself clean ; 
they will then join us here. His motive in encamping 
at the tomb before meeting us was to take up the 
remains and remove them to Italy, unless some sign 
from heaven should appear in the night to forbid 
it." With this my father fell silent. 

9. " Good God ! " exclaimed Galaxidorus. " How 
hard it is to find a man untainted with humbug and 
superstition ! Some, through no desire of their own, 
succumb to these disorders from ignorance or weak- 
ness, whereas others, to be reputed the favourites 
of heaven and above the common sort, invest their 
doings with a character of sanctity, hiding what 

2 Sc added here by Turnebus ; after ycvvalas by Xylander. 

3 aTToar€i\dvro)V Wilamowitz (7T€fja/jdvra)v van Herwerden) 
to fill a lacuna of 8-10 letters. 

4 rjadels navv,] ^odeis, Ilavu Stephanus. 

5 ris] rt$ r) B. 

6 lafjLrjvov Basle ed. of 1542 : lafxrjvlav. 

401 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(579) kcll (jxxafiara Kal tolovtov dXXov oyKov 7rpo- 
580 iOTa\xevoi tlov irrl vovv Iovtlov. o ttoXltikoIs jJL€V 
avhpdcri Kal rrpos avdd8r] Kal a/coAaarov o^Aov 
rjvayKacjfJLevoLS tfrjv ovk dy^pr)OTOV locos ccttIv Loarrep 
€K -)(a\ivov rfjs SeiOiSaLfjiovLas Trpos to avpitfrepov 
avT€Tno7raoai Kal pLeTaarfjaai tovs ttoXXovs' cf)iXo- 
aocpia 1 8e ov \lovov eoiKev doxh\ Xj00V ° tolovtos 
elvai cr^/xartcr/xos', 'dXXd Kal rrpos rrjv eTrayyeXiav 
ivavTios, yj, 2 rrav e7TayyeiXa\xlvr\ Xoyco rdyaOov Kal 
to avficpepov SiSdcrKeiv, els deovs erravaxLopel rfjs 
tlov rrpd^eLov apx^js 3 los tov Xoyov Karatjypovovaa, 
Kal ttjv arrohei^LV, fj SoKet Siacfrepeiv, aVt/xacracra 
rrpos \iavTev\xara rpeVerat Kal oveipaTLOv oxfjeis, 
B ev ots 6 (fyavXoraros oi>x rjrrov tlo KaraTvyydvziv 
noXXaKis cf)€peraL rod Kpariarov. 816 Kal ScoAcpa- 
TTjs 6 Vfierepos, lo 2i^/xia, SoKei jjlol cfuXoaocpLOTepov 
yapaKrrjpa TraiSelas Kal Xoyov n e pifiaXeoO 'at / to 
dcf>eXes tovto Kal arrXaaTov cos eXevdepiov Kal 
fidXiara cj>iXov dXrjOeias eXofjuevos, tov 8e rvcfrov, 

LOOTTep TLVCL KaTTVOV <f)lXoOO(f)iaS y €LS TOVS GOcf)LOTaS 

a7TooKe§doas . ' ' 

^TToXafitov 8e 6 QeoKptros, " tl yap," elrrev, " lo 
TaXa^iSoope; Kal ae MeAo^ros' TrerreLKev on 2a>- 
Kpdrrjs virepeLopa rd Beta; tovto yap avTOV Kal 
C irpos 'Afhjvaiovs KaTrjyoprjaev." 

OvSapioos," €(/yq, " I'd ye Oeta* cpaafiaTLov 8e 
feat jJLvOoov Kal 8eicri8ainovLas avdrrXeLO <f>iXooo(j)iav 
lvtto YlvOayopov Kal tlov /xer' avTOV yevopLevrjv Kal 

1 <f>i\ooo<f>Lq Reiske : <£iAocro<£ia?. 

2 rj EB : d margin of Hamburg Aldine. 

3 €7Tavaxo)p€i rrjs . . . d.pxr\s] irrav&)(ci)pdt tolls . . . dpxcus 
Emperius ; cVava^e'pci rds . . . app^as or viravaxcopel rrjs . . . 
dpxrjs Bern. ; eVava^wpet 7T€pl rijs . . . dpxrjs Post. 

402 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 579-580 

occurs to their intelligence behind a pretence of 
dreams and apparitions and the like mummery. For 
men engaged in public affairs and compelled to live 
at the caprice of a self-willed and licentious mob this 
may have its use — to treat the superstition of the 
populace as a bridle , a and thereby pull them back to 
the profitable course and set them right ; but for 
Philosophy such outward seeming appears not only 
unseemly but in open conflict with her claims. Pro- 
fessing to teach the whole of the good and the pro- 
fitable by the sole use of reason, she nevertheless 
withdraws from the government of conduct to take 
refuge with the gods, as if holding reason in contempt, 
and scorning demonstration, where her chief excel- 
lence is supposed to lie, resorts to divination and the 
visions seen in dreams, wherein the least of men is 
often no less rewarded with success than the greatest. 
For this reason, Simmias, I think your friend Socrates 
embraced a manner of teaching and speaking that 
had more of the true philosophic stamp, choosing that 
simplicity and sincerity of his for its manliness and 
great affinity to truth ; as for humbug, the mere 
vapour as it were of philosophy, he sent it flying to 
the sophists.' ' 

11 What is this, Galaxidorus ? " Theocritus broke 
in. " Has Meletus convinced you too that Socrates 
had no use for things divine ? That was the charge 
Meletus brought against him before the Athenians/' 

M Things really divine," he answered, " he by no 
means ignored ; but he took philosophy, left by 
Pythagoras and his company a prey to phantoms, 

a Cf Life of Numa, chap. iv. 12 (62 e). 

4 TTepifiaXiodai Reiske : TrepifiaXKeodai. 

403 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(580) 8rj Kal Trap" 1 'E/XTrcSo/cAeous' Se^a/xevos* €V fidXa 
fiefiaKxeviJLevrjv eWioev toanrep 7rpos ra TTpdypbara 
7T€7Tvvo9ai Kal Xoytp vrj(j)OVTi jJL€Tievai 2 rrjv aArj- 
6eLav. >f 

10. " YXev" €t77€V 6 QeoKpiros' "to Se Satixo- 
vlov } to ^eXriare, to HcoKpdrovs i/jev&os rj ri <f>apiev ; 
ifiol yap ovSev ovtojs fieya rcov irepl Tlvdayo- 
pov \eyojJL€va>v els, pLavTLKrjv eSo^e Kal Oelov d- 
rexytos ydp ol'av 3 "OjU/^po? 'Ohvoaei 7T€noLr)K€ 
ttjv 'KQrjvav ' iv Trdvreaat ttovolol TrapiaTajie- 
vv)Vy Toiavrrjv €olk€ TiOJKpdrei rod fiiov rrpoTTo- 
hrjyov 6^ apxrjs nva avvdipai to Sai/Jboviov oi/jlv, 
rj fJLovr) ol TTpoouev covaa riuei tpaos ev irpa- 
yjjLaaiv dS^Aots" Kal irpos dvdpwTrivrjv davXXoytGTOis 
cfypovrjacv, of? 5 avrto avvecfrdeyyero rroXXaKis to 
SaifJiovLov 67n,#6Ki£ov rals avrov TTpoaipeaeoi. ra 
fiev ovv rrXeiova Kal fxeii^ova Si/x/xtou XPV Kai T ^ )V 
dXXojv €KTrvv9dv€o0ai YiOJKpdrovs iraipojv efiov 
Se TTapovros, ore Trpos ILvOvcfrpova rov \idvriv tjkov, 6 
€tvx€ [lev, to Htfifjita, fjL€fjLvr)Gai ydp, dvto rrpos 
to HvfifloXov HajKpdrrjg Kal rrjv olKtav rrjv *Av- 
SoklSov f}a8i£<x)v dfjia tl Stepwrcov Kal Siaaeuajv 

1 Kal roiV ilct avrov yevofjievrjv Kal br) Kal Trap* our supple- 
ment of a lacuna of 39-29 letters. 

2 /xcrtevat Diibner : yiereivai (i.e. /zeriWi). 

3 olav Bern. : olov. 

4 ol Wilamowitz (y ol ? Bern.) : toi. 
6 ols] iv ols Wyttenbach ; ws ? Post. 
6 fJKov] i^KOfxev Reiske. 

° Of. Homer, Od. x. 494 f. of Teiresias : 

To him alone, though dead, Persephone 

Gave steadfast wit ; the rest are fleeting shades. 

404 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 580 

fables, and superstition, and by Empedocles in a wild 
state of exaltation, and trained her to face reality 
with steadfast understanding^ as it were, and to rely 
on sober reason in the pursuit of truth." 

10. " Very well," said Theocritus ; " but what, my 
dear sir, do we call Socrates' sign ? b An imposture ? 
For my part, nothing reported of Pythagoras' skill 
in divination has struck me as so great or so divine ; 
for exactly as Homer G has represented Athena as 
1 standing at ' Odysseus' ' side in all his labours,' so 
Heaven seems to have attached to Socrates from his 
earliest years as his guide in life a vision of this kind, 
which alone 

Showed him the way, illumining his path d 

in matters dark and inscrutable to human wisdom, 
through the frequent concordance of the sign with 
his own decisions, to which it lent a divine sanction. 
For further and greater instances you must ask 
Simmias and Socrates' other friends ; but I was 
myself present (I had come to visit Euthyphron the 
soothsayer) when Socrates — you recall the incident, 
Simmias — happened to be making the ascent toward 
the Symbolon e and the house of Andocides/ putting 
some question to Euthyphron the while and sounding 

h Daimonion, here rendered " sign " or " sign from 
Heaven," is literally " the divine thing " or (pressing the 
etymology) " the daemonic thing." 

c Od. xiii. 301 (cf. II. x. 279) ; cf. also Apuleius, De Deo 
Socratis, 165 ff. 

d Homer, II. xx. 95 ; cf. Od. xix. 34. 

e Otherwise unknown ; perhaps it was a city square — 
D-shaped to judge by its name ; cf. W, Judeich, Topographie 
von Athen 2 , p. 178. 

* Cf. W. Judeich, ibid. p. 353 ; Life of Alcibiades, chap, 
xxi, 2 (201 f), 

405 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(580) tov Evdvcfrpova fxera 7ratStas" d(j>voj 8e €tti<jtcls 

E Kol GLCOTTTjaaS 1 7TpOG€GX €V OLVTCp 2 CTUyVOV XP° VOV ', 

etr' avaarpei/jas eTropevero rrjv Scot rcov /ctj3o>- 

TOTTOLOJV /Cat TOVS ^pO/CC^O^/COraS" 7]07J TOJV 

iracpajv aVe/caAetro, c/xxgkcov avrcp 9 yeyovevai to 

OOLipLOVLOV. ol Ll€V OVV TToXXol OWaV€OTp€<f>OV , €V 

ols Kayo), rod Evdv(f>povos exoLievos, veaviGKoi Se 
rives rr]v evOeXav j8aSt£ovT£S' > ojs 8rj to UtoKpaTOVS 
i\ey£ovT€s haiLioviov y eireGTrdaavTO XaptAAov tov 
avXrjTrjv tjkovtcl /cat clvtov els 'AOrjvas iieT ipiov* 
irpos KejS^ra* TropevoLievois 8e olvtols Sta tcov 
epLioyXvcfycov 5 7rapa tcl St/cacrT^pta aves airavTcboiv 
F ddpoot 6 fiopfiopov TrepiTrXeoi 1 /cat kclt* dXXrjXojv 
wdovLLevai Sta irXrjdos, eKTpoiTrjs 8e litj Trapovarjs 
tovs Liev dveTpeipav eLLpaXovacu tovs Se dveiio- 
Xvvav. rJKev ovv /cat 6 XaptAAo? ot/caSe ra re 
crKeXr] /cat to\ tttarta fiopfiopov LieaTOS, cSot' a€t 

TOV HoJKpdiTOVS 80ULIOVLOV LLeLlvfjadcU fl€T0\ yeXojTos 

rjLids, a/xa /cat 8 OavLid^ovTas el LirjSaLiov TTpoXeiirei 
tov dvSpa fX7/S' dpueXel to delov clvtov." 

11. Kat 6 TaXa^ihojpos, " otet ydp," e<f>r], " Qeo- 

KpLT€, TO HajKpaTOVS ScLlLlOVLOV IhlCLV KCU 7T€pLT~ 
TTjV €G)(r]K€Vai SvVCLLUV, OV^} T7JS KOLVTJS LLOpLOV Tl 
LiaVTLKTJS 9 TOV dvSpa 7T€Lpa fief$aiOJGdLL€VOV €V TOZS 

a&iqXois /cat dreKLidpTOis Tip Xoyiapbcp poirrjv err- 
dyeiv ; ojs ydp oXktj ilia /ca#' avTrjV ovk dyet 

1 oicoTrrioas Wyttenbach : ovinreioas. 

2 avrw Wyttenbach : ovra>. 

3 aveKaXelro j>6.qk(hv avrtp Amyot, to fill a lacuna of 24-27 
letters. 

4 tier ifiov put here by Benseler (after tjkovtcl ?) : after 
avrov in the mss. 

406 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 580 

him out playfully. Suddenly he stopped short and 
fell silent, lost for a good time in thought ; at last 
he turned back, taking the way through the street of 
the cabinetmakers, and called out to the friends who 
had already gone onward to return, saying that the 
sign had come to him. Most turned back with him, 
I with the rest, clinging close to Euthyphron ; but 
certain young fellows went straight ahead, imagining 
that they would discredit Socrates' sign, and drew 
along Charillus a the flute-player, who had also come 
to Athens with me to visit Cebes. As they were 
walking along the street of the statuaries past the 
law-courts, they were met by a drove of swine, covered 
with mud and so numerous that they pressed against 
one another ; and as there was nowhere to step aside, 
the swine ran into some and knocked them down, 
and befouled the rest. Charillus came home like 
the others, his legs and clothes covered with mud ; 
so that we always mentioned Socrates' sign with 
laughter, at the same time marvelling that Heaven 
never deserted or neglected him/' 

11. " You suppose, then, Theocritus," replied 
Galaxidorus, " that Socrates' sign had some peculiar 
and extraordinary power, and that he did not, upon 
verifying from experience some rule of ordinary 
divination, let it turn the scale in matters dark and 
beyond the reach of reason ? For just as a single 

° Otherwise unknown. 

5 ipfioyXvc/xov or ipfioyXv^elajv Reiske (ipfxoyXv^ecov Passow, 
misquoting Reiske) : ipnoyXvfawv. 

6 adpooi] ddpoat Bern. 

7 7T€pL7rX€Oi] 7T€pi7rAeat Bern., from 589 a, infra. 

8 r)p>&s, a/xa kcll Wyttenbach (rjfjuas a<j>6Spa Wilamowitz) to 
fill a lacuna of 10-7 letters. 

9 navTLKijs Holwerda : avdyKTjs* 

407 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

581 rov 1 tpyov, laoppoTTovvri 8e [idpei TrpooTideLievr) 
kXw€1 to ovinrav ifi iavrrjv, ovtoj rrrapfjios fj 2 

K\rj8d)V 7] TL TOLOVTOV OVLlfioXoV OV^ oloV T€ , LLLKpOV 

6V 3 kclI Ko€(j)ov, efifipidrj Sidvoiav emon do aoOai 
rrpos rrpa^w Svow 3' evavricov XoyiopLtov 6 are pep 
rrpooeXdov* eXvoe ttjv aTropiav, rrjs Ioottjtos dv- 
aipeOelorjs, (Lore kwtjgw yweodai kclI opiirjv." 

'YiroXaftojv Se 6 rfojrr\p y " dAAa llt{v" €<f>r), " Kal 
avTos> c5 TaXa^iSajpe, WleyapiKov twos rJKovoa, 
Tepifjcojvos Se £k€lvos, on to HwKpaTOVs haiLtoviov 
TTTapitos f\v, 6 Te Trap 9 clvtov Kal 6 Trap' aXXojv. 

B €T(=pOV fJL€V ydp TTTCLpOVTOS €K Se^l&S, €ir' O7TLO0€V 
€tV €fJL7TpOo9eV, OpjJLOLV ai)TOV 6776 TT)V TTpd^W, €6 8' 
€*£ dpLOT€p&S, d7TOTp€7T€o9 at ' TtOV 8' €OLVTOV 5 TTTOip- 
LLLOV TOV Ll€V €TL LieXXoVTOS fieficUOVV, TOV Se 7]8rj 
TTpdoOOVTOS €7T€X€LV KCLI KO)Xv€W, TTjV OpLliqV . dXX 
€K€WO fJLOL &OK€L OaVLLCLGTOV, €L TTTapjJLtp Xpd)Ll€VOS 

ov tovto toZs eTCiLpois dXXd haiLioviov elvat to 
kojXvov rj KeXevov eXeye* TV(j>ov yap au 6 twos, co 
<j)iXe, Kevov Kal ko/jlttov to tolovtov, ovk dXrjdetas 
Kal dirXoTTfTOS ols tov dvSpa Lieyav ojs dXrjOcos Kal 
SiacfrepovTa tlov ttoXXcov yeyovevai Sokovli€v, vtto 

<f)OJVrjS €^OJ0€V T) TTTapLlOV TWOS 07T7]VLKa TVypi 0O- 
pvj3oV[JL€VOV €K TLOV TCpdi~€LOV dvaTp€7T€odai Kal TTpO- 

C t€odai 7 to SeSoyLievov. at he HajKpaTovs oppLal 8 

1 rov Aid. 2 (cf Life of Camillus, chap. xxix. 2, 143 r) : to. 

2 ovTOis €otl (ovtcj Bern.) nTapfios r) Pflugk : ovtcos i<f>ap- 
ixooei. 

3 ovx olov t€ fiLKpov ov added by von Arnim to fill a lacuna 
of 15 letters {puKpov ion Bern.). 

4 TTpootXdov Emperius : 7rpoo€\0d>v. 

5 S' iavTov nos : 8e avTov. 

408 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 581 

drachm does not by itself tip the beam, but when 
joined to a weight in equilibrium with another in- 
clines the whole mass in the direction of its own pull, 
so too a sneeze or chance remark or any such omen 
cannot, being trivial and light, incline a weighty mind 
to action ; but when it is joined to one of two opposing 
reasons, it solves the dilemma by destroying the 
balance, and thus allows a movement and propulsion 
to arise." a 

" Just so, Galaxidorus," my father broke in. " I 
have it from one of the Megarian school, who had it 
from Terpsion, that Socrates' sign was a sneeze, 
his own and others' : thus, when another sneezed at 
his right, whether behind or in front, he proceeded 
to act, but if at his left, desisted ; while of his own 
sneezes the one that occurred when he was on the 
point of acting confirmed him in what he had set out 
to do, whereas the one occurring after he had already 
begun checked and prevented his movement. But 
what astonishes me is that, supposing he relied on 
sneezes, he did not speak to his friends of being 
prompted or deterred by these, but by a sign from 
Heaven ; for here again, my dear friend, we have 
a form of hollow affectation and boasting, and not the 
sincerity and simplicity that made him to our feeling 
truly great and superior to the generality of men — 
to be upset at odd moments by such external matters 
as a voice or sneeze, and thus be diverted from his 
actions and abandon his decisions. Nay, Socrates' 

° Plutarch's statics may be at fault. If so, he inferred the 
physical process from the mental : cf. Mor. 1045 b-c. 

6 av] av fy Reiske. 

7 irpoteodai Xylander : irpocrUodai. 

8 opjxal Sieveking (av opfial Xylander) : dropped. 

409 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(581) rovov aixerdarpeTTTOV 1 zypvoai /cat o(f>o8p6r7]Ta 
(fyalvovrai rrpos airav, ws av i£ 6p6rjs /cat layv- 
pas a<f)€LfJLdvai Kpiaeojs /cat dpxr}S' V^vla yap ipLfxei- 
vcu rrapa ttolvtol tov /3lov zkovolojs , avv r)8ovfj 
/cat yapvri rcov 8i86vra)v e^etv SvvdpLtvov, /cat <f)iXo- 

GO<f)iaS pL7J €KGTrjVOLL TTpOS TOOCLVTa KCoAvpLOLTa, Kdl 

reXos els oajrrjpiav seal (frvyrjv avrcp O7rovofjs erat- 
pcov /cat 7rapaaK€vrjs evpj^yavov yevopLevrjs pLrjre 
KapL<f)9rjvaL Xnrapovoi fJbrjre viroya) prjo at rep da- 
D vdrco TTzXa^ovri, 2 xprjodat S' drperrrcp rep Aoyta/xa> 
rrpos to 8eiv6v y ovk eariv dvopos €/c kXt]86vojv 
rj TTrappbtov pLerapaXXopievrjv ore tvxol yvdypfqv 
eypvTOS aAA' vtto pLel&vos err igt aulas /cat dpx^js 
dyop^ivov rrpos to KaXov. 

'A/coua> Se /cat rrjv iv Zt/ceAt'a rrjs 'Adrjvalajv 

8vvdpL€0)S (f)dopdv 7TpO€L7T€LV aVTOV ivloLS TQJV 

cpiXojv. /cat rrporepov eVt rovrtov HvpiXdpL7Trjs 6 
'AvTufxjovTos, dXovs iv rfj 8id)^ei rrepl ArjXtov xxjji* 
rjpicJov Soparico rerpa)pi€vos, ws rjKovue rcov irrl rag 
criTovSas d^LKOfJievajv 'AOrjvrjdev ore JlojKpdrrjs 
p,€Ta 'AA/ctjStaSou /cat Adx^ros* irrl prjylurrjs 4 
E /carajSas* aTTovevouTrJKoi, 77oAAa fiev tovtov dve- 

1 rovov an€T(LoTp€7TTov Schwartz (rovov Reiske) for to 
followed by a lacuna of 16 letters. 

2 7T€Xdt,ovTi Faehse : ttoll^ovti. 

3 Aaxyros Victorius, Turnebus : iiaxqros E, ttolx^tos B. 

4 eiri pr)y[oTr]s corrupt ; %l$ 'Qpcorrov (im rfjv ^Cipcoiriav 
[TpaiKrjv]) ? 

410 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 581 

movements are observed to have had an indeflectible 
force and intensity in all he did, which implies that 
they were launched forth from a correct and powerful 
judgement and foundation ; for of his own free will 
to have remained poor throughout his life when he 
could have had money which the donors would have 
been delighted and thankful to see him accept, and 
not to have forsaken philosophy despite so many 
obstacles, and in the end, although his followers had 
spared no efforts to save his life and had contrived 
a perfectly feasible means of escape, neither to have 
yielded to their entreaties nor to have flinched at the 
approach of death, but to have faced its terrors with 
reasoning unshaken, are not acts of a man whose 
views are at the mercy of voices or sneezes, but of 
one guided by a higher authority and principle to 
noble conduct. 

" I also hear that he foretold to some of his friends 
the loss of the Athenian forces in Sicily. a And still 
earlier, when Pyrilampes, 5 the son of Antiphon, who 
had been wounded with a javelin and taken prisoner 
by us in the pursuit at Delion, was told by the com- 
missioners that came from Athens to negotiate a 
truce that Socrates had reached the coast at Oropus G 
with Alcibiades and Laches d and come home safe, 
he often invoked the name of Socrates, and often 

° Cf. Life of Nicias, chap. xiii. 9 (532 b) ; Life of Alci- 
biades, chap. xvii. 5 (199 r) ; [Plato], Theages, 129 c-d. 

b Pyrilampes was Plato's stepfather. 

c " At Oropus " translates a conjecture. Thucydides (iv. 
96. 7) mentions three routes taken by the defeated Athenians : 
to Delion and the sea, to Oropus, and toward Parnes. The 
corruption in the Greek text doubtless conceals a reference 
to one of the former two. 

d Cf. Plato, Symposium, 221 a, and Laches, 181 e. 

411 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(581) KaXeaaro, iroXXd 8e </)iXovs nvas /cat Ao^tVas 1 ols 
GW€J3rj fjber* avrov rrapa rr)v Hdpvrjda 1 (jtevyovcrw 
vtto tcjv rjfierepcov LTnreajv 2 aTrodavetv, ws rod 
HcoKpdrovs SaifiovLov irapaKovoavras irepav 686v } 
°VX V v €K€ w°s V7 € > TpeTTopievovs drro rrjs fjbd^rjg. 
ravra S' otjitat /cat Zt/z/xtav aKrjKoevcu." 

YloAAaKis," 6 Zt/x/ztW e'^77, " KCLl ttoXk&v 
Steporfdr] yap ovk vpejia ro HojKpdrovs * kBr\vr\oiv 

€K TOVTOJV 8 Oil fJLOV LOV ." 

12. " Tt ovv," 6 OetSdAaos* eiTrev, " a) 2t/x/zta; 

TaXa£l8a>pov idacojjL€v iraitpvra KarafidXXeiv ro- 

F crovro jjiavT€Las epyov els TTrappLovs /cat i<Xr)86vas, 

OLS Kdl OL TToXXoi KOil ISuOTOLl 7T€pl fJLLKpd TTpOO- 
XptOVTOLl KCLL 77at£oVT£S', OTOLV 8e KivSvVOL f5apVT€pOL 

/cat [lei^oves /caraAa/Jaxjt TTpd^ecs, €K€lvo yiverai to 

^Vpi7Ti8eLOV 

ov8els cn8rjpov ravra ua>patWt neXas; 

Kat 6 TaXa^i8a)pos } " St/x^ittou [lev," €(f)rj, " Oet- 
SdAae, 7T€pl rovrojv, el ri Ha>Kpdrovs avros Ae- 
yovros rJKovoev, erotfios aKpoaoOai /cat </>€toea#at 3 
pied' vpLcois' rd S' vtto oov XeXeyfieva /cat YloXvpivios 
ov xaXeTTov dveXelv. d>s yap iv larpiKjj a^vyfios 
rj (j>XvKraiva fxiKpov, ov piiKpov 8e orjpLelov eon, 
/cat Kvpepvrjrr) TreXayiov* (j)66yyos opvtdos rj Sta- 
582 Spofirj kvt]kl8os dpaias Trvevfia crTy/xatVct /cat KLvrjcrcv 
rpaxvrepav OaXdoarjs, ovroj p,avriKfj ifjvxfj rrrappios 
fj kXt)8q)V ov fieya /ca#' avro, fieydXov 84 rivos 

1 Udpvrjda Stephanus : irdpvrjTa. 
2 t-tnriasv Keil (1841) and Dubner (1841) : Ittitcov. 

3 <j>€ih€(jQai\ 7T€id€Gdau Xylander. 
4 7T€\ayiov Xylander (jrzXayias Bern.) : rreXdyovs, 

412 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 581-582 

those of certain friends and members of his company 
who had fled with him toward Mount Parnes and 
been killed by our cavalry, as they had (he said) dis- 
regarded Socrates' sign and taken a different way, 
not following where Socrates led, in their retreat 
from the battle. a Simmias too has heard of this I 
think/' 

" Many times," said Simmias, " and from many 
persons ; for these events led to no little talk at 
Athens about Socrates' sign." 

12. " Are we, then, Simmias," said Pheidolaiis, " to 
let Galaxidorus in sport reduce so mighty a work of 
divination to sneezes and chance remarks ? Even the 
ignorant multitude rely on these in trivial matters and 
in playful moods, but when graver dangers and actions 
of greater moment confront them, the words of 
Euripides b come true : 

None talks such folly when the fray impends." 

" I am ready, Pheidolaiis," rejoined Galaxidorus, 
" to listen to what Simmias has to say about these 
matters, if he has himself heard Socrates talk of them, 
and to share your forbearance ; but what you and 
Polymnis have said is not hard to refute. For as in 
medicine a rapid pulse or a blister, trifling in itself, 
is a sign of something by no means trifling, and as for 
a skipper the cry of a marine bird or the passing of 
a wisp of yellow cloud betokens wind and a rising 
sea, so for a mind expert in divination a sneeze or 
random utterance, in itself no great matter, may yet 

° The story is also found in Cicero, De Div. i. 54 (123), and 
Pseudo-Socrates, Ep. 1. 9. 

b From the Autolycus : Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Eur. 
282. 22 ; quoted also in Mor. 803 b. 

413 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(582) crrjfjiziov av etrj 1 avp,TrTOjpiaTos* €7r' 2 ovhejju&s yap 
Texvrjs Kara(f)pov€LTaL 3 to puKpols pueydXa /cat St' 

SXcyOJV TToXXd 7TpO(JL7]VV€LV. aAA' 0>)(77T€p €t Tt? 

aireipos ypapLfJuaTOOv hvvdjieojs , opcov oXiya TrXrjOei 
/cat <f>avXa ttjv pLop^iqv, airiUToif] dvSpa 4, ypap,- 
jjlcltlkov e/c tovtojv dvaXeyeadai 7ToXejjiovs fieydXovs 
ot toIs irdXai ovvtTvypv , /cat /cr tacts 5 TroXeojv irpd- 

B ^6t9 re /cat TraOrffJuara 6 fiacnXeajv, elra c^airf Sat- 
jjlovlov tC jjl7]vv€lv /cat KaTaXeyeiv e/cetVto to> 
lorropiKtp 8 tovtojv eKaoTov, rj8vs dv, tS (friXe, yeXojs 
gol tov dvdpojTTov Trjs airzipias €7TeX9oL, OVTOJ 
GKoirei jjurj /cat rjfJLels tojv \xavTiKOjv €/cacrTou ttjv 
8vvafjLLV dyvoovvTes fj cru/xjSaAAet irpos to pbeXXov, 
evrjdojs dyavaKTajfiev el vovv e^ojv avOpoorros e/c 
tovtojv a7TO<f)aLV€Tai 9 tl Trepl tcov dSrjXoov, /cat 
TavTa <f)daKO>v clvtos ov TTTap/jLov ovSe </)OJVr)V, 
aAAa. SaifJiovLOV avTcp tojv irpd^eoov vcfjrjy e cad at. 
fJL€T€LjJU yap rjSrj TTpos ere, cS HoXvpuvi, davpid^ovTa 
HooKpaTOVs, dvSpos dTV(f)ta /cat a<^eAeta jLtaAtcrra 
8rj (f)iXoao(f)iay et;avd pojiriaavTOS , et purj 7TTapfi6v 

C fi7]8e KXrjSova to g7]jjl€lov, aAAa TpayiKaJs irdvv to 
SatfJLoviov ohvofJLa^ev. eyoj yap av TovvavTiov edav- 
/Jia^ov dvSpos aKpov ScaXeyeodai /cat KpaTeZv ovo- 

fJLaTOJV, a)G7T€p HiOJKpaTTjS, €L TOV 7TTapfJbOV dXXd 

1 fjieydXov Se twos 07)/jl€lov av ctrj (jxeyaXov §€ arjixelov Xy- 
lander ; GVfxpoXov he fieydXov Bern.) our supplement of a 
lacuna of 45-29 letters. 

2 cV added by Wilamowitz. 

3 KaraffypovetTat] KaracfypovrjcraL Holwerda. 

4 dmaroi-q avbpa] diriGTOLr) (jlt) dvhpa Stegmann ; delete 
dvSpa ? 5 KTioeis Xylander : Krrjcreis* 

6 7Ta0rjfjLaTa Leonicus : fiaO-qfiara. 

7 </>air) ooli/jloviov ti Wyttenbach (<f>aiiq (fycuv^v rj ojjlolov tl 
Bern.) : <j>avrjvai ofjuvvovri. 

414 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 582 

be a sign of some great event a ; for in no art is the 
prediction of great things from small, or of many 
things from few, neglected. No ; if a man ignorant 
of the significance of writing, on seeing letters few 
in number and mean in appearance, should doubt 
that a literate person b could gather from them the 
story of great wars that happened to men in the past, 
of foundations of cities, and of acts and sufferings 
of kings, and should then assert that what revealed 
and recounted all this to that student of history was 
something divine, you would, my friend, be moved to 
hearty laughter at the fellow's simplicity ; so here 
too take heed lest it be simplicity in us, in our igno- 
rance of the significance for the future of the various 
signs interpreted by the art of divination, to resent 
the notion that a man of intelligence can draw from 
them some statement about things hidden from our 
view — and that too when it is the man himself who 
says that it is no sneeze or utterance that guides his 
acts, but something divine. For I shall now deal with 
you, Polymnis, who are astonished that Socrates, a man 
who by his freedom from humbug and affectation had 
more than any other made philosophy human, should 
have termed his token not a ' sneeze ' or ' omen ' but 
in high tragic style ' the sign from Heaven.' G I, on 
the contrary, should have been astonished if a master 
of dialectic and the use of words, like Socrates, had 
spoken of receiving intimations not from * Heaven ' 

° Cf. Mor. 410 d. 

6 For a comparison of divination to reading cf. Plotinus, 
Enn. iii. 1. 6. 

c Cf. the words of Polymnis, 581 b, supra. 

8 to> loTopiKco] ra>v laropiKcov Wyttenbach. 

9 av before aTTo<f>atv€Tal omitted by Pflugk. 

415 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(582) jttfj to Sai/jLoviov 1 avrtJo ar^p^alveiv eXeyev cjcnrep 
el tis vtto tov fieXovs c/yalrj TeTpa>o9ai, pur) Ttp fieXei 
vtto tov fiaXovros , pbepbeTprjaOai he av to fidpos 
vtto tov £,vyov, pur] rep £>vycp vtto rod loravros* ov 
yap rod opyavov to epyov, aXX ov /cat to opyavov 
to xprJToa, Trpos to epyov opyavov he tl /cat to 
arjpielov cp XPV TCLL to crrjpiaivov. aAA' oirep elirov, 
el tl 2t/x/zta9 e^ot 2 XeyeiVy aKovoreov , d)s elhoTos 
aKpifieoTepov" 

13. Kat 6 QeoKpiTos, " rrpoTepov y " ^V* 

D " tovs elcriovTas OLTives* eloiv aTTOOKeifjapLevois , 
puaXXov he tov l;evov* eoiKev rjpuv 'JLTrapieivwvhas 
ool Kopu^ecv. 

* ATTofiXeijjavTes ovv Trpos to\s dvpas ewpaypiev 
rjyovpuevov puev tov ^TrapLeivaivhav Kal tcov 5 avv- 
eaTCOTOjv* <f>iXa)v 'lapLrjvohajpov 7 /cat Ba/c^uAAt'Sav 8 
/cat MeXiaoov tov avXrjTrjv, eTropuevov he tov £evov, 
ovk dyevvrj to ethos dXXd TrpaoTrjTa /cat <f)iXo- 
(fypoavvrjv tov rjdovs VTTocjyaivovTa /cat oepuv&s 
dpLTTeyppievov to acu/xa. KadLoavTOS ovv eKeivov 
puev avTov irapa tov HipbpLLav, tov he dheX(f)ov Trap 9 
epce, Ttbv he dXXa>v d)s eKaoTOS ervye, koX yevo- 
pievrjs GLOJTrrjs, 6 St/XjLtta? tov dheX<f)6v rjpitov 
eaas, eiev, eiTrev, a> rjTrapLeiva)voa, Tiva 

E XPV T ° v ^ vov ^at TTtos /cat TTodev tt pooayopeveiv ; 

Q-PXV y^P tis ivrvxtcLs /cat yvwaeajs avTrj avvrjdrjs." 

Kat 6 *ILTTapLeiva)vhas, " Qedvcop," chrev, " c5 

1 TOV TTTapfJLOV ClXXoL fXTj TO ScLLfJiOVlOV IIOS ([AT) TO SatflOVLOV aXXa 

tov TTTapfiov Leonicus) : fir] tov TTTappuov dXXa to SaifiovLOV. 

2 €xol] exec Aldine. 

3 oiTives Stephanus : et Tives* 

4 £evov] £evov ov Bern. 

5 tu>v added by Wyttenbach. 

416 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 582 

but from the * Sneeze ' : it is as if a man should say 
that the arrow wounded him, and not the archer with 
the arrow, or that the scales, and not the weigher 
with the scales, measured the weight. For the act 
does not belong to the instrument, but to the person 
to whom the instrument itself belongs, who uses it 
for the act ; and the sign used by the power that sig- 
nals is an instrument like any other. But, as I said, 
if Simmias should have anything to say, we must listen 
to him, as he is better informed/ ' 

13. " First/' said Theocritus, " we must see who 
the persons are that are entering the room — but I 
see it is Epameinondas, who is apparently bringing 
the stranger to meet us." 

We looked toward the door and saw Epameinondas 
in the lead, with Hismenodorus, Bacchyllidas, a and 
Melissus the fluteplayer among our friends in the 
plot, while the stranger came last, a man of no ignoble 
presence, but showing gentleness and kindness in 
his demeanour and in person magnificently attired. 
When the stranger had taken his place beside Sim- 
mias, my brother beside me, and the rest as they 
happened to find seats, and all had fallen silent, 
Simmias called out to my brother : " Well, Epamei- 
nondas, what name and title are we to give the 
stranger, and what is his country ? Such inquiries are 
the usual preliminaries to intercourse and acquain- 
tance/' 

Epameinondas answered : " His name, Simmias, 

a Perhaps one of the seven boeotarchs who commanded at 
Leuctra : cf. Pausanias, ix. 13. 7. 

6 ovveoTWTcov] avvrjdeardrcjv Wilamowitz. 

7 'IcrjjLTjvoSajpov nos : lafjbT]v68a)pov, 

8 BaKxvXXthav] f$aKxv\t$av Aldine. 

vol. vii p 417 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(582) Zi/z/ua, oVojita puev to> dvSpi, yevos Se KporcoviaTTjs 
Ttbv €K€L (j)iXoo6(j)(jov ov Karaioxvvojv to fieya 
HvOayopov /cAeos" dAAd Kal vvv r\Kei Sevpo fiaKpav 
686v i£ 'IraAta? epyois KaXols /caAa Soyfxara 
pefiaicov . " 

l7ToAapa)V be o gevoSy ovkovv, €907, ov 
KOjXveis, to 'E7ra/xet^c6v8a, rtov epya>v to koXXiotov . 
F el yap ev iroielv <f)iXovs kclXov, ovk aloxpov ev 
Tiaoyjciv vtto <J>ikaw rj yap x^P i? > °^X f} TTOV 8eo- 
puevr] rod Xaii^dvovros rj rod SlSovtos, i£ dficfroiv 
reXetovrai rrpos to KaXov, 6 Se pur] Se^dfievos cooirep 
acfcalpav ev (f>epo puevTiv Karrjoxvvev dreXrj Treuovoav. 
TToiov yap ovtojs okottov fidXXovra t<al rvx^v rjov 
Kal hiaiiaprdveiv dvtapov d>s dvSpos ev Tradelv 
d^iov Sid ^aptros" e$>iepLevov ; aAA' eKel puev 6 rov 
okottov pbevovros drvxtfoas ocftdXXerai hi avrov, 
evravdoc 8e 6 TrapaiTovpLevos Kal VTrocf)evyojv dStKel 
rrjv x^P LV € ^s o 1 evTrevKe fir] Trepaivovoav. ool iiev 
ovv rag alrias rjSrj ScrjXdov vcj^ aiv eirXevoa Sevpo, 
583 fiovXojJiai Se Kal tovtols 2 SieXdcov xPV (jaG ^ at ^pos 
oe SiKaorals . 

'E7766 yap e^eTreoov al Kara iroXeis eraipelai* 
rwv HvdayopiKtov ordoei Kparrjdevrajv, tols 8' ert 
ovveoTCJOiv ev M-eraTTovrlcp ovveSpevovoiv ev oIkiq 
TTvp ol KvXa)vecoL Trepievrjoav Kal 8ie(j)6eipav ev 

1 o] ov Post. 
2 TovTois E 2 (and so Turnebus) : tovtovs. 
3 eratpetat E ac (and so Bern.) : iraiplcu. 

For the comparison of the ball cf. Chrysippus, quoted in 
Seneca, De Beneficiis, ii. 17. 3, and Plutarch, Coram, in 
Hesiodum, 32 (vol. vii, p. 68. 11-16 Bern.). 

6 The head of the anti-Pythagorean faction. 

418 






ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 582-583 

is Theanor ; he is a native of Croton, one of the philo- 
sophers of that region, and reflects no dishonour on 
the great fame of Pythagoras ; indeed, he has come 
here at present on a long journey from Italy, con- 
firming noble doctrines by noble works/ ' 

Here the stranger spoke : " Are not you, Epamei- 
nondas, preventing the noblest of those works ? For 
if it is a noble act to benefit friends, it is no disgrace 
to be benefited by them ; for the favour, requiring 
a recipient no less than a giver, needs both to be made 
perfect in nobility. He who refuses to accept the 
favour, like the man who refuses to catch a well- 
directed ball, disgraces it, allowing it to fall to the 
ground without achieving its end. a For what target 
is so delightful to hit and so painful to miss, as a 
man deserving kindness at whom we aim a favour ? 
Yet in the case of the target the man who misses has 
only himself to blame, as the mark is fixed ; whereas 
with favours, the man who declines and moves aside 
is guilty of an offence against the favour, allowing it 
to fall short of its goal. To you I have already re- 
counted the motives of my voyage hither ; but I 
desire to recount them to these others as well and 
let them judge between us. 

" After the Pythagorean societies throughout the 
different cities had been defeated by the revolu- 
tionaries and driven out, and after the partisans of 
Cylon, & heaping fuel about the house where the 
society that still held together at Metapontum c was 
in session, and setting fire to it, had destroyed them 

c Most ancient authorities agree that Pythagoras died at 
Metapontum, but put the conflagration at Croton : cf. 
Diogenes Laert. viii. 39 f. with the passages adduced by A. 
Delatte (La Vie de Pythagore de Diogene Laerce, Brussels, 
1922, pp. 136 f.). 

419 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(583) ravra) 1 rrdvras ttXtjv OtAoAaou /cat AvglSos vecov 

OVTOJV €TL, pcbfJLrj KCLl KOV^OTTjTL SlOJGafJLeVOJV TO 

TTvp, OtAoAao? fJiev els AevKavovs (f>vycbv eKeWev 
dveacodrj 77/30? tows' dXXovs (f)lXovs 7]0T] TrdXiV 
dOpot^ofxevovs /cat Kparovvras tojv KvXojvelajv, 
Avgls Se onov yeyovev rjyvoelro rroXvv y^povov, 

B rrplv 2 ye Srj Yopyias 6 Aeovrlvos e/c rrjs 'EAAaSo? 
dvarrXeojv els HiKeXlav dirr^yyeXXe rots Trepl 
'Apeoav 3 fiefiaiojs Avoioi ovyyeyovevai StarptjSovrt 
rrepl Qrjflas. ojpprqoe fiev 6 'Apeoa? 4 ttoOoj rod 
dvopos avros cos etye rrXevaai, Koyahfj he Sta yrjpas 
/cat dodeveiav eXXeirrcov erreaKifji/je /xaAtcrra jxev 
^covra KopLioai rov Avcriv els 'IraAtay rj rd Xetipava 
redvr] kotos, ol 8' ev /zeaoj TroXepLoi /cat ardaeis 
/cat rvpavvlSes eKtoXvaav avrtp I^lovti avvreXeoat 
rovs (f)lXovs rov dOXov. errel 8e rj/juv to AtfatSos* 
SatfJLOvtov rjSrf reOvrjKoros evapyoos tt povir e^aive 5 
ttjv reXevrrjv, /cat rds Trap" v/mv, cS UoXvpivi, 

C deparreias /cat Siairas rod dvSpos ol aa(f)cos elhores 
dTTiqyyeXXov , on rrXovoias ev olkoj TrevrjTL yrjpo- 
/cojittW 6 Tvyoov /cat TTarrjp tojv gcov vieojv emypacfjeis 
ot^otTo /xa/captoro?, drreardXriv eyoo veos /cat els 
vtto rroXXoov /cat rrpeo^vrepcov, eypvTOJv ovk 
exovac xPVl JLaral hihovrtov, ttoXXtjv 8 ydpiv /cat 

1 ravrco Wyttenbach : tovtcj, 

2 iTpiv Sieveking {donee Xylander) : TrX-qv. 

3 *Ap€odv nos (from Iamblichus, De Vit. Pyth. chap, xxxvi. 
266) : apKtoov. 4 'Apeaas nos : apK€oos. 

5 7rpov7T€(f)aiv€] 7rpov<f>at,v€ Cobet. 

6 yqpoKoixlas Aldine : y^pco/co/xias. 

7 XPVI JLaTa Leonicus : ypdpniara. 

8 7roXXrjv] 7roXXr)v §€ Reiske. 

° Archippus is usually mentioned as escaping with Lysis : 
420 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 583 

all in the conflagration except Philolaiis and Lysis , a 
who were still young and forced a way through the 
flames by strength and agility, Philolaiis escaped to 
Lucania and from there reached in safety our remain- 
ing adherents, who had once more begun to assemble 
and prevail over Cylon's party, but for a long time 
no one knew what had become of Lysis ; at last 
Gorgias of Leontini, on his return from Greece to 
Sicily, 6 brought definite word, and told Aresas c of 
meeting Lysis, who was living in Thebes. Aresas so 
felt his absence that he proposed with no more ado 
to make the voyage himself, but from age and in- 
firmity proving quite unequal to the effort, he charged 
us to bring Lysis back to Italy alive if possible, or 
his remains if dead. The intervening wars, seditions 
and usurpations, however, kept his friends from 
carrying out the task for him during his lifetime. 
But when the daemon of Lysis — who had died in the 
interval — clearly revealed to us his death, and reports 
from men well acquainted with the circumstances 
told, Polymnis, how he had been cared for by your 
family and lived with you — that in the poverty of your 
household he had received rich provision for his age 
and departed in felicity, enrolled as father of your 
sons — I was sent, young and uncompanied, by a 
company numerous and advanced in years, offering 
money, of which they have provision, to you who have 

cf. Zeller, Die Philos. d. Griechen, i. 1 6 , p. 419, note. Olympio- 
dorus (In Plat. Phaedon. Comm. p. 9. 16-20 Norvin) says that 
Lysis and Hipparchus were the two that escaped, and that 
Philolaiis went to Thebes to offer libations at the grave of 
Lysis, his teacher. 

b Perhaps on the return from his embassy to Athens in 427. 

c The head of the Pythagorean societies : cf. Iamblichus, 
De Vita Pythagorica, 266 f. 

421 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(583) tf>iXLav avTiAafjLfiavovTCDV. Avois Se /cat /cetrat 1 
kclAcos V(f) y vpLtov, /cat rd(f)ov kolAov Kpelrrcov avrto 

X^P^S €KTLVOjJL€Vr] <f)iAoiS VTTO (f)iXcOV /Cat OLK€l(OV." 

14. Tavra rod £evov Xeyovros 6 fiev 7Tarrjp 
eVeSd/cpuae rfj fiv^firj rod AvaiSos ttoXvv xP° vov > 

Do 8e d8eA(f)6s viroybeihioov coarrep etcode 2 Trpos €jjl€, 
7 7Tcos y " €(f)rj, " TToiovpLzv, co Ka</>tata; TTpo'Cefxeda 
rrjv Trevlav tols xprjjjLacjL /cat aicoTTtofxev ; " 

Jri/ctar , ecprjv eya>, rrjv cpiArjv /cat ayaorjv 
KovpoTp6<\>oVy aAA' a/jivve' ads yap 6 Aoyos\ ,, 

Kat jjLTjv eyd)," elireVy " to rrdrep, ravrrj jJLOvrj 3 
rrjv ot/ctav eSeStetv dXtoaipbov vtto xpyf^drtov elvai, 
Kara to K.acf)itJLOV atofxa, KaXfjs /zev itjdfjros Seo- 
fievov tVa rols ipaorals ey/caAAam iarfT at tooovtois 
ovoiVy d<f)66vov Se /cat 7roXXfjs rpo<f>rjs tv dvrexj] 
77/069 tol yv\xvdtiia /cat rrpos tovs eV rals 7raAat- 
OTpais dytovas' OTrrjvLKa Se ovtos ov 7rpo8L8tooiv* L 

E ov8e tbs j3acf)r]V dvirjac rrjv Trarptov ireviav, dXXd 
KdLTTep tov pbeipaKiov eureAeta /caAAa>77t£eTat /cat 
arepyei rd rrapovra, tls dv rjfuv yevoiro rtov 
XP^l^drcov StdOeoLS /cat XPV GL? > rjirov Karaxpv- 
atoaopL€V rd oirXa /cat rrjv do-mSa 7roptf>vpq gvjjl- 
fjL€fiiy{JL€vrj TTpos xP vulov > ^7T€p Nt/cta? o ' Adiqvalos , 
Sta77"ot/ctAoujLt€v; aot Se, to Trdrep, MtA^crtav 
^Aavt'Sa 5 rfj Se pLrjrpl rrapaXovpydv tovrjaopbeda 
X^tcovlov; ov yap et? yaurepa 8rj7rov /cara^p^- 

1 kol K€irai\ KeKrjbevrat Cobet. 

2 etcode] elwOet, B. 

3 ixovr)] fiovov Holwerda, but cf. Herodotus, i. 84. 3, iii. 5. 1, 
Life o/Pelopidas, chap. xvi. 3 (286 a), and possibly Life of 
Sulla, chap. xiv. 1 (460 c) and fj fiovr) 579 c, supra. 

4 Sieveking deletes ttjv nevlav after TrpohLhajai. 

422 






ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 583 

none in return for great favour and friendship. Lysis 
has had from you a fitting burial, and better in his 
sight than a fitting burial is favour requited to friends 
by friends and fellows." a 

14. While the stranger spoke my father wept a 
long time at the memory of Lysis. My brother said, 
smiling gently at me, as is his wont : " What are we 
doing, Caphisias ? Are we yielding up our poverty 
to riches without a word ? " 

Let us by no means yield up," said I; " that dear 
and ' goodly nurse of youth ' b : fly to her defence ; 
it is for you to speak." 

" Well, my dear father," he said, " I had feared 
that in the defences of our household against money 
there was but this one vulnerable spot : Caphisias' 
person, which requires fine dress that he may display 
himself to advantage to his numerous admirers, and 
unstinted and abundant food to sustain him in his 
exercises and his bouts on the wrestling grounds ; 
but now that we see him refusing to surrender his 
ancestral poverty or let its tempered edge be taken 
off, but instead, for all his youth, displaying himself in 
frugality c and content with what he has, how could 
we lay the money out and use it ? Are we to gild our 
arms and like Nicias of Athens d decorate our shields 
with a blend of purple and gold ? Are we, father, 
to buy you a Milesian mantle and our mother a tunic 
bordered with purple ? For surely we shall not expend 

a Theanor's style is as elaborate as his dress. 
b Homer, Od. ix. 27 ; cf. Plutarch, Contra Divitias, Frag. 
4 (vol. vii, p. 124. 3-6 Bern.). 

c For the phrase cf. Mor. 406 d. 

d Cf. Life of Nicias, chap, xxviii. 6 (542 b). 

5 #W/Sa a correction in E : xAa/xu'8a. 

423 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(583) aofjieda rrjv Scopeav evcoxovvreg avrovs TroXvre- 
Xearepov, axnrep ^ivov VTroSeSey/jLevoi fiapvrepov 
tov ttXovtov." 

1 "Arrayed <eItt€V 6 7Tarrjp t " cS ttclI* pbrjoeTrore 
F TOiavrrjv iTTiSoifJU pberaKoupaqGLV rod fiiov. 1 " 

" K.al jJLTjv ovSe dpyov," €<f)rj y " KadicropieOa 
(frpovpovvres oIkol tov ttXovtov dxapis yap av 

OVTLDS rj X^P LS KaL UTlfJLOS ?) KTrfGLS €L7)." 
JU JJLTJV; €L7T€V O TTaTTjp. 

OvKOVV," €(f)7j 6 *¥*TTCLlJL€lVCxJVOaS y ''IaCTOVl 3 

fxev tlq QerraXcov rayw TrepafjavTi oevpo rroXv 
Xpvoiov evayxos Trpos rjfias Kal Seo/xeVoj Xafletv 
dypoiKorepos ecfydvrjv arroKpivopievos dhiKOJv x €L p£>v 
avrov Kardpx^iv, otl puovapxias cov epaarrjs dvopa 
SrjfioTrjv iXevOepas Kal avTovo\xov TroXecos irreipa 
584 Sia xPVl JL ° iTOJV ' °°v 8*j c5 £eve, ttjv pcev TrpodvpLLav 
(KaXrj yap Kal (^lXogo^os) Sexofiac Kal dyarrco 
SiacfrepovTajs, t]k€ls Se <f)dpfiaKa <f)LXois jjltj vooovai 
kojxi^OjV. tooirep ovv el TToXe/JLelo 6 'at rrvdopievos 
rjfjL&s eVAeuaa? 4 ottXols Kal fteXeatv axfreXfjcrajv , 
etra <f>iXiav Kal elprjvrjv evpes, ovk av coov Selv 
€K€iva SiSoVat Kal aTToXeiTreiv /jltj heojievois, ovtojs 
avfJLfJLaxos {lev d<f>i£ai rrpos rrevlav d>s ivoxXov- 
pievois vtt* avrrfs, rj S earl pdorrrj (frepetv tj/jllv Kal 

1 17/xcuv after f}tov deleted by Bern. ; place before tov ? 

2 €lt]. Tt nrjv Reiske : em Tifirjy. 

3 'Idoovi Kontos and Hatzidakis : Idawvi. 

4 17/xas-, repeated after errXevcras in E, and after fieXeow in B, 
is deleted by Sieveking. 

Jason of Pherae : cf. Mor. 193 b ; Aelian, Var. Hist. 
xi. 9. 

b A play on the phrase dpx^cv x^P^> v aBUcov, literally " to 

424 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 583-584 

the bounty on our belly by treating ourselves to more 
sumptuous fare, as if we had admitted wealth to our 
house as a burdensome guest." 

" Heaven forbid, my son," said my father ; " may 
I never live to see our way of life so changed ! " 

" Nor yet," Epameinondas pursued, " shall we sit 
at home to guard a wealth that remains idle ; for 
then the favour would be no favour and our ownership 
without honour." 

" Of course we shall not," said my father. 

" Lately," Epameinondas went on, " when Jason, 
the prince of Thessaly, a sent me a great sum of gold 
and begged me to accept it, I was openly rude, was 
I not ? when I replied that he was the assailant in 
a hand-to-hand affair, 6 since to gratify his lust for royal 
power, he was tempting with money a common 
citizen of a free and independent state. c As for you, 
sir, I welcome your kind thought and am delighted 
with it — it was generous and worthy a philosopher — 
but you come with medicine to friends who are not 
ill. If you had heard that we were under hostile 
attack and sailed to our aid with arms and missiles, 
but found on arrival that all was friendliness and 
peace, you would not have felt called upon to offer 
and leave those provisions with men who had no use 
for them. Just so you have come to help us against 
Poverty, supposing us molested by her ; whereas we 
find her most companionable and a friendly member 

begin unrighteous hands," that is, to strike the first blow in 
a case of assault and battery. Hands are also the donors and 
recipients of bribes. 

c This incident is doubtless here placed too early in 
Epameinondas' career. Jason was not elected prince until 
some years after the liberation of Thebes (cf. Busolt, Griech. 
Gesch. iii. 2, pp. 237 f.). 

425 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(584) (f>tXrj gvvolkos' ovkovv Set xprjixdrtov ottXcov 1 en 

B avrrjv pLrjSev dvitoaav, aAA' aVayyeAAe rots' £k€l 

yvoopijAois otl KaXXiara [xev olvtol ttXovtcq xpojvrai 

koXcos Se irevia ^pco/xeVoi;? olvtoOl (fyiXovs k'xpvoL, 

ras Se AvglSos rjfjLiv Tpo<f)ds koX Tacf>ds olvtos vrrep 

CLVTOV AvGLS a7T€OC0K€, TOL T€ dXXcL KCLl TT€VL(XV 

StSa^a? fJirj Suaxe/xxtVetv." 

15. ^TToXaficbv Se 6 Qedvcop, " dp* ovv," €<f>rj, 
"to 7T€vLav Sua^epatVetv dyevves eart, to Se 7tXov- 
tov SeSteVat koX <f>evyeLV ovk oltottov ; " 

' "AtOTTOv" 61776V O 'E7TajltetVaVSa9, 2 " el fJLTj X6- 

yco tls avTOV dXXd a^/xar6^o/x€vos > r) St' direipo- 
kolXlclv tj TV(f>6v Ttva SiCodeLTOU." 

" Kat tls av" €(f>rj, " Xoyos direipyoL ttjv e/c 
kclXcov /cat Slkcllcov kttjolv, a> 'E77a/xetva)vSa; 3 
fjL&XXov Se' [irpaoTepov* yap r\plv rj ra> ©erraAa) 
C 77009 ras* dTTOKpioeis evSlSov oavTOV vrrep tovtojv) 
elrre jjlol iroTepov rjyfj hooiv fiev etvat Ttva ^pr^a- 
Ttov 6p9rjV, Xrjifjtv Se fjLrjSefJblav, rj /cat tovs StSovTas* 
a/xaoTavetv irdvTOJs /cat tovs XapupdvovTas ; " 

OvSajJLtJos," eVnev 6 ^irapbeLvcovhas , " aAA' cucr- 
776p a'AAou tlvos e'yeo /cat 7tAoi;tou x^P iV Te K0LL KTr }' 
olv etvat vojjlL^o} tt)v puev alo^pdv ttjv Se doTeiav." 

" T Ap' ovv," e^rj 6 ®edva)p, " 6 p,ev 5 o<fj>etAa>v St- 
Sous IkovoLcos /cat rrpoOvjJLOJS ov kolXojs St'Seocrtv; 

'Q/jLoXoyrjoev. 

'0 S' a tls kolXojs StSojat Se^dfievos ov kolX&s 

1 ovhk deleted by Sieveking before ottXojv. 

2 OT07T0V elrtev (o added by Pohlenz) y E7ra[X€iv(x)vdas added 
by Bern, {aroirov Wyttenbach). 

426 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 584 

of our household ; no armament of riches, then, is 
needed against her who gives us no offence. No ; 
report to your comrades abroad that while they put 
riches to the best of uses themselves, they here have 
friends who make good use of poverty ; and that 
Lysis has repaid us himself for the cost of his keeping 
and burial by teaching us, among other lessons, to 
feel no disgust at poverty." 

15. Theanor rejoined : " Is it vulgar to feel disgust 
at poverty, and yet not absurd to dread and shun 
wealth ? " 

" It is absurd," replied Epameinondas, " if what 
moves a man to reject it is not reason, but a pose 
arising from coarseness or a kind of vanity." 

Indeed ! And what reason, Epameinondas," he 
said, " would forbid its acquisition by noble and 
honest means ? Or rather tell me this (for I beg you 
to show me a milder temper than you did the Thes- 
salian in your answers on this point) : do you think 
it sometimes proper to give money, but never to 
accept it, or do you think that under all circumstances 
givers are at fault as well as takers ? " 

" Not at all," said Epameinondas ; " but in wealth 
as in other things I hold that the conferring and 
acceptance of a favour are sometimes shameful and 
sometimes honourable." 

'* Does not," Theanor went on, " the man who pays 
his debt willingly and cheerfully, do well in giving ? " 

Epameinondas agreed. 

" And does not he who accepts a gift well given do 

3 c5 , E7ra/uei.vajvSa Wyttenbach ; cos* iirapuvoivhas E ; ojs 6 
€7Tafji€Lvd)vhas B. 

4 7TpaoT€pov Wyttenbach : irporepov. 

5 fiev Dtibner : a, 

427 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

-J €iXr](f)€v; 7) yevoir av 8iKaiorepa xp^f^drajv Arjiftis 
rfjs TTdpa rod 8iKaia>s 8i86vtos ; " 
Uvk av, €(pr], yevotro. 
" Avotv dpa (filXwv," elnev, " c5 5 E77a/X€tvc6vSa, 
et darepco 8oreov, darepco 1 8rj7rov Xrjrrreov ev puev 
yap rals pLa^ais rov ev fidWovra rcov TToXepblcov 
€KkAlt€ov, ev 8e rals ya? l(Jl T ° v Ka Xcos Stoovra 
rcov tf>LXtov ovre tf>evyeiv ovre diTCodeZodai 8iKaiov 
el yap rj rrevia firj 8vox € P^> °v8* av rrdXtv 6 
ttAovtos ovrtos aripios Kal OLTTofiXrjros." 

Ov yap ovv," etrrev 6 '^TrapLeivcovSas , " dXX 
eartv orco fir) Xafiovri 2 ro KaXcos 8l86[jl€Vov ripucb- 
repov virapyei Kal KaXXiov ovrcool 8' e7TLOKei/jai 
pied* rjpcov. 

11 Etat SrjTTovdev emdvpLiai 77oAAat /cat 7roAAa>v, 
eVtat puev efJL(f)VTOi Xeyop.evai Kal ire pi ro aco/xa 

E fiXaoTavovoai rrpos ras* dvayKaias rjSovds, at 8e 
errrjXvSes, at eW/ca 3 Kevcov 8o£cov, icrgov. 8e Kal 
/Slav vtto xpovov Kal ovviqdeias ev rpocjyfj pioxdrjpa 
XaBovoai, 7ToXXaKLs eXKovat Kal rarreivovoL tyjv 
ifjvxrjv eppcopuevearepov rcov dvayKaicov. edei 8e 
Kal pteXerrj ttoXv \xev ris 7]8rj Kal rcov ificbvrojv 
drrapvcrai rradcov rep Xoycp irapeoye' to 8e irav rrjs 
doKTjoea)s Kpdros, to <j>iXe, rat? €7T€ioo8Lois Kal 
TTeptrraXs Trpooayayovras* €7rt#u/ztat9 eKirovelv xprj 
Kal drroKOTTTeiv avrds dveip^eoi Kal Karoxcu? vtto 
rod Xoyov KoXa^opievas. el yap 8iifjav e/c/Jta^crat 

F Kal TTelvav 5 r) rrpos rpocf)r)v Kal rrorov dvrifiaois rod 

1 darepco Leonicus : Odrepov. 
2 Xafiovri Wyttenbach : otoovrt. 

3 at €V€Ka Bern, (at fxev eV Post) : at evetxev. 

4 TTpooayayovTas] Trpooayovras Klaifenbach, 

5 irelvav B : 7T€iv E. 

428 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 584 

well in receiving ? Or how could money be more 
honestly accepted than by accepting it from one who 
gives it honestly ? " 

" In no other way," was the reply. 

" Therefore, Epameinondas," he went on, "if of 
two friends the one ought to give, the other surely 
ought to accept ; in battles one should elude the 
enemy who casts well, but in the matter of favours 
it is not right either to evade or to repulse the friend 
who gives well ; for granting poverty no burden, no 
more is wealth in its turn so valueless and undesirable 
as all that." 

" True," said Epameinondas ; " yet there is a 
case where the rightly offered gift is more valuable 
and honourable if not accepted. Consider the point 
with me in the light of the following considerations. 

" There are, I take it, many desires, and these have 
many objects. Some desires, called innate, spring 
up in the body with the necessary pleasures as 
objects. Others are adventitious , a and seek to 
gratify mere empty fancies. Yet when a man has 
had a poor upbringing, long habit makes them strong 
and violent, and often they drag the soul along and 
humble it more forcibly than do the necessary desires. 
Habit and practice, however, have been known to 
enable reason to abate much of even the innate 
passions ; and one must apply the whole might of 
a strict course of training, my dear friend, to the 
intrusive and superfluous desires and wear them down 
and cut them off by letting reason chasten them with 
repeated repression and restraint. For if thirst and 
hunger are overpowered by the resistance of reason 

° Cf. Mor. 989 b-c and Aristoxenus, quoted by Stobaeus, 
vol. iii, p. 424. 15-18 (ed. Hense). 

429 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(584) Xoytafiov, puaKpa) Stjttov paov eon (jjiAoirAovTiav 
KoAovcrai Kal (f)iAo$o£iav a7ro^at9 &v efyievTai Kal 
avelp^eaiv els TeAos KaTaAvdeioas' rj ov So/cet ooi; " 

1 'ClfJLoAoyyjcrev 6 £evos. 

1 T A/>' ovv," €(f)7], " Suac/jopav Spas daKrjaeajs 
Kal tov Trpos o rj aaKrjcris epyov, Kal Kaddirep 
adArjriKrjs epyov fievdv elirois rrjv virep tov arecjxivov 
rrpos tov avr lttclAov dpaAAav, aoKiqoiv 8e rrjv errl 
tovto 1 Sta, tojv yvfjivaatajv TrapaGKevyv tov ooj- 
jiaroSy ovtojs /cat dperrjs opboAoyels to jxev epyov 
elvai, to 8' aoKTjaw;" 

1 fJLoAoyqcravTOS 8e tov £evov, " (f>epe toivvv 

TTpajTOV," elirev, " eirl 2 ttjs eyKpaTeias' to tojv 

atcr^pcov /cat Trapavo\xojv rjSovcov drrexeodai tto- 

585 Tepov duK'qaiv rj piaAAov epyov Kal drroSei^iv 

aoKTjoeojs elvai vopLi^eis ;" z 

hipyov, enrev, eyoj /cat aTTooei^iv. 
1 "AoKrjaiv Se /cat jJbeAeTTjv eyKpaTeias 5 oi>x V 7T€ P 
erri vvv ecjtelAKvade ndvTes vpieis, orav yvpuva^o- 
fievoi 6 Kal KLViqaavTes cooirep £a>a tols 6pe£eis em- 
GTrJTe AafjnrpaZs Tparre^ais Kal ttoiklAois eoeopbaoi 
ttoAvv xP ovov > € l ra > TavTa tols oiKeTacs vjjlojv 
eva))(eLcr6ai irapaoovTes , avTol tol Altol Kal ajrAa 
7rpoo(f)eprjode KeKoAaa/xevais rj8r] Tats e7TidvfJiiais ; 
rj ydp ev ols e^eaTiv asnoyr) tojv tjSovcov acrK7]ois 
eart tjj ipvxfj vpos a KeKOjAvTai. )y 

1 tovto] TOVTO) B. 

2 €ltt€v €7tI nos (hrl Kronenberg) : cine (etVe 7rcpl Warmington). 

3 volets Basle edition of 1542 : vofil^iv. 

4 €L7T€v Reiske : cIttov. 

430 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 584-585 

to food and drink, it is surely far easier to check the 
appetites for wealth and fame and break their power 
in the end by abstaining from what they desire and 
holding them back. Do you not agree ? M 

The stranger assented. 

" Do you observe, " he asked, " a difference be- 
tween a course of training and the goal such training 
serves ; and as you would say that in athletics the 
goal is to compete with one's opponent for the crown, 
whereas the training is the preparation of the body 
for that end through exercise, so do you agree that 
in virtue as well the goal is one thing and the training 
another ? " 

When the stranger had agreed, Epameinondas 
continued : " First take the case of continence : do 
you regard abstention from shameful and unlawful 
pleasures as training or rather as the goal and evi- 
dence of training ? " 

" The goal and evidence," he replied. 

" And do you not consider it as training and 
practice in continence to achieve it as you have all 
achieved it to this day ? Exercising till your appe- 
tites, like so many animals, have been stirred up, 
you place yourselves for some time before splendid 
tables and varied meats ; then, relinquishing to your 
slaves the enjoyment of the feast, you partake your- 
selves of plain and simple fare with desires which by 
that time have been chastened. a For abstention from 
pleasure in what is allowed is a training of the soul to 
resist what is forbidden." 

For this practice of the Pythagoreans cf. Diodorus, x. 5. 
2, and Iamblichus, De Vita Pythagorica, chap. xxi. 187. 



5 fxera before iyKpardas omitted by Reiske. 
6 yviiva£6fjL€voi] yvfivacdfjievoL Reiske. 



431 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(585) llavu /X6V ow, enrev. 

1 "EaTtv ow> Tt?, c5 <^t'A€, /cat SiKaLocrvvrj 77009 

B (f>iXo7rXovriav /cat <j>iXapyvpiav o'er/cherts', ov to purj 

kX€7tt€lv emovra vvKrcop ra tcov ttIXols purjSe 

Xo)TTo8vT€LV , OuS' €L fJUTj 770oStSa)Ot Tt? 7TCLTpi8a Kdl 

<f)iXovs oV dpyvpiov, ovros acr/cet Trpos <f>iXapyvpiav 
(/cat yap 6 vopuos taafc ivravda /cat 6 (f>6fios arczipyei 
rrjv TrXeove^tav rod aSiKetv), dXXa 6 rcov Slkollojv 
/cat avyKeyo)py]\ilv(jdV vrro rod vojjlov K€p8a>v itoX- 
Aa/ct? d^Lurds iavrov Ikovoiojs aa/cet /cat TrpooeOi- 
£erat fiaKpav elvai ttclvtos aSt/cou /cat irapavopuov 
A^/x/xaro?. oiVe yap ev ^Soi/at? pLeydXats /xev, 
dro7rotS' Se /cat fiXa/Sepals, olov re rrjv StdVotav 

C rjp€fX€LV (JLTJ 7ToXXdf<LS €V i^OVGLQ TOV (X77oAaU6tV 

Karac/ypovrjcraGav, ovre A^/x/xara pLoxOrjpa /cat 
rrXeove^Las [leydXas €t? i(f)iKr6v rjKovaas VTTepftfjvai, 
pdStov wtlvl pur) Troppcodev evSe'Sto/ce 1 /cat k€ko- 
Aacrrat to ^tAo/cepSe?, aAA' er ot9 e^eanv 2 dveSrjv* 
els to KepScLLveiv dvaredpapLpbevov OTrapya* rrepl 
ras aSt/ctas* 5 pbdXa puoXcs /cat 'xaXerrcos rod irXeov- 

€KT€LV a77€^0/X€VOV. dVSpt §€ jU/JJ (f)iXcOV 7TpOL€fJL€VO) 

xdpiaiy pur) paaiXecov Scopeals avrov, dXXd /cat tvxyjS 
KXrjpov a7T€i7TapL€vq) /cat Orjaavpov cfxxvevros im- 
TTrjScoaav aTTOorriaavTi rrjv (jyiXorrXovriav ovk irrav- 

1 ivBdSwKe E : eVScSorat B (SeSerai Schwartz : eVSeSercu 
Reiske). 

2 ctAA' eV ots efecrnv Pohlenz (dAA' ots 1 egeanv Emperius) : 
aXXcus €J;€ow. 

432 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 585 

11 Assuredly," he said. 

" For justice too, then, my dear friend, a mode of 
training exists, whereby we resist the appetite for 
riches and money. It does not lie in abstention from 
going about at night to steal our neighbours' goods or 
strip men of their cloaks ; nor yet does the man who 
refuses to betray country and friends for gold train him- 
self to resist the passion for money (here, actually, it is 
perhaps the law and fear that keeps his cupidity from 
crime) ; it is instead the man who of his own free will 
repeatedly holds back from profits honourable and 
conceded by the law, that trains and accustoms him- 
self to keep well aloof from all dishonest and unlawful 
gain.® For neither in the midst of great but unseemly 
and harmful pleasures can the mind remain unmoved, 
unless it has often, while free to enjoy it, held pleasure 
in contempt ; nor yet is it easy to forgo sordid profits 
and lucrative but dishonest gains, when they come 
within our power, if a man's avarice, instead of being 
subdued well in advance and chastened, has been 
bred to profit without stint where profit is legitimate, 
and so is all agog for fraud and crime, held back just 
barely and with difficulty from unrightful gain. He, 
on the other hand, who does not yield himself up to 
the favours of friends or the bounty of kings, but 
rejects even the windfalls of fortune, and on dis- 
covering hidden treasure, calls off the cupidity that 
leaps at it, finds that his cupidity does not rise in 

a Cf. Mor. 522 b. 

3 aviorjv Reiske : dvatSryv. 

4 anapya Emperius : o yap airapya E C? B (a inserted by E 2 , 
replacing a a superscribed over -n by E c? and now erased). 

5 TTepl tols doLKias Stegmann (irpos ras d8t/a'as Bern. ; 
Schwartz deletes) : 7T€pl rrjs aSucias* 

4>3S 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(585) lgtcxtcxi rrpos rds dSiKias ov$e dopvfiet rrjv ScdvoiaVy 
D dXXd evKoAcos xprJTCLL rrpos to kclAov avrco pueya 

(f>pOVtOV KCLL TOL KaAAlGTCL Tjj faxy} GVVeihcbs • TOTJ- 

rcov eyco kcll Ys.a<f)iaias ipaaral rcov dvQpamcov 
ovres, co <j)LAe 2t/x/xta, TTapairovpLeda rov £evov 
ecxv rjfJLas Ikcxvcos eyyeyvpLvdodat 1 rfj nevicx irpos 
rrjv dperrjv eKeivrjv." 

16. Ta£>ra rod d8eA(f)ov SieAdovros, oaov 2 6 
St/x/xtas' Sis r) rpls emvevoas rfj KecfraAfj, " fjueyas," 
€(f>r], " fieyas dvrjp eoriv 'EiTrafJLeLVcbvSas, rovrov 
8' curios ovroal HoAv/jlvls e£ dpxfjs rrjv dpiarrjv 
rpo(f>rjv ev (j>iAoao(/)ia reus ttclictI rrapaa Kevaadfievos . 
dAAa 7T€pl jxev rovrcov clvtos* StaAuccr&xt 4 Trpos 
E avrovs, 5 co £eve- rov 8e Avcnv rjfjuv, el depus a/co£- 
acu, norepov dpa Kivels €K rod rd(f>ov koI fier- 
oiKi^eis els 'IraAtav rj Karapbeveiv evravda Trap 9 
rjfuv edaeis evpueveai teal <f)lAois, orav eKel yevco- 
fieda, gvvolkols XP r ] a ^l JL€V0V y " 

at o {yeavcop eiripLeioiaoas, eoiKev, eyy], 
Avgls, co St/Xjitta, (ptAoxcopeiv, ovSevos rcov kclAcov 
evSerjs yeyovcos St' 'ETrafjieivcovSav. 6 eon yap ri 
yivopuevov 1 I8ia rrepl rds racj)ds rcov TlvOayopiKcov 
oaiov, ov firj rvxovres ov SoKodfiev drrexeiv to 
[ACLKapLCTTov koI olicelov reAos . cbs ovv eyvcofxev eK 
rcov oveipcov rrjv AvaiSos reAevriqv (Siayivcbcr KOfJiev 

1 iyyeyvfivdad ai Stephanus (iyyvfivdaaadai. Wyttenbach) : 
iyyvfjLvdadcu E ; iyyvfivaaO at B. 

2 Saov] deleted by Reiske. 

3 avros] avrol Vulcobius. 

4 SiaAuccrflai] BuaXvcode Turnebus (but the infinitive is used 
as an imperative in Life of Sulla, chap. xxi. 3, 465 e). 

5 avTovs] avrovs Reiske. 

6 'l&TTafieivwvhav] eVa/xtvcuvSa E. 

434 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 585 

rebellion against him at the prospect of wrongdoing 
nor throw his thoughts into turmoil ; instead, he 
readily disposes of himself for all good ends, holding 
his head high and conscious of the presence in his 
soul of nothing but the noblest thoughts. In our 
admiration for such men, dear Simmias, Caphisias 
and I entreat this grace of the stranger — to allow 
us practice enough in our poverty to achieve that 
excellence." 

16. When my brother had done, Simmias nodded 
some two or three times in assent, and said : " Epa- 
meinondas is a great man, great indeed, and his 
greatness is due to Polymnis here, who from their 
early years provided his sons with the best upbringing, 
schooling them in philosophy. But this dispute, sir, 
you must settle with them yourself. To return to 
Lysis : if it is lawful for us to be told, are you going 
to remove him from his grave and take him to Italy, 
or will you permit him to remain here with us ? He 
will find us good and friendly neighbours when we 
join him there." 

Theanor smiled at this and said : "It would appear, 
Simmias, that Lysis is attached to his present abode, 
since, thanks to Epameinondas, he lacks no honour- 
able provision. For a certain special rite a is per- 
formed at the burials of Pythagoreans, and without 
it we do not feel in full possession of the blessed end 
that is proper to our sect. And so, when we learned 
from our dreams of Lysis' death (we tell by a certain 

a The rite is unknown. For the funeral observances of 
the Pythagoreans cf. F. Cumont, *' A propos des dernieres 
paroles de Socrate " in Comptes-JRendus, Ac, des Inscr. et 
Belles-Lettres (1943), pp. 114 f. 

7 yivo\i€vov Stegmann : yevojjievov. 

435 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(585 ) o> / \ i / \ \ tr »/ 

v ' oe G7]{i€Ltp tlvl (fxuvofievo) Kara tovs vttvovs etre 

reOvrjKoros €ir€ ^covtos etSo>A6V iortv), evvoia 7ToX- 

XoLS €7T€lofj\d€V Q)$ €7rl ^€V7]£ 6 AvOlS dXXo)S K€KTj- 
OeVTCLl KCLl KlV7)T€OS €Orlv 7j[UV 0770)9 e/Cet* fJL€TaXaXJ] 

tcov vo/xt£o/zeVa>v. roiavrrj Se oiavoia Trapayevo- 
fievos /cat Trpos rov rd(f>ov evOvs vtto tcov lyyjuopiitiv 
oSrjyrjBcls ioTrepas rjhrj, ^oas *X € °I JL7 ) V dvaKaXov- 
\X€Vos rrjv AvolSos ifjvxrjv KareXOetv aTTodtoirioovoav 
<hs XPV Tavra TTpdaaetv. TTpotovoiqs Se rfjs vvktos 
etSov fjuev ovSev, aKovoai Se </)OJvfjs eSo£a ra a/ctV^ra 
fjLrj Kivelv ocricos yap vtto twv <f>LXojv /ce/crySeua&xt 
to AvaiSos crco/xa, rrjv Se ifjvxrjv, ^877 /ce/cpt/xeV^v, 
a<f)€Lcr6ai 7rpds dXXrjv yeveaiv aXXco Sat/zovt av\- 
Xaxovaav. /cat jxevroi /cat avfifiaXajv ecoOev 'E^a- 
586 fJL€Lva)v8a /cat rov rporrov aKovoas & 8di/jei€ Avoiv 
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fjcevos vtt* €K€lvov rdvSpos etrj /cat XP$ TO TOLVTCl) 
haipbovi 7rp6s rov fiiov, et pur] /ca/cos* iyw reKfirj- 
paodai rep ttXco tov KVpepvrjrrjv pivpiai 2 fxev yap 
arpairol f5La)v y oXLyai Se as Saipuoves dvdpa)7Tovs 
ayovoiv." 6 puev ovv Qedvojp, ravr ebnddv, rep 
5 E7ra/xetva>vSa 7Tpooe^Xei/j€v, olov e£ VTrapxfjs ara- 
decojjievos* avrov rrjv (f>voiv /cat 4 to etSos. 

17. 'Ev rovrcp Se o {lev larpos rrpooeXOajv irepi- 

1 €K€i] oIkol Holwerda. 

2 jjLvplai Richards (avxvai van Herwerden) : cvpelcu. 

3 avadecoixevos Leonicus : dvaOcfxevos. 

4 Kal added by Victorius. 

a G. Meautis, Recherches sur le pythagorisme (Neuchatel, 
1922), pp. 34 f., compares Mor. 564 d and 300 c to show that 
if the apparition blinked its eyes or cast a shadow it was 
taken to belong to a living person. 

436 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 585-586 

token appearing in our sleep whether the apparition 
is of the dead or of the living) a it occurred to many 
that Lysis had been improperly buried in a foreign 
land and that we must remove him so that over there b 
he might have the benefit of our customary rites. 
It was with this in mind that I came here ; and as 
soon as the people of the country had led me to the 
grave (it was evening by then) I poured libations, 
summoning the soul of Lysis to return and reveal 
what course I should take. As the night advanced 
I saw no vision, but seemed to hear a voice that said 
1 touch not the inviolable/ c as Lysis' friends had 
given his body consecrated burial, while his soul, 
already judged, had been joined by lot to another 
daemon d and released for another birth. Moreover, 
on meeting Epameinondas this morning and hearing 
how he had buried Lysis, I recognized that he had 
been well instructed by that other, 6 even in the 
secrets, and that he had the same daemon for his 
life, if I have any skill to judge of the skipper by the 
navigation. For while the paths of life are number- 
less, yet those are few on which men are guided by 
daemons." On saying this Theanor looked at 
Epameinondas as though in renewed study of his 
character and appearance. 

17. Meanwhile the physician approached Simmias 

6 Probably " in Italy " ; but possibly the meaning is " in 
the other world." 

c Literally " not to move (or disturb) what may not be 
moved (or disturbed)." 

d For theories about the daemon of the Pythagoreans cf. 
P. C. van der Horst, Les Vers oVor pythagoriciens (Leyden, 
1932), pp. 49-53. 

e Literally " that man," an expression of respect among 
the Pythagoreans. Cf. P. Shorey in Classical Philology, 
xii(1917), p. 436. 

437 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(586) eXvae rod Tiip,pLiov rov eniheapLOV cos depairevocov 

B to acopua, (DuAAt'Sas* 8e erreiaeXdcov fied' 'Itttto- 

odeveL8ov /cat KeXevaas epue /cat Xapcova /cat 0eo- 

Kpirov e^avacrrrjvai 7Tpoarjyev els Ttva ycoviav rov 

TrepLurvXov, otf>68pa rerapaypuevos, cos Siecpatvero 

Tip 7Tp0tJCO7TCp. KOLpLOV, " pUT\ Tt KOUVOTepOVy CO 
(DuAAt'Sa, 7TpO(J7T€7TTa>K€V ; " eLTTOVTOS, ' epuol /xev 

ovSev," €<f)7], " kclivov, co Ra^tcrta* /cat yap Trporj- 
Setv /cat TTpovXeyov vplv rrjv 'lTTTTOordevetSov 
/xaAa/ctav, Seoptevos pur] dvaKoivovodai purjSe rrapa- 
Xap,fidveiv els rrjv 7rpal;iv." 

'J^KTrXayevrcov Se rov Xoyov rjpLcov, 6 'Itttto- 

<j0€V€i8as, " p,r) Xeye 7Tpos decoVy" et\>r\y " OuAAt'Sa, 

ravra, /z^Se rrjv npoireTeiav evroXpLiav olopcevos 

avaTpeifjfjs /cat rjpL&s /cat rrjv 7t6Xlv, dAA' eaaov 

C dtrtpaXcos, elirep elpLapraiy KareXdelv rovs dvSpas." 

Kat o OuAAt'Sas* Trapo^vvopuevos , " et7re' puoi," 
cf>rjcriv, " co ^lirTToadeveiha, ttooovs otet piere^eiv 

TOW OLTTOpprjTCOV els Tt)v TTpCL^lV 7]pXv; " 

'Eya> piev," elrrev, " ou/c eXdoraovs fj TpiaKovra 

yiVCOOKCO." 

" Tt odv" €^7j, " togovtcov to 7rXr]9os ovtcov, 
ra 77acjt So^avra p^ovos dvrjprjKas /cat Sta/ce/ca>- 
Av/cas', €K7Tepufjas irnrea TTpos rovs dvSpas, 7]8r] /ca#' 
oSov ovras, dvacrTp€(f)€LV KeXevaas /cat JL07 /cara- 
Tetvat Grjpuepov, ore rcov TTpos rrjv KadoSov avrois 
rd TrXelora /cat to avropbarov ovpmapeoKevaaev ; " 

EtVovTO? Se ravra rov <$>vXXl8ov, rrdvres piev 

D 8i€rapd')(dr)piev , 6 Se Xaoa>v, to> ^Tnroodeveiha rrdvv 

GKXrjptos rr)v oxfjiv evepeiuas, " co pLOxOrjpe," eiTrev, 

dvdptoTTe, ri SeSpciKas rjpL&s; " 

Uuoev, e< P7, oetvov, o l7777ocrt76V6toas', 
438 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 586 

and removed the bandage, preparing to dress the 
wound. But Phyllidas entered with Hippostheneidas, 
and calling Charon, Theocritus, and myself aside, led 
us to a corner of the peristyle, in great agitation as 
his face revealed. When I asked : " Has anything 
unexpected occurred, Phyllidas ? " he replied : 
" nothing / had not expected, Caphisias ; I knew 
and forewarned you that Hippostheneidas was a 
weakling and begged you not to inform him of our 
plans or include him in the execution." 

We were alarmed at these words ; and Hippos- 
theneidas said : "In the name of the gods, Phyllidas, 
do not say that ; do not, mistaking rashness for 
courage, bring ruin on ourselves and on our country, 
but allow the exiles to return (if such is their fate) in 
safety." 

Phyllidas said in exasperation : " Tell me, Hip- 
postheneidas, how many do you think are in the 
secret of our enterprise ? " 

" For my part," he answered, " I know of not less 
than thirty." 

" Then why," he asked, " when the number is so 
great, have you, acting alone, ruined and thwarted 
the plans agreed upon by all ? Sending a mounted 
messenger to the exiles, already on the way, you 
told them to turn back and not press on to-day — to- 
day when mere luck has helped to bring about most of 
the conditions favourable to their return." 

At these words of Phyllidas' we were all dismayed, 
and Charon said, with a cold stare at Hippostheneidas, 
" Wretch ! What have you done to us ? " 

" Nothing terrible," said Hippostheneidas, " if you 

a The story of Hippostheneidas and Chlidon is also told 
in the Life of Pelopidas, chap. viii. 5-9 (281 d — 282 a). 

439 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(586) eav avets rrjv TpaxvTrjTa rrjs <f>a)vrjs dvSpos rjXi- 

KLCOTOV Kdl TToAlOLS 7Tapa7TArj<JLO>S 6XOVTOS AoyiG[A(A)V 
fJL€TOLGXyS- € ^ ^ v yQ<P €Vl/jVX^CLV <f)lXoKLv8vVOV 

ol7too€l£ acrd at toZs ttoALtclis koX dvfjbov SXtycopovvra 
rod fiiov TTporiprjueOa, OuAAt'Sa, ttoXv to ttjs rj pie pas 

pLTJKOS €TL, Kdl TTJV £(J7T€paV /Z7J 7T€pLpL€VO)pi€V, dAA' 
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j36vres' aTTOKTivvvojpuev , aTrodprjaKajpiev ', a(f>€LOajpL€V 

iavrcov. el 8e ravra puev ovre opaaou ^aAe7rov 

E ovre rradeZv, e^eXeoQai 8e tols Srjfias ottXojv to- 

GOVTOJV TToXefJLLOJV 7T€pte^OVTCOV KCLI TTjV UlTapTLaTCOV 

(f>povpav aTTOJoaodai 8vol veKpoZs rj rpialv ov paoiov 
(ovSe yap tooovtov els ra ovpbTroaia Kal ras 

V7TO§0^aS' 7Tap€GK€VaK€ QvXXlSaS CLKpaTOV OJGT€ 

tovs x L ^ovs Kal TrevTaKOGiovs 'Ap^ta 1 fJLedvodrjvat 
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ev toZs onXois elvai Kai irpoGex €LV OTav oi YiirapTia- 
tcov rjyepioves KaXcJoaiv ; 'Apbfildeov Se arjpiepov, 
d>s rrvvOdvopLai, fJLeXXovcnv dvaKpivavTes , orav 
'Ap^ta? €7TaveX9rj y 8iacf)9epeZv. ov pueydXa raura 
arjfjieZa tov pur] Xavddveiv ttjv irpa^iv ; ov KpaTLOTOv 
ernayeZv XP® V0V ov X l ttoXvv aAA' ooov e^ooidiaaodai 

1 'Apxlq] the mss. have apxta, interpreted by all editors 
except Bern, as a genitive. 

440 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 586 

will soften the harshness of your voice and listen to 
the reasons of a man of your own age with white 
hairs like yourself. If we are resolved to show our 
countrymen an example of undaunted courage and 
of a high spirit that holds life cheap, Phyllidas, much 
of the day still remains ; let us not wait for nightfall, 
but at once set out against the tyrants, sword in hand ; 
let us slay and be slain and be prodigal of our lives. 
But slaying or being slain is not difficult, whereas it 
is no easy task to capture Thebes when hostile arms 
beset us in such numbers and to repel the Spartan 
garrison at the cost of but two or three dead ; for the 
store of unmixed wine laid in by Phyllidas for his 
banquets and entertainments is not enough to make 
the fifteen hundred men in Archias' bodyguard 
drunk, and even if we succeed in killing Archias, we 
still have Herippidas and Arcesus, a sober men, to 
face in the morning. Why then this haste to bring 
friends and kinsmen home to certain destruction, and 
that too when our foes are not entirely unaware of 
their coming ? Why have the Thespians had orders 
these past two days to stand under arms and hold 
themselves ready for the summons of the Spartan 
commanders ? They are going to interrogate Amphi- 
theiis to-day, I hear, and on Archias' return b put him 
to death. Is not all this strong evidence that our 
plot is known ? Is it not best to wait a little, just 
long enough to propitiate Heaven ? For when they 

° Herippidas and Arcesus were the Spartan commanders 
still remaining in Thebes. Lysanoridas, the third, had gone 
to Haliartus : cf 578 a, supra. 

b Archias had left to escort Lysanoridas on the way to 
Haliartus : cf. 594, infra. 

2 c Hpt7T77t8as Reiske ('FipfAnnrlSas Hutten) : KpnnrLhas. 

441 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(586) tol Oela; Kal yap ol Lidvreis rfj Arjiir^rpi 1 rov /3ovv 
dvovres ttoXvv 96pvj3ov kclI klvSvvov Xeyovoi Sr)- 

LLOOLOV €L7TO(T7]IJLaLV€LV TOL efJLTTVpa. KCLI TO Gol 

TrXeiorrr]^ SeoLievov, cZ Xapcov, evXafieLas' £x®^ 
££ dypov liol ovvoSevcov ^rraroocopos 6 'JZpcdvdovs, 
Xpf]or6s Liev d'AAcos* Kal oIkzlos dvrjp, ovSev Se rcov 
587 TTpaacroLievtuv 2 ovveiotbs, \ eon ooi,' <f>r]OLV, * cu 
^TnroodeveiSay Xotpcov ircupog eiiol 8' ov irdvv 
ovvrjdrjs' eav ovv So/07 ooi, (f>pdoov avra) (f)vXdr- 
reodac nva klvSvvov i£ evvirviov LidXa hva^epovs 
kclI droTTOv. rr\s yap aXXrjs vvktos tpLirjv avrov 
rrjv OLKLav d)SLveiv coorrep Kvovoav, 3 avrov Se Kal 
rovs <j)lXovs ovvayajvicovras evyeoQai Kal kvkXco 
rrapelvai, rrjv 4 ' Se LiVKaodac /cat d(f>ievai <f>a>vds 
nvas dvdpdpovs, reXos Se rrvp Xajja/jat ttoXv Kal 
Seivov e£ avrrjs evSodev, ojs rd rrXelora rfjs TToXeajs 
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oijjis, c5 y^dpojv, f\v 6 dv6pa)Tros Ste^rjXde, rocavrr] 
tls fjv eych Se Kal napaxprjiici KareSeioa Kal ttoXv 
LiaXXov, aKovaas orjLiepov cos* eis Q rrjv orjv OLKtav 
ol c/)vydSes Karaipeiv fxeXXovoiv , dyajvico lltj fie- 
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d^ioXoyov rovs iToXeLiiovs Spdoavres dXX ooov 
Siarapd^avres . rrjv yap ttoXlv TTpos tjlicxjv riQeiiai, 
rrjv be iXaoLieiav, coorrep eon, TTpos eKeivajv. 

18. ^rroXafithv Se 6 GeoKpiros Kal Karaoycov 
rov Xapcova fiovXoLievov elrrelv n TTpos rov ^tttto- 
oueveLOav, aAA ejioiye, ecrrev, arr ovoevos 

1 ArjjjLTjTpi, Bern. : S^^rpa. 
442 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 586-587 

sacrificed the ox to Demeter the diviners say that 
the flesh burnt on the altar portended great tumult 
and danger to the state. And for you, Charon, here is 
something that requires the greatest caution. Yester- 
day I came in from the country with Hypatodorus, 
son of Erianthes, an excellent person and a kinsman 
of mine, but quite unaware of what is afoot. ' Charon,' 
he said, * is a close friend of yours, Hippostheneidas, 
but not well known to me ; you must put him on his 
guard, then, if you will, against a danger portended 
by a most ominous and extraordinary dream. Last 
night I dreamed that his house was in labour, as with 
child, and that as he and his friends in their anxiety 
were offering prayers and gathered around it, it 
groaned and gave utterance to certain inarticulate 
sounds ; at last a great and terrible fire flared up 
from within, so that most of the city was in flames, 
though the Cadmeia was only veiled in smoke, as the 
fire enveloping it did not rise so high/ Such, Charon, 
was the vision he recounted. For my part, I was 
alarmed even at the time, and on hearing to-day that 
it is at your house the exiles intend to stay, I have 
become much more apprehensive, for fear that we 
may involve ourselves in disaster and yet do the 
enemy no serious injury, but merely give them a 
fright. For I take the city to stand for ourselves, and 
the Cadmeia to be on their side, as indeed it is." 

18. Theocritus interposed, checking Charon, who 
desired to say something to Hippostheneidas. " But 
as for myself, Hippostheneidas," he said, " nothing 

2 TTpaGGOfjidvajv Pfillgk : 7Tpoecro/xeVcov. 

3 Kvovoav (cf. note on Mor. 552 d) : Kvovcrav. 

4 rrjv B lss : tov. 

5 7rcpt7roAa^€ty] €77woAa£eiv Turnebus. 6 etV B : E omits. 

443 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^ J OVTCOS Ov8e7TOT€ dapprjaOLL TtpOS TTjV TTpa^lV, CO 

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pLOOLOV dXXd TCOV KpOLTOVVTLOV eOTLV." 

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1 Kav tls €7nx€Lpfj Pohlenz (Kav €t tls iTTix^poirj Bern.) : KOV 

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444 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 587 

has ever so encouraged me in our venture as this 
vision, although my sacrifices have always augured 
well for the exiles — if as you say a great and brilliant 
light arose in the city from a friendly house, while 
the habitation of the enemy was darkened with 
smoke (which never leads to anything better than 
tears and confusion), and indistinct sounds got abroad 
from our side, so that even if an attempt is made to 
denounce us, our enterprise, attended with but in- 
distinct rumours and blind suspicion, will be revealed 
only by its triumph. As for their sacrifice, it was of 
course unfavourable. The official and the victim do 
not represent the state but the faction in power." 

While Theocritus was still speaking I asked Hippos- 
theneidas : " Whom did you send with the message ? 
If you have given him no great start, we will set out 
in pursuit." 

He replied : "I am afraid, Caphisias (I must tell 
you and the others the truth), that you cannot over- 
take him, as he has the best mount in Thebes. You 
all know the man : he is overseer of Melon's chario- 
teers and through Melon has been aware of the plot 
from the beginning." 

And I, who had caught sight of the man, remarked : 
" It must be Chlidon you mean, Hippostheneidas, 
who won the horse-race at the games of Heracles 
last year." 

" The very man," he replied. 

" And who," I asked, " is this ? He has been 
standing for some time at the outer door looking our 
way." 

3 Kparrjoei Diibner : KpaTrjorj. 

4 'lrriroodeveLha Leonicus : avTiodevetba. 

5 'Hpa/cActa Christ : rjpala. 

445 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

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Tp€7T€TCU 7700? 8vO(j)rjLLLaS 7 0,770 TO O770UO US' €7TapOJ- 

588 fJL€vr) Kdhcds 68ovs, KOLKas 8' €7rav68ovs' a vrj Aux 
TrdvTd Tpeiftecav els clvttjv eKeivrjv ol 8 6eoL TeXos 
8e /xe^pt rrXrjycov rrpoaxOeis vtto opyrjs, efra o^Aou 
yeiTOVOJV kcll yvvaiKtov ovv8pafJLOVTog ai'cr^tora 

TTOLTjOaS KCLL 7Ta6djV Li6Xl$ dftyLLCLL 7700? VLL&S, 

1 (hs . . • fJL€T€xovras nos (to? rod 7rpdyixaTos /a. Pohlenz), 
to fill a lacuna of 40-26 letters. 

2 €vpu)v Leonicus : evpov. 

446 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 587-588 

Hippostheneidas turned and exclaimed : " Good 
heavens ! It is Chlidon. Dear me, has anything 
serious happened ? " 

Seeing our eyes on him, Chlidon slowly advanced 
from the door. When Hippostheneidas had nodded 
to him and told him to speak out before all of us, as 
all were in the plot, he said : " I know the gentlemen 
well, Hippostheneidas. Not finding you either at 
home or in the market-place, I guessed that you had 
joined them here and came as fast as I could, so that 
you might all know everything that has happened. 

On receiving your order to ride at full speed and 
meet the men on the mountain a I went home for 
my horse. I called for the bridle but my wife didn't 
have it, and spent a long time in the storeroom, 
rummaging through the contents as if looking for it. 
When she had had enough of making a fool of me 
she at last admitted lending it the evening before to 
our neighbour at his wife's request. In my exaspera- 
tion I railed at her ; she then resorted to ominous 
and appalling language, cursing me with an unlucky 
journey and an unlucky return ; by Heaven ! may 
the gods send all of it on her own head. Finally I got 
so furious I beat her. Then neighbours and women 
came running up and a crowd collected ; and it was 
all I could do to get here to you gentlemen, after the 
shameful way I had acted and been treated, so that 

° Cithaeron, a mountain ridge on the Attic border. 

3 bUrpLpev Xylander : hUrpifiov. 

4 TajjLL€LO) Bern. : rapLCLco. 

5 Wilamowitz deletes Sc after ws, inserting 5* after Ikclvcos ; 
Post reads Brj for be, inserting nplv after evbov. 

6 crKevojpovfievr) Aid. 2 : oKaiajpovjjL€vr). 

7 bvafapiias Leonicus : hvodvpLias. 8 oi] omitted in B. 

447 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(588) o7rcos dXXov eKirep,7rr\Te Trpog rovs dvhpas, cos ipuov 
TTavTairaaiv e/caraTt/coj? ev rco irapovri /cat kclkcos 
exovros. 

19. 'H/xas* Se res £<JX ev drorros pbera^oXrj rov 
irddovs- fJLLKpov yap einrpoaftev rep KeKcoXvodai 
hvoxepaivovres , ttoXlv Sta, rrjv o^vrrjra rov Koupov 
kcll to rdxos, 1 cos ovk ovorjs dva^oXrjs , els dycoviav 
V7rrjyopLeda /cat cf>6fiov. ov purjv aAA' iyco Trpoo- 

B ayopevoas rov 'IttttogB eve ihav /cat hetjicoodpuevos 
eSdppvvov cos kcll rcov Oecov napaKaXovvrcov enl 

T7JV TTpd^lV. 

'E/c he tovtov OuAAt'Sas /xev cpX €TO r V^ VTrohoxfjs 
eTnLLeXrjooLievos /cat rov Apx^cxv evdvs evoelocov 
els rov iToroVy Xapa>v he rrjs oIklcis rd avay/cata 
TTCLpaoKevdaajv , cos he^opuevos rovs cfyvydhas, 2 eyco 
he /cat QeoKpiros 7rdXiv Trpos rov St/x/zt'av eTravrjX- 
dopuev o7tcos rep 'JLTrapLetvcbvha Kaipov Xafiovres 
evrvxoipiev . 

20. 01 8' T^aav yjhrf irpooco t^riqoecos ovk dyev- 
vovs dXX rjs oXiyov e fin pood ev ol irep\ YaXa^ihcopov 
/cat OctSoAaov yjifjavro, hiaTTopovvres rivos ovoias 4, 

C /cat hvvdpuecos etrj to HcoKpdrovs Xeyopievov Sat- 
pboviov. a Liev ovv irpos rov YaXa^thcopov Xoyov 
dvreiTrev 6 St/x/xta? ovk rjKovoapLev avros he 
UtoKparr) Kiev ecfrr) rrepi tovtcov epoLievos rrore purj 
rvxelv aTTOKpioeaJS, 8 to /x^S' avdis epeodai, ttoX- 
XaKts 8' avrco rrapayeveodai rovs Liev St' oipecos 
ivrvxelv Oeico rivl Xeyovras dXal,6vas rjyovLievcp, 5 

1 to t&xos] rod rdxovs E ac . 

2 to. avayKaia TrapaaKevdcrtov , ojs Se^ojjLevos rovs <j>vydhas 
Amyot and Wyttenbach, to fill a lacuna of 46-18 letters. 

3 r\aav 77877 E ; B puts 17877 after ayevvovs. 

448 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 588 

you might send someone else to meet the men, as I 
am just now in a thoroughly distracted and wretched 
state/' 

19. As for ourselves, our feelings suffered an odd 
reversal ; a little before we had been disappointed 
at the failure of our plans, while now, with the de- 
cision at hand and the need for immediate action 
upon us (postponement being impossible), we were 
yielding to anxiety and fear. Nevertheless, I spoke 
to Hippostheneidas and gave him my hand, encourag- 
ing him with the thought that the very gods were 
calling on us to act. 

Thereupon Phyllidas left to prepare his enter- 
tainment and lure Archias at once to his cups, and 
Charon to make the necessary preparations in his 
house for receiving the exiles. Theocritus and I 
returned to Simmias for an opportunity to confer 
with Epameinondas. 

20. They were already well along in an inquiry of 
no trivial scope, the one Galaxidorus and Pheidolaus 
had engaged in shortly before, when they raised 
the problem of the nature and mode of operation of 
the so-called sign of Socrates. a Simmias' reply to 
Galaxidorus' argument we did not hear ; speaking 
for himself, however, he said that he had once asked 
Socrates about the matter without receiving an 
answer and had therefore never asked again ; but 
he had often heard Socrates express the view that 
men who laid claim to visual communication with 
Heaven were impostors, while to such as affirmed 

a Cf. K. Reinhardt, Poseidonios, pp. 464 if. 

4 twos ovolas Turnebus : ris ovcrla. 

5 -qyovfidva) Stephanus : -qyov^icvov. 

VOL. VII Q 449 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(588) tols 8' aKovoal tlvos (fxovfjs cjidoKovoL 1 TrpooeypvTL 

tov vovv /cat SLaTrvvOavoLievcp ixera ottovStjs- " o9ev 

7]fuv TTapiararo okottovll€vols tSta 77/30? aAA^Aous 

vrrovoelv jjl^7Tot€ to HajKpdrovs Scllliovlov ovk 

D oifjis dXXd (fxxjvrjs tlvos ai'odrjois rj Xoyov 2 votjgls 

€LTJ GWa7TTOVTOS OLTOTTO) TLVL TpOTTCp TTpOS CLVTOV, 
COOirep KCLL KOL0' V7TVOV OVK €GTL (JhjOVT) , X6yC0V §6 

tlvojv So£a? /cat* vorjcreLS XaLifidvovTes otovrat 
(frdeyyoLievcov olkov€LV. 

'AAAa tols Liev (hs dXrjdcos ovap rj tolclvtt) 
ovveoLS yiveTCLL St' r\civyiav koX yaXrjvrjv tov 0x6- 

LIOLTOS OTCLV KadevScOGL LldXXoV OLKOVOVGLV, VTTCLp 

Se 3 lloXls €7TT]koov zypvGL ttjv i/jvxtjv TCxJV Kp€LT- 
tovcov /cat TTerrvLyLievoL* ye dopv/Hcp tcov ttolOcov kclI 
TrepLaycoyfj tcov ^peLtov ctaa/coucrat /cat Trapao^eZv 
ttjv Stavotav ov Svvolvtcll toZs SrjXovLievoLS. 2a>- 

KpOLT€L 8e 6 VOVS KdddpOS tl>V KCLL CLTTadrjS, Tip 
E CJWfJLCLTL jJLLKpa 5 TCOV CLVCLyKCLLCDV X^P iV f<0,TafJLLyVVS 

clvtov, evacfrrjs rjv /cat XeiTTOS vrro tov TtpoorceoovTOS 
o^ecos jLtcrajSaActv to Se TrpooirZiTTOV ov c/)96yyov 
dXXd Xoyov dv tls ct/cacrete Scllliovos dvev (fxjovfjs 

€(f>CL7TTOLL€VOV CLVTCp Tip SrjXoVLl€VCp TOV VOOVVTOS. 

1 <f>d(jKovai Leonicus : (jxioKovarjs. 

2 rj Xoyov Aid. 2 : dXoyov. 

3 fidXXov o\kovovglv, virap 8e Pohlenz, to fill a lacuna of 20-15 
letters. 

4 7T€7TviyfA€voL Turnebus (ttzttvv\jl&vo>v ol Schwartz ; ttzttvv- 

jX€V7]V OL PoSt) : 7T€7TVVfJL€VOL. 

5 fjLTj before /u/c/>d (puKpa E) deleted in Basle edition of 1542. 

a Cf. Cicero, Be Div. i. 49 (110) : " Sed vigilantes animi 
vitae necessitatibus serviunt diiunguntque se a societate 
divina vinclis corporis inpediti " ; ibid. i. 53 f. (121 f.) and 57 
(129 f.). 

450 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 588 

that they had heard a voice he paid close attention 
and earnestly inquired after the particulars. " It 
thus occurred to us," Simmias went on to say, " as 
we examined the question in private among ourselves, 
to surmise that Socrates' sign was perhaps no vision, 
but rather the perception of a voice or else the mental 
apprehension of language that reached him in some 
strange way. So in sleep, where no sound is uttered, 
we fancy, as we receive the impression or notion of 
certain statements, that we hear people speaking. 

" But whereas some men actually have this sort of 
apprehension in dreams, hearing better asleep, when 
the body is quiet and undisturbed, while when they 
are awake a their soul can hear the higher powers but 
faintly, and moreover, as they are overwhelmed by 
the tumult of their passions and the distractions of 
their wants, they cannot listen or attend to the 
message ; Socrates, on the other hand, had an under- 
standing which, being pure and free from passion, 
and commingling with the body but little, for neces- 
sary ends, was so sensitive and delicate as to respond 
at once to what reached him. What reached him, 
one would conjecture, was not spoken language, but 
the unuttered words of a daemon, making voiceless 
contact with his intelligence by their sense alone. 6 

b Cf. Chalcidius, chap, cclv, p. 288 (ed. Wrobel) : " Now 
the voice that Socrates heard was not, I think, of the sort 
that is made when air is struck ; rather it revealed to his soul, 
which was, by reason of his great purity, unpolluted and 
therefore more perceptive, the presence and society of his 
familiar deity, since only the pure may meet and mingle with 
the pure. And as in dreams we fancy that we hear voices 
and the words of spoken language, and yet here there is no 
voice, but only meaning, doing the duty of voice ; so the 
mind of Socrates, by the token of a vivid sign, could divine 
in waking moments the presence of the deity." 

451 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(588) TrXrjyfj yap rj <f)a>vr) TTpoaeoiKe, rfjs ifjvxfjs St' cotcdv 
j3ta tov Xoyov elaSexofJLevrjs orav olAXtjAols ivrvy- 
xdvojp,€V 6 8e tov Kpeirrovos vovs dyei rrjv ev(j>va 
*P v Xy v €Tn8iyydva>v rep vorjOevTL TrArjyrjs pbrj 8eo- 
pevrjv, rj S' iv8l8ojcriv avrco ^aAcovrt /cat ovvreivovri 
F tcls oppas ov fiiaicos 1 vtto Trada>v avrireivovrajv , 
dAA' €v<JTp6(jx)Vs /cat /xaAa/cdss ooairep rjvuas 2 iv- 
Sovaas. ov Set 8e OavpLa^etv, optovras tovto pev 
vtto fjuKpois ota£t pbeydAcov Trepiayojyas oA/cdSa>v, 
tovto 8e Tpoy&v KepapetKoov 8Lv7]glv d/cpas 3 Trapa- 
iftavcrei %€Lp6s opaAcos TrepccfrepopLevcov aipvxa pev 
yap, dAA' opuos, rpo^aAd tolls KCLTacrKevais, vtto 

AeiOT7]TOS €v8l8oJOL TTpOS TO KLVOVV , pOTTTJS y€VO~ 

pievrjs. ip v XV ^ dvdpojTTov pivpiais oppLals olov 
vgttA^lv ivT€Tap,€vrj pLOLKpto TrdvTOJV dpydvtuv ev- 

OTpO^QJTCLTOV laTLV , dv TLS KCLTCL AoyOV aTTTTjTai, 

589 poTTTjV Aafiovoa rrpog to vor]6ev Kivelodai. ivTavOa 
yap €ls to voovv at twv nradcov kol oppaTiv /cararet- 
vovoiv apx^iy tovtov 8e aeiodevTOS, eA/co^tevat 
GTTcbaL Kal GVVTeivovai tov dvOpcoTrov. fj /cat 
jLtdAtara to vorjOev rjAiKrjv c'^et pwp.rjv KaTapuaOelv 
8L8ojoiv ootcL yap dvaicjOrjTa /cat vevpa /cat adpKes 
vyptbv TrepLTrAeat /cat fiapvs 6 Ik tovtojv oyKos 
rjavxd^ojv /cat Keipbevos, djita 4 tw ttjv ifrvxty iv vto 

1 jStatco?] fiiaiovs Reiske. 

2 7]vias\ rjvtais Post. 

3 aKpas van Herwerden : aKpa. 

4 a/xa] aAA' a/xa Stegmann ; a/xa he Wilamowitz. 

a For definitions and descriptions of " speech " or " voice w 
(phone) as a " blow on the air " cf. Plato, Timaeus, 67 b, and 
Aristotle, De Anima, ii. 8 (420 b 29). 

b Hyspleges (rendered " resilient cords ") are probably 

452 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 588-589 

For speech is like a blow a — when we converse with 
one another, the words are forced through our ears 
and the soul is compelled to take them in — ; whereas 
the intelligence of the higher power guides the gifted 
soul, which requires no blows, by the touch of its 
thought ; and the soul on its part yields to the 
slackening and tightening of its movements by the 
higher intelligence. No constraint is exerted, as no 
passion pulls the other way, and the movements of 
the soul respond easily and gently, like reins that 
give. This should occasion no surprise, when we 
observe that large merchantmen are brought round 
by small tillers, and that potters' wheels whirl about 
evenly at the touch of the finger tip ; for these, 
though inanimate, nevertheless, being constructed 
to revolve easily, move so smoothly that they respond 
to the mover at the slightest pressure. But the soul 
of man, which is strung with countless inward move- 
ments, as with resilient cords, b is, when rationally 
dealt with, by far the most sensitive of all instru- 
ments, moving at a slight impulse toward the goal 
conceived by the understanding. For here it is in 
the understanding, to which they are made fast and 
taut, that the passions and inward movements have 
their origins ; and when that is struck, these are 
pulled and thereby exercise traction on the man and 
give him tension. Indeed, it is most of all by this 
that we are enabled to comprehend the great power 
of an idea. For insensate bones and thews and flesh 
saturated with humours, and the inert and prostrate 
mass they constitute, the instant the soul conceives 

here the twisted cords that supplied the motive power in 
certain ancient automata (c/. Hero, Automata, ii. 8). 
c Cf. Mor, 163 e, 

453 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(589) tl 1 fiaXeoQai /cat rrpos avro Kivrjcrou rrjv oppaqVy 
oAos dvacrrds /cat gv vradels rraai tols fi€peaiv olov 
iTTrepajfjievos <f>£p€rai Trpos rrjv TTpa^LV. 

Ovoe o 2 rfjs Kivrjaecos /cat avvevrdaeojs /cat 

B TTapaoraoeajs* rpoiros x a ^ €7T °s V TravreAojs airopos 
ovvo</)drjvaL kolO* ov rj ipvx^J vorjaaaa c^e'A/cerat Tats 1 
opfxals rov oyKov. aAA' el acofia ju,ev 4 St'^a (f>a)vfjs 
ivvorjdels /ctvet Xoyos drrpaypiovajs ovtcus, ovk av 
ot/zat SvaiTLcrTWS 5 e^ot/xev 6 vtto vov Kpeiaoovos vovv 
/cat ipv)(rjs 7 Oetorepag av dyeaOai 8 OvpaOev e</>a77TO- 
jjLevrjs fj 9 TrecfrvKev €7ra(f)rjv 10 Aoyos loye iv ^9°$ Aoyov 
tooTrep cfrojs 11 avravy eiav. rep yap ovtl tols /xev 
aAArjAcov vor\a€LS olov vtto ckotoj Sta (f>ojvfjs ipr]Aa- 
<f)a)VT€s yva)pi£,ofjL€V at Se rebv Satfiovajv (f>eyyos 
eypvoai tols haipLOviois 12 iAAdfjarovaiv , ov Seo/xevat 

C prjfjLarojv ov8e ovopbdrajv, ols xpwpLevoL 77/369 (1AA77- 
Aovs ot avQpojiToi avfJi^oAoLS 13 €t'Sa>Aa ro)v voovfievajv 
/cat etKovas opwaiv, aura 8' ov yivwGKovai 7rArjv 

OLS €7T€GTLV LOLOV TL /Cat OaL/JLOVLOV OJOTTtp €Lp7JTaL 

(freyyos. /catVot to Trepl rrjv (f)0)vrjv yLVOfievov 

1 vco tl Wyttenbach (va> Turnebus ; vorjoci Apelt) : vrjarela, 

2 ovbc 6] el o* o Wyttenbach ; d 8e Emperius. 

3 ovv€vtolg€ojs Ken Trapaordaeajs] ovvrdoeajs kcli TTapaairdaecus 
Reiske. 

4 dAA' el cw/jLa fjLev nos (dAA* d/zcos awfia Wyttenbach ; dAA' 
fj to oco/ia Emperius ; dAA' olov oa>fia Wilamowitz) : dAA* 
followed by a lacuna, containing an acute accent, of 1-2 
letters and acu /xdAa E ; dAA' iv oooi pudXa B. 

6 hvOTTlOTOJs] hvOTTtLoTOiS B. 

6 €xoLfM€v W T yttenbach (ex €iV Post) : e^ei fikv. 

7 iftvxrjs] tfrvxyv tftvxfjs Reiske. 

8 av ayeodai Wyttenbach (dyeoOai Emperius) : ayayeoOai. 

9 fj] rjv Reiske. 

10 €7ra(f>r]v] iiracfyf} Wyttenbach. 

11 <f>u>s] </>a>s npos Bern. 
454 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 589 

a purpose in the understanding and sets its movement 
going for that end, arise as a whole, tense and co- 
ordinate in all its parts, and fly as if winged to carry 
the idea to execution^ 

Moreover, it is no hard or hopeless task to under- 
stand by what manner of impact, co-ordination, and 
suggestion the soul receives a thought and thereby 
with its movements draws after it the corporeal mass. 6 
But if the body is moved with so little trouble by a 
notion that enters the understanding without the 
help of spoken language, it cannot be hard, I think, 
to believe that the understanding may be guided by 
a higher understanding and a diviner soul, that lays 
hold of it from without by a touch, which is the way 
in which it is the nature of thought to impinge on 
thought, just as light produces a reflection. For in 
very truth our recognition of one another's thoughts 
through the medium of the spoken word is like grop- 
ing in the dark ; whereas the thoughts of daemons 
are luminous and shed their light on the daemonic 
man. Their thoughts have no need of verbs or nouns, 
which men use as symbols in their intercourse, and 
thereby behold mere counterfeits and likenesses of 
what is present in thought, but are unaware of the 
originals except for those persons who are illuminated, 
as I have said, by some special and daemonic radiance. 
Even so the phenomenon of speech serves in a way 

a Cf Mor. 442 c-e. 

6 Cf. Life of Coriolanus, chap, xxxii. 7-8 (229 d-e). 
c " Thought " (logos) can mean notion or the rational 
soul. 

12 haifjLovioLS van Herwerden (ovvetvcu Svvafxevois Stegmann ; 
hvvajxtvois avravyelv Kahle ; hvva^iivois ihelv Wilamowitz) : hv- 
va/Lievots. 

13 av^oXois B 1 * : ov^ovXois EB l8S , 

455 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(589) eoriv fj TTapa/jLvOeTrat tovs dmorovvras' 6 ydp drfp, 
(f)66yyoLS evdpOpois rvrrcodeiSi /cat yevopuevos St' 
SXov Xoyos /cat <f)Cx)vrjy Trpos rrjv ifjvxr\v rod aKpota- 

jXeVOV 7T€paiv€L TTjV VOTjOLV. COUTH tl 1 6avpLdt,€LV 
d^LOV el KCLL KdT aVTO* TO VO7]0€V V7TO TCOV dfJL€l- 

vovojv 3 6 drjp rpeTTOfJLevos oV €V7rd6eiav ivorjpiaL- 
verai rols Seiois /cat rrepiTTols dvhpdai rov rov 
vor}oavros Xoyov ; * tbcnrep ydp at 7rXrjyal roov vtt- 

D opVTTOVTOJV* aOTTlGl ^aA/CatS" dXiGKOVTCU St(X T7JV 

dv7r\yr\(Jiv orav €/c fidOovs dvacfie po pievai rrpoa- 
TreaojGL, rtbv Se dXXojv dorjXcos oieKdiovoai XavOd- 
VOVGLVy OVTOJS OL TCOV OOUfJLOVtOV Xoyoi Sid rravrcov 
<f)€p6fJL€VOl IXOVOLS €V7]^OVGL TOLS d96pVpOV TO* TjdoS 

/cat vrjvejjLov k\ovoi rrjv ^svyy]V y ovs 8rj /cat Upovs 

/Cat OCLL/JLOVLOVS dvdpCOTTOVS KaXoVjJL€V. OL §6 77oAAot 

KaraSapdovoLV olovrai to haipboviov dvOpcbiTOis 
eTndeid^eLV, el §' eyprjyoporas /cat Kadeurcoras iv 
rep cf)pov€LV SpLOtcos klvovol, davpuaarov rjyovvrai 
/cat dmoTOV coorrep dv el tis ololto tov (xovglkov, 
dveipuevrj rfj Xvpa ypcop^evov , orav ovary rols 
tovois r\ KaOappLoodfj purj aTrreadai p,r]8e ^/o^a^at. 
E to ydp alriov ov ovvopcooi, rrjv iv avrois* dvap- 
pLoorlav /cat rapa^v, fjs a7rryAAa/CT0 7 TiCOKpdrrjs 
6 eralpos rjpccov, coonep 6 Sodeis en TratSo? ovros 
avrov rep rrarpl yprjopids aired eoiriaev' lav ydp 
avrov if<eXevoev 6 ri dv irrl vovv vq TTpdrrecv, /cat 

1 ti added by us (Castiglioni adds pr) after et, Amyot ovk 
before a£iov). 

2 kolt avro von Arnim (Kara Wilamowitz) : Kara tovto. 

3 dficLvovcov Turnebus (SaifMovcov Wyttenbach) : djuei fol- 
lowed by a lacuna of 5-4 letters. 

4 viropvTTovTiDv van Herwerden ; a lacuna of 8-10 letters 
followed by ovtcov* 

456 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 589 

to allay the doubts of the incredulous. For on re- 
ceiving the impression of articulate sounds, the air 
is fully changed to language and speech and conveys 
the thought to the soul of the hearer. Need we then 
feel surprised that the air, with its ready suscepti- 
bility, should also be transformed by the mere ideas 
of higher beings and thereby indicate to divine and 
exceptional men the meaning of him who conceived 
the idea ? For just as the sound of sappers' blows 
is detected by bronze shields , a which re-echo it as it 
rises from the depths of the earth and strikes them, 
whereas through everything else it slips unnoticed ; 
so the messages of daemons pass through all other 
men, but find an echo in those only whose character 
is untroubled and soul unruffled, the very men in fact 
we call holy and daemonic. In popular belief, on the 
other hand, it is only in sleep that men receive in- 
spiration from on high ; and the notion that they are 
so influenced when awake and in full possession of 
their faculties is accounted strange and incredible. 
This is like supposing that a musician uses his lyre 
when the strings are slack, but does not touch or play 
it when it has been adjusted to a scale and attuned. 
This belief arises from ignorance of the cause of this 
insensibility : the inner lack of attunement and the 
confusion in the men themselves. From this my 
friend Socrates was free, as is shown by the oracle 
delivered to his father when Socrates was yet a boy. 
It bade him let the child do whatever came into his 

a Cf. Herodotus, iv. 200. 2-3 ; Aeneas Tacticus, chap, 
xxxvii. 6-7. 

5 to added by Hubert. 

6 avTols Bern. : clvtoZs. 

7 aTT-qXXaKTO Reiske : airriXXaKrat. 

457 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(589) jJirj pid^eoOcu p/^Se rrapdyeiv aAA' €<f>ievai rrjv opfxrjv 

TOV TTCLlSoS, €VXOfJL€VOV V7T€p CLJUTOV Att * AyOpOLlCQ 

/cat Mouaats 1 , ra 8' aAAa firj TroXvirpayjAovelv rrepl 
F HcoKpdrovs, (Ls Kpeirrova SiJTTovdev exovros iv 
clvtcq fjLvptcxJv StSaa/caAaw /cat TraiSaycoycov rjyefjiova 
7Tpo$ tov fiiov. 

21. " 'H/ztv fiev, eS OetSdAae, /cat ^cDvros 1 2a>- 
Kpdrovs /cat redvrjKoros ovtcos ivvoelv nepl tov 
SatfJiovLOV Trapiararaiy tcov KXrjSovas rj TTrapfiovs 
7] tl tolovtov rrapayovTOJV 1 a'AAo Karacj)povovGiv' 
a 8e TifJbdpxov tov Xatpa>ve'a>9 rjKovoapiev virep 
tovtov Sie^iovros, ovk otSa fjurj 2 pLvdois ojjLOLorepa 
/cat 7rAaa/xaatv t} 3 Adyots dVra 4 oiamav dpieivov." 

" MrjhafJLCos ," €L7T€V 6 QeoKpiTOS, " aAAa SUXde 

avrd* /cat yap €t /L07 At'av aKpifitos, aAA' eanv orrrj 

ifjavec rrjs dXrjdelas /cat rd pLvdtoSes. irporepov 

590 Se rtV t^v ovtos 6 TifJLapxos <f>pdaov ov yap eyvcov 

TOV avOpCOTTOV." 

Fjikotojs ye, etrrev o Zjifipaas , a> vyeoKptre' 
veos yap tov KopaSfj Karearpeifse tov jStov 5 /cat 2a>- 
Kpdrovs 6 Serjdels racfrfjvaL rrapd Aa/X7rpo/cAea tov 
YiOJKpdrovs vioVy dAtyat? 7 irporepov rjjJLCpais avrov 

1 7rapaydvTa>v added by Wilamowitz (elprjKorcov by Bern, 
here ; after aAAo by Leonicus ; Traptioayovrtov ? Post). 

2 fir)] ei fir) van Herwerden. 

3 ojLtotorepa /cat 77-Aaor/xac/tv 77 (o/xotdrepa 77 van Herwerden) 
our supplement of a lacuna of 24-22 letters. 

4 Xoyois ovra van Herwerden : Xoyiaovrai. 

5 Kardarpe/te tov fttov added by Drexler, 

458 






ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 589-590 

mind, and not do violence to his impulses or divert 
them, but allow them free play, taking no further 
trouble about him than to pray to Zeus Agoraeus a 
and the Muses, surely implying by this that he had 
a better guide of life in himself than a thousand 
teachers and attendants. 

21. " Such was the notion, Pheidolaiis, that we for 
our part held about Socrates' sign while he was alive 
and still hold now he is dead ; we have scant use for 
those who account for it by chance remarks over- 
heard or sneezes or the like. The story I had about 
it from Timarchus of Chaeroneia, as it more resembles 
a myth or fiction than an argument, 6 I had better 
perhaps leave untold." 

" Do no such thing," said Theocritus, " but let us 
have it ; for myths, too, despite the loose manner 
in which they do so, have a way of reaching the truth. 
But first tell us who this Timarchus was, as I do not 
recognize the name." 

" And little wonder, Theocritus," said Simmias, 
" for he died very young, after asking Socrates' 
leave to be buried beside Lamprocles, c Socrates' 
son, his friend and agefellow, who had died a few days 

° That is, " Zeus of the Market-Place " : cf. Mor. 789 d, 
792 f. For Socrates' conversations in the market-place cf. 
Plato, Apology, 17 c. 

6 For the contrast of " myth " and " argument " cf, Mor, 
561 b and note. 

c Lamprocles, the eldest of Socrates' children, was pre- 
sumably alive at the time of his father's death (cf. Zeller, Die 
Phil, der Griechen, ii. I 4 , pp. 54, note 2, and 56, note). This 
unhistorical detail may have been added to warn the reader 
that Timarchus, like his story, is a fable. 

6 /cat YiOjKparovs] /cat followed by a lacuna of 3 letters and 
Kpdrovs E ; /cat tov ocoKpdrovs B. 

7 dAtyats Basle edition of 1542 : ah. 

459 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(590) TedvTjKora, </)lAov /cat 7]XiKii!)rr]v yevofievov. ovtos 

OVV TToOtOV yVtOVOLL TO TiCOKpOLTOVS SaLfJLOVlOV TjV 
€)(€L SvVCLfJLlV, CLT€ 8rj V€OS OVK dy€VV7]S dpTL J€~ 

yevfievos <f)i\ooo<f)Las , ifjuol /cat Ke/fyri Koivcoad- 

fA€VOS fJLOVOLS €LS TpO(f)OJVLOV KCLTTjXde SpdcTCLS TOL 

VO/Xt£d/Z€Va 776/01 TO fJLCLVT€LOV . €jJLfJL€LVaS Se SvO 

B VVKTCLS KOLTO) KCfl \LiaV 7]jJb€paV y TCOV TToXXtOV <X7T€yVO)- 

kotcov avTOV rj8rj /cat tcov oiKeioov oSvpofxevcov, 
Trpcol pcdXa cfxuSpos dvrjXOe- 7TpoaKvvrjaas 8e tov 
deov, cos TrpcoTov hiecfyvye 1 tov oyXov, St^yetro rjjjuv 
6av[xdcna 77oAAa /cat t'SetV /cat a/cot>aat. 

22. " "E</>77 3e /Caracas' €tV to pcavTeiov Trepi- 

TVy/lV GKOTOJ 7ToXXop TO TTpOOTOV, €tVa €Tr€v£d[JL€VOS 

KelaOat ttoXvv ypovov ov /xaAa avjJL(f>povcov ivapycos 
€tV lyprfyopev €lt€ oveipoTroXel 2 • ttXtjv Sd^at ye 
ttjs K€(f)aXrjs d/Jia i/joc/hx) irpooTreoovTi TrXrjyetorjs 
Tas pa</)ds Staaraaas" fi€0 idvai ttjv \\ivyr\v. cos 8' 
dvayoopovoa KaTepbiyvvTo Trpos depa Stavyrj /cat 
Kadapov douevr], TrpcoTov fiev dvaTTvevaau tot€ 
C So/c£tV 8ta xpovov ovyyov, T€ivofJL€vqv 3 Tecos, /cat 
rrXziova yiveoOai ttjs rrpoTepov ooairep lariov €/c- 
7T€TavvvfJievr]v > 4i eWtra KCLTaKovecv dfiavpcos poi^ov 
twos virep K€(f>aXrjs TrepieXavvopiivov cf)covrjv rjSelav 

1 $L€(f)vy€ Bern. : hi£<f>evye. 

2 oveipoTToXei Stegmann : ojveipoTToXei. 

3 T€ivofjL€vrjv] or€ivofjL€VT]v EmperiuS ; 8iareivofi€vr]v Post ; 

OV<JT€WoIl4v7]V ? 

4 €KiT€TavvviJL€vr)v nos (€K7T€tclvvvijl€vov Basle ed. of 1542) : 
iKT€Tavvv/jL€vr)v E c (-vvvfi- is in an erasure) ; iKreravvvfjucvov B. 

a Those who wished to consult the oracle of Trophonius, 
460 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 590 

before. Timarchus, then, in his desire to learn the 
nature of Socrates' sign, acted like the high-spirited 
young initiate in philosophy he was : consulting no 
one but Cebes and me, he descended into the crypt 
of Trophonius, first performing the rites that are 
customary at the oracle. a He remained underground 
two nights and a day, and most people had already 
given up hope, and his family were lamenting him 
for dead, when he came up in the morning with a 
radiant countenance. 5 He did obeisance to the god, 
and as soon as he had escaped the crowd, began to 
tell us of many wonders seen and heard. 

22. " He said that on descending into the oracular 
crypt his first experience was of profound darkness ; 
next, after a prayer, he lay a long time not clearly 
aware whether he was awake or dreaming. It did 
seem to him, however, that at the same moment he 
heard a crash and was struck on the head, and that 
the sutures parted and released his soul. As it with- 
drew and mingled joyfully with air that was trans- 
lucent and pure, it felt in the first place that now, 
after long being cramped, it had again found relief, 
and was growing larger than before, spreading out 
like a sail ; and next that it faintly caught the whir of 
something revolving overhead with a pleasant sound. G 

at Lebadeia in Boeotia, descended into a cave and waited 
there for the divine message to be revealed in a dream : cf, 
Pausanias, ix. 39. 5-14. 

b And so belying the proverb els Tpo<£aWou fMe/jLavrevTcu 
" he has consulted Trophonius' oracle," used of persons 
with a gloomy countenance (cf. Leutsch and Schneidewin, 
Paroem. Gr. i, p. 72. 1 and note). 

c This is the music of the spheres. Aristotle (De Caelo, ii. 
9) argues that the sound would be excruciatingly loud. For 
a smooth motion producing a smooth sound cf. Plato, 
Timaeus, 67 b. 

461 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(590) Uvtos. dvafiXeifjas Se rrjv fiev yrjv ovSafiov kclO- 
opaVy vtjoovs Se AajJL7TO[JL€vas fxaXaKcp rrvpl kclt 
dXXiqXojv 1 i^afJLeifiovaas dXXrjv dXXore XP° av ^ )(T ~ 

7T€p fSa^V (I€6 2 T<h (ftCOTL TTOLKlXXojJLevq) KCLTO, TOLS 

IxerafioXas. (fxxiveaOai Se TrXrjdei puev dvapldjJLovs, 
(jLeyeOet Se virepcfrvels, ovk loas Se rrdaag aAA' 
6fJLOLO)s KVKXoT€p€is m oieadat Se tclvtcus tov aldepa 
kvkXco (f>epo[jL€vaLS VTroppoL^elv Xiyvpcos*- elvai yap 
D 6fJioXoyoviJLevr]v rfj rrjs KLvrjaecos Aetor^rt rrjv 
TTpaorrjra rrjs <f><x)vfjs iKetvrjs €K rraacov ovvrjp- 
ILoofievqs. Sid jieaov Se avrcov ddXaaaav fj XijJLvrjv 
VTTOKeyvoQai rots xptopLaai hiaXdpmovaav Sid rr\s 
yXavKOTTjTos eVi/xiy vu/xe'vois' • koll tlov vrjacov oXlyas 
jjiev e/c7rAeiv 4 /card rropov koll Sia/cojU,i£ecr0ai rrepav 
rod pevjjLOLTOS, d'AAas* Se rroXXds tovtco avvecfieX- 
KeaOdL, 5 ttjs OaXaaorfs koI avrfjs ojjlclXojs koI Xeicjs 
kvkXco 6 cr^eSov V7rocf)€pojJi€vr]g. elvai Se rrjs 9aXda- 
cr7]s rrfj jjuev rroXv fiddos Kara vorov pLaXicrra, rrff Se 
apaid revdyr) Kal ^pax^a, rroXXaxfj Se 8 VTrepx^icrOai 
Kal diroXeLTTeiv* avdis ov /xeydAas €Kf3oXds Aa/z/3a- 

1 k<lt aAA-^Acuv] KCLTaWrjXcjs o' von Arnim. 

2 act Wilamowitz {npooayeiv Reiske ; a/xa Wyttenbach ; 
eVayetv von Arnim) : ayeiv. 

3 Xiyvpcos Wilamowitz, to fill a lacuna of 6-9 letters. 

4 €ktt\€iv\ hitKirXtiv von Arnim. 

5 tovtco ow€(j)€\K€odai von Arnim, to fill a lacuna of 10 
letters followed by i$4XK£o§ai. 

6 t^s" daXdoarjs Kal avrrjs {ofiaXcos Kal Xclws our addition) 
kvkXco von Arnim : rrj followed by a lacuna of 43-25 letters. 

462 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 590 

When he lifted his eyes the earth was nowhere to be 
seen ; but he saw islands illuminated by one another 
with soft fire, taking on now one colour, now an- 
other, like a dye, as the light kept varying with 
their mutations. They appeared countless in num- 
ber and huge in size, and though not all equal, yet 
all alike round ; and he fancied that their circular 
movement made a musical whirring in the aether, 
for the gentleness of the sound resulting from the 
harmony of all the separate sounds corresponded to 
the evenness of their motion. In their midst lay 
spread a sea or lake, a through whose blue trans- 
parency the colours passed in their migrations ; and 
of the islands a few sailed out in a channel and crossed 
the current, 6 while many others c were carried along 
with it, the sea itself drifting around, as it were, 
smoothly and evenly in a circle. In places it was 
very deep, mainly toward the south, but elsewhere 
there were faint shoals and shallows d ; and in many 
parts it overflowed and again receded, never extending 

a The sea and its circular movement represent the celestial 
sphere and its apparent diurnal motion. Von Arnim, " Plut. 
iiber Damonen u. Mantik," in Verh. d. kon. Ak. v. Wet., 
Afd. Lett. Nieuwe Reeks, Deel xxii, Amsterdam, 1921, p. 34, 
takes the sea to represent the Milky Way. 

b The current is the celestial equator (the part of the 
celestial sphere which has the most rapid apparent motion) ; 
the islands that cross it are the planets ; the channel is the 
zodiac. 

c The fixed stars. 

d The shoals and shallows may represent nebulae and the 
Milky Way. The great deep in the south was suggested by 
the starless space around the invisible pole in Greek globes. 

7 7T7J added by Bern. 

8 ppax^a 7T. 8e E : ^Spa^ea it. 8e koX B. 

9 a7roAet7r€ty Bern. : 6.tto\itt^iv. 

463 



(590) 
E 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

vovoav kcll t^s 1 x/ooas to pev aKparov koX 7re- 
Adyiov, to 8e ov KaOapov aAAd ovyKeyy^vov koX 
AifJLVtoSes . tlov 8e podcoov 2 ra? vqaovs apa 7re/H- 
yivopevas* irravayeLV ov prjv* ei? tclvto rfj dpxfj 

UWa7TT€LV TO 7T€pCLS OV§€ TTOielv KVkXoV, dAA' ^JOV^fj 

napaXXdooeiv tcls im^oXdg, eXiKa ttoiovocls piav 

€V Tip 7T€piOTp€(/)€odaL. TOVTOJV §€ 77/909 TO pi(JOV 

fidAiOTCL tov Trepie^ovTOS kcll peytOTOV iyKeKXtodai 
F ttjv ddXaooav oXiycp tlov oktco peptov tov ttolvtos 
eXaTTOV, cos avTop 5 KaT€<f)aiv€TO- hvo Se aVTTJV 
i.X eiv dvaoTopoooeis, TTvpos ipfidXXovTas 6 Zvclvt'lovs 
TTOTapovs SexopevaSy cog errl TrXeloTOV dvaKoiTTO- 
pevqv KoxXd^eiv 7 koX drroXevKatveoOai ttjv yXav- 

KOTTJTa. TOLVTCl p€V OVV OpCXV T€pTTOp€VOS TTJ 0€CL' 

1 rrjs Bern. : ras. 

2 twv 8e podlcov] tov he pofipov von Arnim. 

3 TT€piyivo\i£vas Sieveking (-rrepaiovixevas Wyttenbach ; rripav 
iKOfxevas (/cat ?) Post) : Trepaivopuivas. 

4 ov firjv von Arnim : ovhev. 

5 avrcx) Leonicus : olvto. 

6 ijjL^dXXovTas Bern. (ifi^aXovras Wyttenbach) : i^aXovros. 

7 KoxXat,€iv Bern. (/ca^Aafetv Reiske) : KoXdt.eiv. 

° The overflow and recession may represent the various 
distances separating the stars from the surface of the sphere : 
cf. Aetius, ii. 15. 1-2, and Geminus, chap. i. 23 with Manitius' 
note. Or they may have been suggested by the Pythagorean 
theory of the breathing universe (cf. Aristotle, Physics, iv. 6, 
213 b 22-24). Von Arnim (op. cit. pp. 34 f.) takes them to 
represent the variations in breadth of the Milky Way. 

6 The clouded colour belongs to the region below the 
moon. 

c The " surge " may be the belt bounded by the tropics, 
so called from its rapid motion, or the tropics themselves, as 
being the shores of the planetary sea mentioned in the follow- 
ing sentence. 

464 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 590 

very far. a Some of it was of the pure hue of the high 
seas, while elsewhere the colour was not unmixed, 
but turbid and like that of a pool. & As they crested 
the surge c the islands d came back, without, however, 
returning to their point of departure or completing 
a circle ; but with each new circuit they advanced 
slightly beyond the old, describing a single spiral in 
their revolution. 6 The sea containing these was in- 
clined at an angle of somewhat less than eight parts 
of the whole f toward the midmost and largest portion 
of the surrounding envelope/ as he made out ; and 
it had two openings receiving rivers of fire emptying 
into it across from one another, so that it was forced 
far back, boiling, and its blue colour was turned to 
white. 71 All this he viewed with enjoyment of the 

d The planets. 

e The spiral (for which cf Life of Phocion, chap. ii. 6, 
742 d, and Plato, Timaeus, 39 a) represents the apparent 
paths of the planets, which result from their own motion 
combined with the apparent diurnal motion of the sphere. 

/ The sea is the zodiac. " Eight parts " of the whole are 
eight sixtieths of a meridian (for the division into sixtieths 
cf. Strabo, ii. 5. 7, pp. 1 13 f. ; Manilius, i. 561-593 ; Geminus, 
chap. v. 46 ; Achilles, Isag. chap, xxvi ; and Hyginus, 
Astron. i. 6). This is 48°, only slightly in excess of the figures 
given by the astronomers for the distance between the 
tropics {cf. Sir T. L. Heath, Aristarchus of Samos, p. 131, 
note 4). 

9 The celestial equator, which " surrounds " the ecliptic : 
cf Plato, Timaeus, 36 c, with Cornford's discussion. A 
certain mystery (appropriate in a myth) results from counting 
both the arcs intercepted by the ecliptic and the equator on 
the solstitial colure in reckoning the inclination. The words 
" as he made out " hint that the error is Timarchus' own. 
We have found no ancient measure corresponding to 3°. 

h The reference is doubtless to the Milky Way ; the 
openings are at the intersections of the zodiac and the galactic 
circle. 

465 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(590) koltoj S' aiTihovri cjxiLveodai ^acr/xa fieya orpoy- 
yvXov olov €KT€Tfir]iJi€vrjs o<f>alpas, (frofiepov 8e 
8eLVcos kclI fiadv, ttoXXov gkotovs rrXrjpes ov)( 
rjavxd^ovros dAA' eKraparropLevov kclI olvclkXv- 

L^OVTOS TToXXoLKlS' O0€V OLKOVeoQai JJLVpLOLS JJL6V (bpV- 

yas kcll orevayixovs c^cpcov, pjvpLcov 8e KXavdfJiov 

/3p€(/>a)V KCLI jJL€jJLiyjJL€VOV9 dv8pCOV KCLL yVVCLLK&V 
68vpfJLOVS, lfj6(f)OVS Se TTCLVToScLTTOVS KCLL OopvfioVS €K 

591 fiadovs rroppcodev dp,v8povs dvaTTepLTTOfievovs, ots 

OV [A€TpLCOS CLVTOS €K7T€7rXrj)(6cLL. 

" y^pOVOV Se TTpOLOVTOS €L7T€LV TLVCL TTpOS CLVTOV OV^ 

opcofJLevov * to Tt/xap^e, ri rrodels 7Tv8eodaL; ' 

Opacrai 8' avrov 1 otl ' ttclvtcl* tl yap ov Sav- 

fJLCLGLOV; ' 

'AAA' rjfJLLV,' (fxiVCLL, ' TCOV CLVCO jJL€T€OTL [JLLKpOV 

dXXcov yap decov eKelva- rrjv 8e Qepaecfrovrjs puolpav, 
7]v rjfJLeLS 8L€7TOfji€v, TCov rerrdpcov pdav ovoav cos 
rj 2ru£ opi^eLy ^ovXofJLevco ool gkott€lv TrdpeorLV.' 

'EpojueVou Se avrov tls rj 2ru£ iorLV, ' 686s 
els "AiSov/ cj)dvaL, ' /cat irpoeLULV ££ 2 ivavrias 
avrrf ax^ovcra rij Kopv<f)fj to cf)cos' dvarelvovoa 
8 y , cos opas, €K rod "AtSou Karcodev, fj ipaveL rrepL- 

1 8' avrov] 8e irpos avrov B. 

2 c£ added by Wyttenbach (rjn+v i$ von Arnim). 

3 avrrj nos (avrfj Reiske) : avrrj. 

a F. Cumont, Recherches sur le symbolisme funeraire des 
Romains (Paris, 1942), p. 136, note 3, points out that ektarat- 
tomenou (" agitated ") contains a common etymology of 
Tartaros. In Mor. 940 f it is said that if an inhabitant of the 
moon should hear Homer's description of Hades and Tartarus 
(II. xx. 65, viii. 16) he would take them to be in the region 
of the earth. Cf. also Mor. 948 e. 

b The abyss is Hades or the earth (cf. 591 a, infra), 

4*66 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 590-591 

spectacle. But looking down he saw a great abyss, 
round, as though a sphere had been cut away ; most 
terrible and deep it was, and filled with a mass of 
darkness that did not remain at rest, but was agi- 
tated a and often welled up. From it could be heard 
innumerable roars and groans of animals, the wail- 
ing of innumerable babes, the mingled lamentations 
of men and women, and noise and uproar of every 
kind, coming faintly from far down in the depths, 
all of which startled him not a little. 5 

" After an interval someone he did not see ad- 
dressed him : ' Timarchus, what would you have me 
explain ? ■ 

• Everything,' he answered ; ' for what is here 
that is not marvellous ? ' 

Nay,' the voice replied, • in the higher regions 
we others c have but little part, as they belong to 
gods ; but you may, if you wish, inquire into the 
portion of Persephone, administered by ourselves ; 
it is one of the four/ and marked off by the course 
of the Styx/ 

What is the Styx ? ' he asked. ' It is the path 
to Hades,' came the answer ; ' it passes across from 
you here, cleaving the light with its vertex ; it 
extends upward, as you see, from Hades below, and 

which is a place of punishment and opposed to the world 
of eternal light. Cumont (op. cit. p. 56) takes the " sphere 
coupee " to be the lower hemisphere of the universe. 

c The speaker is presumably a daemon : cf. 591 c, infra. 

d The first lies outside the surface of the celestial sphere ; 
the second between that and the path of the sun ; the third 
between the paths of the sun and of the moon ; and the 
fourth, " the portion of Persephone," below the path of the 
moon, that is, of the earth's shadow, which is dissipated 
beyond the moon. The earth is " Hades " (cf. Mor. 942 f ; 
the etymology is " unseen "), and its shadow is the " Styx." 

467 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

' ' <j>€po[JL€vr) /cat 1 rod (Jmjotos d^opi^ei tt]v eG^drrfV 
" jiepiha Ttov oXa>v. reaaapes Se' elaiv dp^ol Travrcov, 2 
£00779 /xev rj TTpaiTTj, Kivrjaeajs Se rj Sevrepa, yeve- 
oecjs Se rj fpirrj, <f>9opas Se rj reXevraia' avvhel 
Se rfj {lev hevrepa rrjv 7rpa)rrjv Movd? Kara to 
doparoVy ttjv Se Sevrepav rfj rpirr] Nous* /ca#' 
yjXtov, ttjv Se Tplrrjv rrpos rerdprrjv Qvgls Kara 
aeXiqvrjv. tG)v Se aVvoeopLcvv e/cdaroz; Motpa /cAetS- 
ov^os 'AvdyKTjs Ovydrrjp KaOrjraL, rod fxev 7rpd)- 
rov "Arrpcmos, rod Se Sevrepov K.Xto9a), rod Se 
Trpos GeXrjvqv Aa^ecrts 1 , rrepl rjv rj fca/XTrr) rr\s 
C yeveaecus. at /xev yap d'AAat vrjaot Oeovs subvert' 
oeXiqvr) Se', Saifiovcov €7tlx0ovlojv ovoa, (frevyet, ttjv 
Srvya puiKpov vrrepcfyepovaa, Aa/xj8dVerat Se aVa^ 
eV fierpois Sevrepots e/cardv ejSSop^/covra eWd. 
/cat rrjs YiTvyos im(f)€pofJievrjs at i/w^at jSocoat 
Set/zatVoucrar 7roAAa? yap o "AtSr/s* d<£a/)7rd£et 
TrepioXiadavovaas , 3 dAAas S' dvaKo filler at Karcodev 
rj GeXrjvrj TTpoavrjxojJLevas, at? et? Kaipov rj rrjs 
yevecrecos reXevrr] avverreaev^ TrXrjv oaat puapal 
/cat d/cd^apror ravrag S', darpdrrrovaa /cat piVKO}- 
pL€V7] (frofiepov, ovk id 77eAd£etv, dAAd Oprjvovorcn, 

1 Kat] Wyttenbach deletes. 

2 iravrojv Leonicus : rrdarjs. 

3 7reptoAtcr^avouaas'] 7T€pio\ia9aivovoas B. 
4 avv€TT€G€ Bern. : iviireae (iv€7T€G€v E ac ). 

C/. Stobaeus, vol. i, pp. 198. 10-12, 448. 12-16 Wachs- 
muth. 

6 The surface of the celestial sphere. 

c In iff or. 943 a earth provides man's body, the moon his 
soul, and the sun his intellect. 

d Cf. Mor. 568 e, 745 b, 945 c. The ultimate source is 
Plato, Phaedo, 12 b. 

468 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 591 

where in its revolution it also touches the world of 
light, it bounds the last region of all.° Four principles 
there are of all things : the first is of life, the second 
of motion, the third of birth, and the last of decay ; 
the first is linked to the second by Unity at the 
invisible, 5 the second to the third by Mind at the sun, 
and the third to the fourth by Nature at the moon. c 
A Fate, daughter of Necessity, holds the keys and 
presides over each link : over the first Atropos, over 
the second Clotho, and over the link at the moon 
Lachesis. The turning point of birth d is at the moon. 
For while the rest of the islands belong to gods, the 
moon belongs to terrestrial daemons and avoids the 
Styx by passing slightly above it ; it is caught, how- 
ever, once in a hundred and seventy-seven secondary 
measures. 6 As the Styx draws near the souls cry 
out-^ in terror, for many slip off 9 ' and are carried away 
by Hades ; others, whose cessation of birth h falls 
out at the proper moment, swim up from below * and 
are rescued by the Moon, the foul and unclean ex- 
cepted. 5 These the Moon, with lightning and a 
terrible roar, forbids to approach, and bewailing their 

e A primary measure is a " day " in Geminus' first sense 
(chap. vi. 1, p. 68. 13 f. Manitius), the time from sunrise to 
sunset ; a secondary measure is " day " in Geminus' second 
sense (chap. vi. 1, p. 68. 15 f. Manitius), the time between 
two successive risings of the sun (cf. also Priscianus Lydus, 
Solut. ad Chosroem, p. 65. 22-26 Bywater). One hundred 
and seventy-seven days of this latter kind make six lunar 
months. For lunar eclipses at intervals of six lunar months 
cf. Mor. 933 d-e, 942 e-f and R. Flaceliere in Revue des 
Etudes Anciennes, vol. liii (1951), pp. 203-221. 

* Cf. Mor. 944 b. 

9 Cf. Mor. 943 d. 

h The " cessation of birth " is the release from the cycle of 
birth and death. 

' Cf, Mor. 944 b, * Cf. Mor. 942 f. 

469 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(591) tov iavrcov rroTpiov dTroacfraXXopLevou <f)epovrai 
koltco TfdXiv €7T y dXXiqv yeveoiv, ojs dpa?/ 

AAA ovoev opu), tov 1 i\xapypv €L7T€lv, r\ 
rroXXovs aarepas ire pi to ^aa/xa rraXXopievovs > 
erepovs 8e KaTaSvopuevovs els clvto, tovs Se arrov- 

TCLS 1 aV KOLTOjOeV.' 

1 Avtovs apa,' cfxivat, ' tovs SatpLovas optov 
dyvoeis. e;(£t yap a>§€* fax?] rrdaa vov /xerecr^ev, 
dXoyos 8e kcll dvovs ovk eariv, aAA' b'oov dv avTrjs 
aapKt puxQfJ KCLL ^ddecrtv, aXXoLovpcevov Tpeirerai 
Kad' rjSovas kcll dXyrjSovas els to dXoyov. puiyvvTai 
ov TTaaa tov clvtov rpoTTov aAA at pbev oAat 
KareSvaav els acopca, koI St' oXtov avarapaxdelaai 

TO aVpLTTCLV V7TO 7Ta9tOV 8ia<f)€pOVTCU /caret tov plov 

E at Se tttj puev dveKpddrjaav, 7rfj Se eXmov e£a> to 
KaOapcoTaTOV, ovk emoTTwpLevov aAA' olov df<p6- 
ttXovv CTriifjavov Ik Kecf>aXrjs tov dvdpamov Kaddnep 
iv fivdco 8e8vKOTOS dpTrjpia Kopv<f>cuov, opdovpLevrjs 

7T€pl CLVTO T7JS ifjVXTJS dveyOV OOOV VTTCLKOVei Acat ov 

KpaT€LTOLL tols irdQeoi. to pbkv ovv virofipvxiov iv 

Tip GWpLOLTL (f)€p6pb€VOV ^XV AcyCTai* TO §€ <f)0opds 

XeL(/>6ev oi 7toXXol vovv kclXovvt€s evTOS elvat vopii- 

L^OVGLV CLVTLOV, <X>07T€p €V Tols ioOTTTpOLS TO, <j)CLlv6- 

pueva kojt dvTOLvyeiav oi Se opdtos virovoovvTes 

ojs €Ktos ovtcl Salpiova TTpoaayopevovai. tovs p<ev 

ovv dnoGfievvvodai hoKovvTas doTepas, to Ttpuapx^/ 

F (hdvai, ' Tas els ortopLa KCLTaSvopLevas oXas ifjv)(ds 

1 qttovtcls Reiske : onrovras. 
2 fiev added by Leonicus. 

a Cf. Mor. 943 d. b Cf. Mor. 943 a. 

470 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 591 

lot they fall away and are borne downward again to 
another birth, as you see.' a 

But I see nothing,' said Timarchus ; ' only 
many stars trembling about the abyss, others sinking 
into it, and others again shooting up from below.' 

1 Then without knowing it,' the being replied, 
1 you see the daemons themselves. I will explain : 
every soul partakes of understanding ; none is 
irrational or unintelligent. But the portion of the 
soul that mingles with flesh and passions suffers 
alteration and becomes in the pleasures and pains 
it undergoes irrational. 6 Not every soul mingles to 
the same extent : some sink entirely into the body, 
and becoming disordered throughout, are during 
their life wholly distracted by passions ; others 
mingle in part, but leave outside what is purest in 
them. This is not dragged in with the rest, but is 
like a buoy attached to the top, floating on the sur- 
face in contact with the man's head, while he is as it 
were submerged in the depths ; and it supports as 
much of the soul, which is held upright about it, as 
is obedient and not overpowered by the passions. 
Now the part carried submerged G in the body is 
called the soul, whereas the part left free from corrup- 
tion is called by the multitude the understanding, 
who take it to be within themselves, as they take 
reflected objects to be in the mirrors that reflect 
them ; but those who conceive the matter rightly call 
it a daemon,** as being external. Thus, Timarchus,' 
the voice pursued, ' in the stars that are apparently 
extinguished, you must understand that you see the 
souls that sink entirely into the body ; in the stars 

6 For " submerged " c/. Plato, Phaedrus, 248 a. 
d Cf. Plato, Timaeus, 90 a. 

471 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(591) opav vofiL^e, tovs Se olov dvaXdpLTrovTas 7rdXiv Kal 
dva<j>aLvopL€vovs Karcodev, a^Aw tlvol kolI t,6(f)ov wa- 
ne p 7TrjX6v dnoaeiopievovSy ras e/c tcov acofidrcov 
eiravaTrXeovGas [xerd tov Qdvarov oi Se dvco Sta- 
(fyepo/JLevoi 1 Salpioves etat tcov vovv eyeiv Xeyopbivojv 

dvOpOJTTOJV. 7T€Lpd6rjTL 0€ KCLTLOeZv €KaUTOV TOV 

owSea/zov fj rfj iffvxjj ovpime<f>VKeJ 

Taura d/couaa£ avTOs aKptfieoTepov 7rpooiye iv 
koX deaodai tcov darepcov aTrotraXevovTas tovs puev 
592 rjrrov tovs Se jjl&XXov, toarrep tovs Ta oiKTva Sta- 
GTjfjiaLVovTas eV Tjj daXdaarj cpeXXovs 6pa)fJL€v eVt- 
(f)€pojjL€Vovs' ivtovs Se rots' KXcodofxevots aTpaKTOLS 
ofJLOicos eAt/ca T€Tapaypbevrjv 2 kolI dvcofJLaXov IeXkov- 
tols, ov Svvapcevovs KaTaaTrjaai ttjv klvtjoiv €tt 
evdeias. Xeyeiv Se ttjv cpojvrjv tovs /xev evOelav 
Kal T€Tayjji€vrjv kivtjgiv e^ovTas evrjviois i/jvxcus 
Xpfjcrdcu Sta Tpotfyrjv Kal Tratoevotv aoretav, ovk 
dyav 3 GKXrjpov Kal dypiov jrapexopievais to aXoyov 
tovs Se avoj Kal /cdVa> noXXaKis dvojpidXaJS Kal 
B T€Tapay[JL€VOJS eyKXivovTas, olov e/c Seapiov airapaT- 
Topievovs, Svo7T€L0€GL Kal dvayojyois* St' aVatSeu- 
atav QvyopLaxtiv rjOeoi, tttj piev KpaTOVVTas Kal 
TTtpidyovTas errl Se^tdV/ tttj Se KaparTopbevovs 
vtto tcov rraOtov Kal avvecpeXKopievovs tols dpLapTrj- 
piaGiv y etra rrdXtv avTiTeivovTas Kal jSta^o/xeVoi;?. 
rov piev yap avvSeapiov, ota ^aAtroV tco dXoyco rrjs 
ifjvxfjs ipbPefiXrjpLevov, OTav avTiOTraGrj, ttjv Xeyo- 

1 avco hia<f)€p6ix€voi\ dvoo Karoo hia<f>ep6yL€voi von Arnim ; dvoo 
<j>€p6fjL€voL Pohlenz. 

2 lAt/ca T€Tapayfi€vr]v von Arnim : iyKaTarerapayfiivTjv, 

3 ovk dyav Turnebus : ov Kara yatav, 

4 dvayooyois Turnebus : dvaXoorois. 

5 i-iri oegidv] hrl 8ef ta or emSigia von Arnim. 

472 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 591-592 

that are lighted again, as it were, and reappear from 
below, you must understand that you see the souls 
that float back from the body after death, shaking 
off a sort of dimness and darkness as one might shake 
off mud ; while the stars that move about on high 
are the daemons of men said to " possess under- 
standing/' a See whether you can make out in each 
the manner of its linkage and union with the soul.' 

11 Hearing this, he attended more carefully and 
saw that the stars bobbed about, some more, some 
less, like the corks we observe riding on the sea to 
mark nets ; a few described a confused and uneven 
spiral, like spindles as they twist the thread, and were 
unable to reduce their movement to a straight and 
steady course. The voice explained that the daemons 
whose motion was straight and ordered had souls 
which good nurture and training had made submissive 
to the rein, b and whose irrational part was not unduly 
hard-mouthed and restive ; whereas those which 
were constantly deviating in all directions from a 
straight course in an uneven and confused motion, 
as though jerked about on a tether, were contending 
with a character refractory and unruly from lack of 
training, at one moment prevailing over it and wheel- 
ing to the right, at another yielding to their passions 
and dragged along by their errors, only to resist them 
later and oppose them with force. For, exerting a 
contrary pull on the tie, which is like a bridle inserted 
into the irrational part of the soul, the daemon 

° The common expression noun echein, meaning "to be 
sensible," is here taken in its literal sense, " to possess under- 
standing." All souls, strictly speaking, possess under- 
standing, but the daemon is explaining a popular expression 
(c/. 591 e, supra). 

b Cf. Mor. 943 d and 445 b-d. 

473 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(592) Lievrjv LieTafieXe tav eirdyeiv tolls afiapriais /cat rrjv 
€7tl rats rjSovcus, ocrat rrapdvoLioi /cat a/cparets, 
aloyyvr)v, dXyr\hova /cat 7rXr]yrjv ovaav evdevSe 1 
rrjs ifjvxfjs wo rod Kparovvros kcli dpxpvTOS em- 
C OTOLiL^oLievrjs, /xe^pt dv ovtlos KoXac^oiievr] 7T€i9r]- 
vios yevrjrat /cat owrjOrjs, cooTrep dpepLLia rrpdov, 
dvev 7rXrjyrjg /cat dXyrjoovos vtto ovLifioXtov dittos 
/cat arjLietwv alaOavoLievrj rod oaiLiovos. * avrat 
Liev ovv difje 7Tore /cat /3paSea>9 ayovrat /cat Kad- 

LGTCLVTCIL TTpOS TO OCOV . €/C §6 TLOV eV7]VLLOV €K€LVCOV 

/cat 2 KarrjKocov evdvs i£ dpxfjs /cat yeveoetos rod 

OiK€LOV ScLLfJLOVOS /Cat TO jJLCLVTLKOV eOTL /Cat OcOkXv- 

TOVLievov yevos' o>v ttjv ^pfioScopov 3 rod KAa£o- 
Lieviov ipvxrjv a/cry/coa? Srjrrovdev cos diroXeiiTovcja 
Travrdiraoi to ocolicl vvKTtop /cat Lie9* rjLiepav 

D eirXavaTO ttoXvv tottov, etr' avOcs eiravjiei 7roXXoTs 
tcov jjLOLKpdv XeyoLievtov /cat irparTOLievtov IvTvypvoa 
/cat TrapayevoLievrj , LiexP 1 ov to ololicl, ttjs yvvaiKos 
TTpoSovorjs, XafiovTes ol exOpol ipvxfjs eprjLiov ot/cot 
KaT€7Tpr)crav. tovto Liev ovv ovk dXrjdes eoTiv ov 
yap e^efiaivev rj ^xh ro ^ vwlicltos, vireiKovcra Se 
del /cat ^aAcoaa tlo Scliliovl tov ovvSeoLiov e8i8ov 
TrepiSpoLirjv /cat TrepufiOLTrjoiv, tooTe TroXXd ovv- 
opcovTCt /cat kcvtclkovovtcl tcov Zktos elcrayyeXXeiv. 
ol Se d<f)avLcjavTes to ocolicl KoiLicoLievov iiexpi vvv 

E Slktjv ev Tip TapTapcp tlvovol. tolvtcl Se etorj,' 

1 ivOivhe] ivboOev (sic) van Herwerden. 
2 koI added by Turnebus, 

4/74 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 592 

applies what is called remorse to the errors, and shame 
for all lawless and wilful pleasures — remorse and 
shame being really the painful blow inflicted from 
this source upon the soul as it is curbed by its con- 
trolling and ruling part — until from such chastening 
the soul, like a docile animal, becomes obedient and 
accustomed to the reins, needing no painful blows, 
but rendered keenly responsive to its daemon by 
signals and signs. ' These souls indeed,' the voice 
pursued, * are brought to their duty and made firm 
in it late and gradually ; but from those other souls, 
which from their very beginning and birth are docile 
to the rein and obedient to their daemon, a comes the 
race of diviners and of men inspired. Among such 
souls you have doubtless heard of that of Hermo- 
dorus b of Clazomenae — how night and day it used 
to leave his body entirely and travel far and wide, 
returning after it had met with and witnessed many 
things said and done in remote places, until his wife 
betrayed him and his enemies found his body at home 
untenanted by his soul and burnt it. The story as 
thus told is indeed not true : his soul did not leave 
his body, but gave its daemon free play by always 
yielding to it and slackening the tie, permitting it 
to move about and roam at will, so that the daemon 
could see and hear much that passed in the world 
outside and return with the report. The men who 
destroyed his body as he slept are still atoning for 
the deed in Tartarus. Of these matters/ the voice 

° Cf. Mor. 445 b. 

6 The story is elsewhere told of Hermotimus of Clazo- 
menae : c/. J. H. Waszink's note on Tertullian, Be Anima, 
chap, xliv (Amsterdam, 1947), pp. 475 f. 

3 'EpiJLoba>pov] 'Epjuort/Aou ? Xylander. 

475 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(592) tj>dvai, l oatfieaTepov, to veavia y rpirco pjqvi- vvv 8' 

a7TL0l.' 

YlavGajji€vr]g Se rrjs tf>a)vrjs fiovXeodat jjl€V 
avrov 1 6 TljJiapxos etf>7] dedaaodai 7TepiOTpet\)0VTa? 
tls 6 tfrOeyyopLevos etrf otpoSpa Se rrjv KecpaXrjv 
avdis aAyrjcras, KaOdirep /3ia ovjjLTneoOeiGav, ovSev 
ere yivtooKeiv ovS alcrOdveadai tlov kcl9' eavTov 
ehra [levToi fierd pitKpov dveveyKtov opdv avrov ev 
T po<f)coviov z Trapd rr]v eicroSov, ovrrep e£ dpxfjs 

KOLT€KAi6r}, K€lfJL€VOV. 

23. '0 p,ev ovv TijJidpxov jivOos ovtos' errel 

Se eXdcov 'A07]va^€ Tpiroj fxrjvl Kara rrjv yevofxevrjv 

F tfiojvrjv ereXevTrjcrev, T^/xefc Se Ha)Kpdrei 6avp,d- 

1,ovt€s drrrjyyeXXojJiev , 6/xe/x^aro HcoKpdrrjs r^ids 

OTL (JL7] l^LOVTOS €TL TOV TtfJidpXOV 8 L7]X6 'o JJL6V CLVTOV 

yap av rjSeajs eKeivov Trvdeodat Kal TTpoaavaKpTvai 
oa<f)€GT€pov. 

'A77e^€t9, CO ®€OKpiT€, jLtCTO, TOV X6yOV TOV 

jjivOov. aAA' Spa pur) Kal rov £evov rjpuv Trapa- 
KXrjreov errl rrjv ^rjrrjcnv' olKeia yap rrdvv /cat 
TTpoorjKovGa delois dvSpdoi." 

Tt 8*," elirev, " ^YiTrapLeivaivSas ov ovjxfidX- 
Xerac yvwpirjv, drro tlov avTtov dvayofxevos rjfJLiv; " 
Kal 6 Trarrjp /xetStacras', " tolovtov," etfir], " to 
rj0OS, CO ^€V€, TO TOVTOVy cna)7T7]X6v Kal 77009 TOVS 
Xoyovs evXafies, aTrXr]GTOV Se tov \iavQdveiv Kal 
aKpoaadai* 816 Kal HrrivQapos 6 TapavTtvos ovk 
oXiyov avTto ovvSiar pittas evravda xp^vov del Stjttov 

1 avrov Sieveking : avrov. 

2 7T€f)Lcrrp€(f>ovra\ 7T€ptarpd(f)a)v Schwartz ; irepiarpat^ivra E. 
Harrison. 

476 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 592 

said, * you will have better knowledge, young man, 
in the third month from now ; for the present, 
depart.' 

" When the voice ceased Timarchus desired to turn 
(he said) and see who the speaker was. But once 
more he felt a sharp pain in his head, as though it 
had been violently compressed, and he lost all recogni- 
tion and awareness of what was going on about him ; 
but he presently recovered and saw that he was 
lying in the crypt of Trophonius near the entrance, 
at the very spot where he had first laid himself 
down. 

23. " Such then is the myth of Timarchus. When 
he had come to Athens and died in the third month, 
as the voice had foretold, a we were amazed and told 
Socrates the story, who censured us for recounting 
it when Timarchus was no longer alive, as he would 
have been glad to hear it from Timarchus himself 
and question him about it more closely. 

" My statement is now complete, Theocritus, and 
you have the myth along with the argument. But 
consider whether we should not also invite the 
stranger to join in the inquiry, for it is one most 
fitting and appropriate to inspired men." 

" Why does not Epameinondas make his contribu- 
tion ? " asked the stranger. " He draws upon the 
same doctrines as I." 

" That is his way, sir," said my father with a smile : 
" to be silent and chary of speech, but insatiable of 
learning and listening. On this account Spintharus b 
of Tarentum, who was long associated with him here, 

° The visionary often hears a prediction of his own death : 
cf. Mor. 566 d and note. b Cf. Mor. 39 b. 

3 Tpcxjxoviov Stephanus : rpcxfxjoveiov. 

477 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(592) Xeyei fjirjSevi rrrj 1 ra>v Kad* eavrov dvdpamcov ivre- 
593 T&j(r]K€V<U pjryre rrXeiova yivcooKovri prcyre eXdoaova 
(frOeyyopuevoj. ov ovv a (f)poveis clvtos SUX9e rrepl 
rcov eiprjpLevoov." 

24. hiyto tolvvv, £<P7> tov puev 1 Lfiapxov 
Xoyov tooirep lepov /ecu dovXov dvCLKeZoOai (frrjfJU 
rep deep 2 xprjvac davpid^a) 8' el tols vtto Zi/x/ztou 
Xeyofievois avrov ' SvottiottJoovoi rives, kvkvovs 
fjiev 3 lepovs kcll hpaKovras /cat kvvols koX Ittttovs 
ovop.d^ovres, dvdpojTrovs 8e deiovs elvai kol Oeo- 
<f>iXeLS aTTiOTOvvres , kolI ravra tov deov ov <f)iXopviv 
dXXd <j>iXdvd ptoTTov rjyovfJievoL. Kaddirep ovv dvrjp 
(f>iXi7T7Tos ov Trdvrojv 6/JLOicos e7TLfieXeLT at rcov vtto 
B rauro 4 yevoSy dXX del riva dpiorov e^aiptov 5 kcu 
diTOKpivojv kcl9* avrov doKel kcll rpefyei koX dyarra 
hia^epovrcos, kcll 6 tjijlcJov ol vrrep rjpias rovs jSeA- 
tlotovs olov e£ dyeXrjs -^apd^avres loias tlvos kcll 
TTepiTTrjs TraiSayojyias d^Lovoiv, ovx v<f> 9 rjvias 
ovSe pvrrjptov, dXXd Xoyco Sta ovpc^oXajv evdvvovres 
<hv ol ttoXXoI kcll dyeXaloi TTavTarrraoiv dneipais 
e^ovoLV. ov8e yap ol ttoXXol Kvves ra>v OrjparLKCJV 
orjjjLeiojv ov8e lttttol 7 tcov lttttlkojv ovviaoiv, 8 aAA' 
ol jjLejJLaOrjKOTes evdvs dno oiypiov rod rvxpvros r) 

C TTOTTTTVOpLOV TO TTpOGTaTTOpLeVOV CLloOcLVOfJLeVOl pCLOLOJS 

eis o Set 9 KadiOTCLVTCii. (jyalverai 8e yivcocrKCuv kcll 

1 ' r ni\ 7rov B ; 7tco ? Post. 

2 <f>r)ixL tco deco] tw Oew <f>7)iiL B. 

3 yap omitted by Reiske after /zo>. 

4 vtto ravro Bern, (vtto to Wilamowitz) : vtt* clvto to. 

5 ££aipcov Dubner : ££aipwv. 

6 /cat] outoj /cat an early conjecture. 

7 ol 7roAAot deleted by Wilamowitz before t7T7rot (place it 
after Ittttikcov ?). 

478 






ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 592-593 

keeps saying, as you know, that nowhere in his 
generation has he met a man of greater knowledge 
and fewer words. You must accordingly present your 
views about what has been said yourself." 

24. " I say, therefore," he said, " that the story 
of Timarchus, as sacred and not to be profaned, should 
be dedicated to the god. a As for Simmias' own 
statement, I should be surprised if any should find 
it hard to accept, and when they call swans, serpents, 
dogs, and horses sacred, refuse to believe that men 
are divine and dear to God, and that too holding him 
no lover of birds, but of men. & As, then, a man that 
loves horses does not devote the same care to all 
members of the species, but always singles out and 
sets apart some one horse that is best, training and 
rearing it by itself and cherishing it above the rest, 
so too our betters take the best of us, as from a herd, 
and setting a mark on us, honour us with a peculiar 
and exceptional schooling, guiding us not by rein or 
bridle, but by language expressed in symbols quite 
unknown to the generality and common herd of men. 
So too it is not the generality of hounds that under- 
stand the hunter's signals, or of horses the horseman's ; 
it is only such as have been taught that readily take 
their orders from a mere casual whistle or clucking 
of the tongue and do what is required. Homer too, 

a G. M. Lattanzi, II " Be genio Socratis " di Plutarco, 
p. 64, note 2, quotes Pausanias, ix. 39. 14 : " Those who have 
made the descent into the cave of Trophonius must write what 
they have seen or heard on a tablet and set it up as a dedica- 
tion." 

b Cf. Life ofNuma, chap. iv. 4 (62 a-b), and [Plato], Minos, 
319 a. 

8 ovviaoiv Stegmann : ovviaoiv. 
9 Set B : 8^ E. 

479 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(593) "Ofirjpos rjv Xeyofiev Siatfiopdv Pixels' tcov yap jidv- 
recxjv oIoovottoXovs Tivds KaXei /cat Upets, irepovs 
Se tcov Oecov avTCOv ScaXeyofJievcov ovvievras /cat 
avjJLcfypovovvTas 1 aTroorniaiveiv oterat to pueXXov, iv 
ols Aeyei 

tcov S 5 "EAevos', YlpidpiOLO <f)iXos Trots, ^vvdeTO 

dvfia) 
fiovXrjv, rj pa 0€olglv icfrrjvSave jjltjtlocool 

/cat 

cos ydp iycov on 9 atcovoa decov aletyeveTacov. 2 

coorrep ydp tcov fiaoiXecov /cat tojv OTpaTTjycov ttjv 
hidvoiav ol jjl€V €ktos aloOdvovTai /cat yivcooKovoi 
ttv pools tlol /cat KTjpvypLaoi /cat vtto oaXTriyycov y 
D tois Se ttlotols /cat avvrjOeoLV aifTol (frpd^ovow, 
ovtco to Qelov dXiyois IvTvyydvei St' avTov /cat 
oiraviojSy toZs §€ 7roAAot9 orj^ela StSa>crtv, e£ cov r) 
Xeyofxevrj \iavTiKT] avveoTrjKe. deol fiev yap 3 ovv 
oXiycov avdpcoTTCov koo/jlovol J3lov, ovs av aKpcos 
fiaKaptovs T€ /cat dziovs cos dXrjOcos airepydoaoQai 
j3ovXrj6cooiv at Se aTTiqXXaypievai yevloecos ^v^al 
/cat o^oXd^ovo ai to Xolttov diro ocopiaTOS, otov 
eXevOepai TrdfiTTav a^ct/xcVat/ Saifioves eloiv dv- 
OpcoTTCOV eTTLfJieXels /ca#' 'Hcrt'oSov. cos yap ddXrjTas 
KaTaXvoavTas doKrjotv vtto y-qpcos ov TeXecos arro- 
XeiTTeL to (/ycXoTLpiov /cat (piXoOCOfJiaTOV, dXXa €T€pOVS 

1 avjX(f)povovvTas Leonicus : oaxfrpovovvTas. 

2 aUiyeverdcov Homer : yzverdcDV. 

3 fj,€v yap] jjl€V Pohlenz. 4 d<£a/x.€V(H Bern. : acfriifievai, 

480 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 593 

it is evident, knew the distinction a of which we others 
speak, as he calls some diviners ' consulters of birds ' b 
and * priests,' c but thinks that others indicate the 
future from an understanding and awareness of the 
actual conversation of the gods. These are his 
words : 

That counsel Helenus in his heart perceived, 

The son of Priam, which the gods had reached 

In their deliberation d 
and 

Such speech of the immortal gods I heard. e 

For as outsiders perceive and recognize the intention 
of kings and generals from beacons and the proclama- 
tions of heralds and the blare of trumpets, whereas 
to confidants and intimates it is imparted by the 
kings and generals themselves, so heaven consorts 
directly with but few, and rarely, but to the great 
majority gives signs, from which arises the art called 
divination. The gods, then, order the life of but few 
among men, such as they wish to make supremely 
blessed and in very truth divine ; whereas souls 
delivered from birth and henceforth at rest from the 
body — set quite free, as it were, to range at will — 
are, as Hesiod-^ says, daemons that watch over man. 
For as athletes who from old age have given up 
training do not entirely lose their ardour and their 
love of bodily prowess, but look on with pleasure as 

° That is, the Stoic distinction between " artificial " divina- 
tion, which interprets omens, and so-called " artless " or 
" untaught " divination, which is found in dreams and in- 
spiration. Cf. Pseudo-Plutarch, Be Vita et Poesi Homeri, 
ii. 212, and Cicero, Be Biv. i. 6 (1 1) with Pease's note. 

6 Cf II. i. 69, vi. 76. c Cf. II. i. 62, xxiv. 221. 

d II. vii. 44 f. e II. vii. 53. 

/ Works and Bays, 122 fF. ; quoted also in Mor. 361 b, 
431 e. 

VOL. vii R 481 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(593) doKovvrag opchvres rfiovrai /cat rrapaKaXovoi koI 
E avjJLTrapadeovGLV , ovrcos ol rrerravpLevoi rcbv 7T€pl 
tov jStov dycovcov St' dperrjv ifsvxfjs yevofievoi 
Sat/xoves* ov TTavreAtos drLpLa^ovoi ra ivravOa 
TrpdypLCLTa /cat Aoyovs /cat cmovSds, aAAa rots irrl 
tclvto yvfJiva^ojJLevoLg reXos evfievelg ovres /cat 

GVfJL(f)lXoTLlJLOVIJLeVOL TTpOS T7JV dp€T7)V iyKeAeVOVTOLl 

/cat Gwe^opfJLOJGiv OTCLV iyyvs rjorj rrjs eAirtoos 

dfJLlAAaJlJLeVOVS KOLL l/jOLVOVTOLS OpOJGLV. OV ydp ols 

F ervyjz gv [Keeper at to SattxoVtov, dAA' olov iirl tcov 
vr\yp\xivoyv ev OaXdrrr] tov$ fiev TreXaylovs en 
/cat npoGco rrjs yrjs <f)€popLevovs ol irrl yrjs eortores 
oiamfj decovrai jjlovov, tovs S' eyyvs rjSrj Trapadeov- 
T€9 /cat irapepL^aivovres a/za /cat X €L P L KCLL ^^vfj 
porjQovvres dvaooj^ovotv, ovtos, 1 a> <f)i\oi, /cat 2 tov 
Scllijlovlov rporros 3 ' id yap 4 rj/jids, ^aTm^opLevovs 
viro tcov 7TpayfJidra)V /cat ocofxara rroXXd KaBdrrep 
ox^OLra pberaXapb^dvovras , olvtovs e^apaXXdoQai 
/cat fjLOLKpodviJLeiv, St' ot/cctas 1 rreipcopLevovs dperrjs 
ocp^eoOat /cat rvyxdvetv Xipuevos* tJtls S' dv rj8rj 
Sta ixvpiojv yeveoeoov r)ycovLCjpL€vr) puaKpovs dycovas 
ev /cat TrpodvfJLOJs *\*vxh> T7 )$ trepiohov ovpLTrepaivo- 
594 puevqs, KivSvvevovoa /cat <j>iXoTipLovpL€irq Trepl rrjv 
e/c/Jaatv tSpcort 7roAAa> rot? ava> 7Tpoo$epv\rcti? 
ravrrj tov oiKelov ov vepbeoa Sattxova fiorjOeiv 6 
6eos aAA' dcf)LrjoL rep TrpodvpbovpLevcp' 7rpo9v[JL€iTCU S' 

1 ovtos Reiske : ovrcos. 

2 cf>t\ot,, kcu Wilamowitz, to fill a lacuna of 9-7 letters. 

3 rponos nos : 6 rponos. For the passage Post doubtfully 
suggests the following : o$tos cbcfreAetas rrjs Sai/zcWas (or rrcpi 

TO batfJLOVLOv) 6 Tp07T0S* 

482 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 593-594 

others train, and call out encouragement and run 
along beside them, so those who are done with the 
contests of life, and who, from prowess of soul, have 
become daemons, do not hold what is done and said 
and striven after in this world in utter contempt, but 
are propitious to contenders for the same goal, join 
in their ardour, and encourage and help them to the 
attainment of virtue when they see them keeping 
up the struggle and all but reaching their heart's 
desire. For daemons do not assist all indifferently, 
but as when men swim at sea, those standing on the 
shore merely view in silence the swimmers who are 
still far out and distant from land, whereas they help 
with hand and voice alike such as have come near, 
and running along and wading in beside them bring 
them safely in, such too, my friends, is the way of 
daemons : as long as we are head over ears in the 
welter of worldly affairs and are changing body after 
body, like conveyances, they allow us to fight our 
way out and persevere unaided, as we endeavour 
by our own prowess to come through safe and reach 
a haven ; but when in the course of countless births 
a soul has stoutly and resolutely sustained a long 
series of struggles, and as her cycle draws to a close, 
she approaches the upper world, bathed in sweat, in 
imminent peril and straining every nerve to reach 
the shore, God holds it no sin for her daemon to go 
to the rescue, but lets whoever will lend aid. One 

° The word ekbasis, translated " shore," but literally 
" egress," was suggested by Homer, Od. v. 410. 

4 id yap Bern, (ea fiev yap Amyot) to fill a lacuna of 6-13 
letters. 

5 toIs ava> 7TpOG<j>€p7)rat. Maas (npos rava) <j>€pr)Tai Bern.) : 
ava> 7Tpocr<l>4pr)Tai. 

483 



PLUTARCH^ MORALIA 

(594) aXXos aXXrjv dvaoco^etv iytceXevopLevos, rj Se ovv- 
clkov€l Sta to rrXr]cnd^€tv /cat oco^eTOU, firj neido- 
fievr] 8e, aTToXnrovTOS rod Scll/jlovos, ovk gvtvx&S 
aTTaXXdcraei." 

25. Tovtcov elprjjjievcxyv 6 ^ErrajJieLvcovSas drro- 

pAeipaS €LS €fJL€, GOL fji€V y €LTT€V, CO JXaCpLOLOL, 

cr^eSdv copa j3aSt£etv els to yvpuvdoiov rjSrj /cat firj 
B dTToXtiTTeiv tovs crvyrjdeiS' rjfJLeis Se Qedvopos em- 
fieXTjoofjieda ScaXvaavTes otolv So/07 rrjv ovvovolav!' 
Kaya>, " Tavra" €(f>r]v, " TTpaTTOfiev 1 * dXXd /xt- 
Kpov ot/xat tl fX€T ipiov /cat YaXa^ihcopov fiovXe- 
ral ooi 8iaXe)(9rjvai QeoKptrog ovtool." 2 

'Ayadfj tvxT)>" elrre, " oiaXeyeodco," /cat rrpo- 
rjyev dvaords els to emKdfJL7Tiov 3 rfjs oroas. /cat 
rjfJLels TTepioxovres avrov eTrex^ipovfiev rrapaKaXelv 
errl ttjv TTpa(;iv. 6 Se /cat ttjv r^iepcxv ecf>r) rrdvv 
oacfrcos eiSeVat ttjs kol668ov tcov cj>vydocov /cat ovv- 
rerdxOaL fierd TopylBov tovs cpiXovs* rrpos t6v 

KCLipOVy dlTOKTevelv Se TCOV TToXiTCOV CXKpiTOV OVOeVOL 

firj p,€ydXr)s dvdyKT)s yevofxevrjs, dXXtos Se /cat 

C TTpos to TrXfjOos dpfjLol^eiv to Qrjfialcov elvai tivols 

dvaiTiovs /cat Kadapovs tcov TreirpayiievcoVy ot 5 

fJL&XXoV e^OVOLV aVVTTOTTTCOS TTpOS* TOV SrjjJLOV COS dlTO 

tov jSeArtcrrou TrapaivovvTes . eSd/cet raura rjpZv. 
KaKelvos p<€V dvexcoprjoev avdis cos tovs rrepl 2t/x- 
piLav, r)fJL€LS Se KaTafidvTes els to yvfivdoiov eveTvy- 
xdvojjiev tols cpiXocs, /cat ScaXapi^dvcov dXXos dXXov 
iv tco ovjXTraXaUiv ra, /xev errwddveTO tcl Se e</>/oa£e 

1 7rpaTTo/A€v] TTpaTTCD/jLcv Aid. 2 , Wyttenbach. 

2 @ed/cptTos ovtool Stegmann (ovtool ©eoKpiros Dohner) : 

OVTOOL 6 deOKpLTOS* 3 iTTLKafXTTLOV L. Dindorf : €7rt/Ca/X7T€tOV. 

4 tovs <l>i\ovs] toZs (friXois Reiske. 

5 ot added by Wyttenbach. 6 -npos added by Reiske. 

484 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 594 

daemon is eager to deliver by his exhortations one 
soul, another another, and the soul on her part, 
having drawn close, can hear, and thus is saved ; but 
if she pays no heed, she is forsaken by her daemon 
and comes to no happy end." 

25. When Theanor had done, Epameinondas looked 
at me and said : " Caphisias, it is time, I believe, 
for you to go to the gymnasium and not disappoint 
your companions ; when we decide to break up this 
gathering, we will look after Theanor ourselves." 

" That I shall do," I replied ; " but I think Theo- 
critus here would like a few words with you, in the 
presence of Galaxidorus and myself." 

" He shall have them ; and good luck attend ! " he 
said, rising and leading us to the angle in the colon- 
nade. We gathered about and endeavoured to pre- 
vail upon him to join in the attack. He was perfectly 
well informed, he replied, of the day appointed for 
the exiles' return ; indeed Gorgidas and he had 
organized their friends for the occasion. But he 
would never put a countryman to death without trial 
unless driven to it by extreme necessity. Apart 
from this it was to the interest of democratic govern- 
ment at Thebes that there should be some men not 
chargeable with the guilt of what was done : these 
would enjoy the greater confidence of the people, as 
their counsels would be less suspected of bias. With 
this we agreed ; and he returned to Simmias and the 
company while I went down to the gymnasium and 
joined my friends. Shifting partners as we wrestled, 
we exchanged information and made arrangements 

a Epameinondas and Gorgidas appear on the scene with 
their band of followers after the assassinations : cf. Life of 
Pelopidas, chap, xii, 2 (284 b) and 598 c, infra, 

485 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(594) /cat avverdrrero irpos ttjv Trpa^iv. ecopcopiev Se 

/cat tovs rrepl 'Ao^tav Kal QiXnnrov aXr)Xipbp,evovs 

D aniovras eVt to helirvov. 6 yap OuAAtSa9, hehicos 

fjirj tov * Api(f)l6eov 7rpoaveXoooiv, evdvs oltto rr\s 

Avoavopihov 7TpoTroiA7Trjs tov 'Ap^tav he^dpuevos 

KOLL 7T€pl TTJS VTTavhpOV 1 yVVCLlKOS TjS eTTldvpLCOV 

eTvyyavev els eX7Ti8as e[if}aXcbv cos dfa^opLevrjs 

€69 TOV 7TOTOV, 2 €7TeiG€ 77/309 padvpLLGLV KCLL dveOLV 

Tpaireadou /xera tcov eloodoTOJV avTcp ovvaKoXa- 
OTaLveiv. 

26. 'Ol/j€ 8e TjV 2, 7J§7] TO T€ IpV^OS €7T€T€LV€ y TTVeV- 

/xaro9 yevopcevov, /cat ota, tovto tcov ttoXXcov Tayiov 
els tols oIkicls avaKeyooprpcoTCov r^puels jJiev tovs* 
Trepl Aa/zo/cAet'Sav /cat YleXoTrlSav /cat QeoTToparov 
evTV)(6vTes aveXapLfidvopLev > aAAot Se dXXovs' ^X^" 
E odrjaav yap evdvs vnepftaXXovTes 5 tov Kt^atpawa, 
/cat Trapea^ev avTols 6 ^et/xojv ra rrpooama ovyKe- 
KaXv/JLjJLevois dSecos SieXOelv ttjv ttoXiv eviois 8e 
eTrrjGTpai/je 8e£idv dvev fipovTrjs eloiovai Sta tcov 
7TvXojv' /cat to oiqjxelov eSd/cet koXov Trpos do(f)dXetav 
/cat Sd^av, cos Xaparpcov, aKivSvvcov Se, tcov irpd^ecov 
iaofjievcov. 

27. ( £ls ovv diravTes evSov rjpiev, 7revTrjKOVTa 
Svolv SeovTes, 7]8rj tov QeoKpLTOV /ca#' eavTOV ev 
oIklokco tlvl o^ayial^opievov , rroXvs tjv ttjs dvpas 
dpaypLos, 6 /cat jLtera puKpov rjKe tls dyyeXXoov 
V7T7]peTas tov 'Ap^tou Svo KoiTTeiv ttjv avXeiov 

1 v7Tavhpov Bern, from the Life of Pelopidas, chap. ix. 4 
(282 b) (eV agicbfjLCLTi Pohlenz ; ya^rrjs Post ; Wilamowitz and 
Sykutris suppose that the husband's name has dropped out) 
to fill, a lacuna of 6 letters in E ; there is no lacuna in B. 

2 7t6tov Salmasius : tottov. 

3 r\v added by Kronenberg. 

486 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 594 

for the execution of the plot. We also saw Archias 
and Philippus, freshly anointed, going off to dinner ; 
for when Archias had returned after escorting Ly- 
sanoridas, Phyllidas immediately took him into his 
house, fearing that Amphitheiis might be put to death 
before we could prevent it ; and leading Archias to 
hope that the married woman he desired would come 
to the banquet, he prevailed on him to dismiss his 
cares and relax with the usual companions of his 
debauches. 

26. It was now late and growing colder, as a wind 
had arisen ; and most of the townspeople had on 
this account withdrawn into their houses earlier than 
usual, when our group met and picked up Damo- 
cleidas, Pelopidas, and Theopompus, and other groups 
picked up the rest (for they had separated as far back 
as the crossing of Cithaeron) ; and the bad weather 
allowed them to muffle up their faces and pass through 
the city without fear. Some, as they entered the 
gates, saw a flash of lightning on the right, not fol- 
lowed by thunder ; and the sign was taken to portend 
safety and glory — our acts would be brilliant and yet 
unattended with danger. 5 

27. Now when we were all in the house, to the 
number of forty-eight, c and Theocritus was taking 
sacrificial omens off in a room by himself, there came 
a loud pounding at the door. It was shortly after 
announced that two officers of Archias, dispatched 






a Cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap. ix. 4 (282 b). 

b Cf. Xenophon, Hell. v. 4. 3 ff. 
c Cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap. ix. 3 (282 a). 

4 rovs] toIs E^B 1 *. 

5 imepfidWovTcs] v7T€p^aX6vT€s van Herwerden. 

6 dpayfLOS Stephanus : appayfios. 

487 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

J, drreoTaXpLevovs ottovStj TTpos Xapoiva /cat /ceAeuet; 
dvoiyew /cat dyavaKTelv fipahiov vttolkovovtojv 
dopvftrjdels ovv 6 Xapcov €K€lvols fiev evOvs dv 
oiyvvvai rrpooeTa^ev, avTos Se d7TavrrjGas e^a) 
GT€(f)avov cos reOvKws /cat ttlvoov errwddvero too 
V7T7]pera>v 6 tl J3ovXolvto. 

Ae'yet S' areposv" 'Ap^ta? /cat Ot'At777709 eTTepafja 
rjfJL&s KeXevovreg obs rdyiord oe 7]K€lv Trpos av 
tovs" 

'Epo/zeVou Se tov Xapa> vos ris rj gttovStj rrj 
rrjviKavra fier aire pa/j e cos avrov /cat parj tl kclivo 
repov, " ovoev lap^ev" 6 VTrrjperrjs €cf)7], ** irXeov 
dXXd tl Xeycopuev avrols ;" 

Urt vrj ZAta, €L7T€V o Kapcov, 0€ls to 

OTecpavov rjSrj /cat Xaficov to IptaTLov eVo/zar pueO 

vpLtov yap TrjvLKavTa j8aSt£a>*> Starapa£a> TLvas oh 

dyopLevos." 

595 " Ovtcos," erf* 7 ]* 3 '' 7TOL€L ' KaL y a P r}P<ds Set tol 

V7TO TToXlV <j)pOVpOLS KOfJLLOCLL TL TTpOOTaypLOL TTCipd 

TCOV dpypvTCOv!' 

'E/cetvot p,ev ovv cpxovTO, tov Se Xdpcovos etaeA- 
Oovtos Trpos rjpi&s /cat raura cppduavTos €K7tXtj^ls 
airavTas ecr^ey olofievovs pLepurjvvodaL, /cat tov *\tt- 
TTOodevelSav vuevoovv ol ttXeZotol kloXvocll jjlcv em- 
^eLprjoavTa ttjv KadoSov Sta tov XAtSaJvos", eVet 
S' direTvye /cat ovvrJTTTe tco KaLpco to Setiw, 
i^evr^vo^evaL 7TL0av6v ovtcl ttjv trpa^LV vtto Seovs* 
ov yap dtj>LK€To /xera tcov dXXojv els ttjv OLKLav, 
488 






ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 594-595 

on urgent business to Charon, were knocking at the 
outer door and ordering it to be opened, and showed 
impatience at the delay in answering. a Charon, in 
great alarm, gave orders to open it at once, and going 
to meet them in person, with a chaplet on his head, 
as if he was in the midst of drinking after a sacrifice, 
asked the officers what they wanted. 

The one replied : " Archias and Philippus have 
sent us with orders for you to report to them at 
once." 

When Charon asked to what urgency this summons 
at such an hour was due and whether anything serious 
had happened, the messenger answered : " That is 
all we know. What shall we tell them ? " 

" Why, tell them/' said Charon, " that I am laying 
my chaplet aside this moment and putting on my 
cloak and following after ; for if I accompany you 
at this hour some people will take alarm, supposing 
me under arrest." 

" Do so," the man answered ; ''it so happens that 
we have an order from the authorities to convey to 
the guards at the foot of the citadel." 

With that they left. When Charon rejoined us 
with the news we were all struck with consternation, 
imagining ourselves betrayed ; and most of us sus- 
pected that Hippostheneidas, after using Chlidon 
in his attempt to prevent the exiles' return, when this 
failed and the crisis was upon us, had in his fear de- 
nounced the plot (being a man who would be credited) ; 
for he had not come to the house with the rest and 

a Cf Life of Pelopidas, chap. ix. 8 (282 c). 

1 €L7T€v Aldine : elvelv. 

2 Post puts the inverted commas before eVo/ucu. 

3 €<f>rj] €<f>r)crav B. 



PLUTARCH'^ MORALIA 

(595) aAA' oXojs 1 iSoKei Trovrjpos yeyovevai koll iraXipi- 
jSoAo?. ov fxrjv dXXd tov ye Xapa>va TrdvTes (hopped a 
B XPV vaL j8a8i^€tv /cat U7ra/coi!€tv Tofe dpyovoL kclXov- 
fievov. 6 Se KeXevoas tov vlov eXOelv, koXXlgtov 
ovtcl Qrjfialcov, c5 'ApxeSapie, rracSa koll (friAoiro- 
vojtoltov rrepl ra yvpuvaaia, TTevreKatSeKerrj p,ev 
a^ehoVy ttoXv Se pojpbrj koX pLeye8eL Siac^epovra ra>v 
SfJirjXiKajv, " ovrosy" 'elirev, " <S dvSpes, epuol \xovos 
earl kcu dyairrpros > tbcnrep tare' tovtov vplv napa- 

Sl'ScO/Xl TTpOS deCOV aTTCLGL TTpOS ScLLfJLOVCDV 6776- 
GKTjTTTOJV €i (f>aveL7)V iytl) TTOVTJpOS 776/36 VfJL&S, 

drroKreivare, purj (fielarjaOe rjpLQjv' to Se Xoittov (hs 2 
dvhpes dyadol npos to crvpLTreoov* dvTLTa^aaOe' 

C p/T] 7Tp6r]od€ TOL GWflCLTCL $L0L(f>9eTpaL T06S" e^LGTOLS^ 

dvdvSpojs koll a/cAeco?, aAA' dpLvvaode, ra? </^X<X9 

drjTTTjTOVS TTJ 77aTjOt§6 <f)vXaTTOVT€S ." & 

Taura tov Xapcovo? XeyovTog to puev (ftpovrjpLa 
koll ttjv KaXoKayaOtav edavpcd^opiev, Trpos Se ttjv 
VTTOifjiav TjyavaKTOvpiev kcll dirdyeiv eKeXevopuev tov 
TralSa. 

lo OAOV, €L7T€V O LL€A07TLOaS, OVO €V 

fiefiovXevoOaL hoKels rjpuv, cS Xapeo^, p,rj pLeTaoTr)- 

odpi€VOS €69 OLKLCLV €T€pOLV TOV VLOV TL ydp CLVTOV 

Set KLvSvveveLV jiie#' rjpicov eyKaTaXapifiavopLevov ; 
kol vvv €K7repL7TT€os, Iv rjpuv, idv tl Tidoyoyp.ev , 
evyevrjs vttot pefyrpr at TipLoopos errl tovs TVpdvvovs." 

D V- OvK €CFTLV," €L7T€V 6 XdpOJV, " aAA' OLVTOV 

rrapapLeveZ kcll KLvSvvevcreL /xe#' vpLtbv b ' ov8e yap 

1 oXws corrected from SXos in EB. 

2 <bs Kronenberg : c5. 

3 avjXTreaov Reiske : ov/jlttoglov. 

4 ixOlaroLS Wyttenbach : ata^tcrrot?. 

490 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 595 

had on all counts, it was felt, shown himself base and 
treacherous. Still, we all felt that Charon should 
go in obedience to the summons he had received 
from the magistrates. He gave orders for his son 
to enter, the most handsome boy in Thebes, Arche- 
damus, and most diligent in athletic exercise ; he 
was, I should say, about fifteen years old, but far 
stronger and taller than others of his age. " Gentle- 
men/ ' he said, " this is my only child, and very dear 
to me, as you know ; I place him in your hands, 
adjuring all of you in the name of gods and daemons : 
if it should appear that I have played you false, kill 
him, show us no mercy. For the rest, face what has 
befallen like the brave men you are ; do not surrender 
your bodies to unmanly and inglorious destruction 
by your bitterest foes, but fight back, keeping your 
souls unconquered a for your country's sake." 

As Charon said this we were filled with admiration 
for his high heart and noble mind, but indignant at 
the thought of suspicion, and told him to take the 
boy away. 

" In any case, Charon," said Pelopidas, " I think 
you were ill-advised in not removing your son to 
another house ; for why should he be exposed to 
danger by being shut up with us here ? Even now 
he should be sent away, so that, if anything happens 
to us, he may grow up in our place to be our noble 
avenger upon the tyrants." 

" That may not be," replied Charon ; " here he 
shall stay and meet the danger with you ; for him 

° The Stoics defined eupsychia (valour) as a science that 
keeps the soul unconquered (Stoicorum Vet. Frag. iii. 264, 
p. 64. 38 f., 269, p. 66. 19 von Arnim). 

6 <j>v\aTTQVT€s] Bia(j)vXdrTOVT€S ? 6 vfjucov E C B : iy/io)v E ac . 

491 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(595) rovro) koXov viroyeipiov yevecrdou tols exOpols. 
dXXd ToAfjia Trap* tjAlklclv, c5 rrai, yevoptevos dOXcov 
avayKaiojv /cat KcvSvveve fiera rroXXcov /cat dyadcov 
ttoXltojv vrrep eXevOepias /cat aperrjs* 7roXXrj 8* 
eXTTts en XetTrerai, /cat ttov tls ecf>opa dewv r)p,as 
ayajvi^opbevovs ire pi tcjv hiKalwv" 

28. AaKpva ttoXXols eTTrjXOev rjfjbcov, co 'A/o^e- 
8afJL€, Trpos rovs Xoyovs rod dv8pos, avros 1 8e 
ahaKpvs /cat areyKTOs ey^ctptcjas' IleAom'oa rov 
viov e^ajpet Sta dvpGiv 8e£iovpLevos eKaarov rjputov 
/cat Trapadappvvojv . ert 8e pbdXXov dv rjydoa) 
rov 7toll86s avrov rrjv c^aiSporrjra /cat to dSees" 2 

E TTpOS TOV Kiv8vVOV, WGTTep TOV N€077ToAe/ZOL>, pLTjT€ 

d)Xpi>o:cravTOS prqre ehcnXayevros , aAA' ZXkovtos to 
£L(f)os tov YieXoTri8ov /cat KaTapuavddvovTos . 

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(f)iXoJV, TTapTjV 77/009 TjpL&S ^t^O? ^X (X}V KaL OwpOLKCL 

ai8rfpovv VTT€v8e8v puevos koI rrvdopievos ttjv Xa/)W- 

VOS VTT* 'ApX^OV pL€T0L7r€pLlpLV fjTL&TO- TTjV pLeXXrjGLV 

rjpiajv /cat 7rapa)£vv€V evdvs irrl rds ot/cta? /?aSt£ety 
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Trpos aAATyAous' 4 davvTOLKTOVS /cat OTTopa8as rj pue- 
F veiv iv oIklokco Kadelp^avTas avTovs coorrep opufj- 
vos e^aipedrjoopievovs vtto Ttov TroXepbiajv . ivrjye 
8e /cat 6 pidvTLS QeoKpiTOS, tog ra>v teptov oto- 
TTjpiu)v /cat koXojv /cat 77pos* dotjydXeiav ex^yyvwv 
avTto yeyovoTQjv . 

1 avros Reiske : ovtos. 

2 dSees Basle edition of 1542, Aid. 2 : dSaes. 

3 Krj<j>LG6bcx)pos 6 Atoyetrovos Wilamowitz and Sykutris : 

K7](f)LGoba)pCL> (K7}<f)LO0b6pa) B) OlOTOVOS. 

4 dXXriXovs] Xylander deletes ; dXXovs or avrovs Wyttenbach, 
492 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 595 

too it would be no honour to fall into the hands of the 
enemy. But, my son, be brave in this first trial before 
your age of the real business of fighting, and en- 
counter peril at the side of many brave countrymen, 
with freedom and virtue as the prize ; much hope 
yet remains, and doubtless some god is watching 
over us as we struggle for the right." 

28. Tears came to the eyes of many of us, Arche- 
damus, at his words ; but he was dry-eyed himself 
and unmoved as he put his son into the charge of 
Pelopidas and passed through the door, taking every 
one of us by the hand and speaking words of encour- 
agement. Even more admirable would you have 
found the boy's own radiance and fearlessness in face 
of danger ; like Neoptolemus, a he neither blenched 
nor was dismayed, but drew Pelopidas' sword and 
studied it with care. 

Meanwhile Cephisodorus, son of Diogeiton, one 
of our party, arrived, armed with a sword and wearing 
an iron corslet under his cloak. When he heard that 
Charon had been summoned by Archias, he blamed 
our delay and spurred us on to proceed to the houses 
at once ; we should thus be upon them before they 
could attack, and failing that, it was better to get out 
into the open and engage with an enemy unorganized 
and scattered like ourselves than to remain where 
we were, confining ourselves in a small room for them 
to collect like a swarm of bees. Theocritus the diviner 
also urged us to act, as his sacrifice promised deliver- 
ance and triumph and assured our safety. 

a The son of Achilles : cf. Homer, Od. xi. 528-530 : 
" Him never have I seen 
Blench from his ruddy hue, or from his cheek 
Brush off the coward tears." 

493 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

I 
(595) 29. 'OTrXi^opievcov 8 e rjpicov Kal avvrarropievcov 
avdis 1 a<j>LKV€LTCu, Xa/>a>v IXapco rep rrpoocoTTcp kcll 
jjl€i8lcdv, kclI 7rpooj3Xe7rcov els rjpias dappelv eKeXevev, 
cos 8eivov jJL7]8ev6s ovros dXXd rfjs 7rpd£ecos 6800 
pa8(,E ) ovor}s . " 6 yap 'Ap^ta?/' €<f>rj, " /cat o 3>tA- 

596 17T7TOS, COS 7JKOVGOLV 7]K€LV €fJL€ K€K\rjfJL€VOV, T^T] 

fiapeZs find rfjs fieOrjs ovres Kal avveKXeXvpuevoc 
roZs acopbaai ras ipvyds, p,6Xis 8iavaordvres ei;co 

TTpOTjXdoV €776 TCLS OvpCLS. ellTOVTOS 8e TOV 'ApX^OV 

* <f)vyd8as, co Xapcov, aKovopuev ev rfj TroXet Kpv- 
7TT€o6ai TrapeioeXdovras ,' ov pberplcos eyco 8iarapa- 
^detSy * 7tov 8'/ €L7Tov, ' elvai Xeyovrac Kal rives ; ' 
1 dyvoovfiev,' 6 'A/o^ia? elire, ' Kal ere rovrov -)(apiv 
eXOeZv eKeXevoapiev, el S07 tl rvyydvoLS oacjyeorepov 

CLKTjKOCOS.' 

" Kaya>, puKpov cooTrep e/c TrXrjyfjs 2 dvacfrepcov 
rrjv 8idvoiav, eXoyL^opsqv Xoyov elvai ttjv pJ\vvoLV 
B ov jSejSatov ov8e vtto tcov avve&orcov e^evrjvexOat 
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avrovSy el tls el8cbs aKptficos epbrjvvev, dXXcos 8e 
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7]Keiv els etcelvovs* elrrov ovv irpos avrov on 
^covtos piev 'AvSpo/cAeiSou noXXaKLS eTTLorapiai 
(f)TjpLas roiavras pveioas 8iaKevr\s Kal Xoyovs 
\jjev8els evoyXTjoavras rjpfiv, vvvl 8e/ efirjv, ' ov8ev 
aKrjKoa roLOvrov, co 'A/o^ia* GKei])op,ai 8e rov Xoyov, 
el KeXevecs, kolv irvdcopLal tl <f>povri8os dtJLov, vpids 
ov Xrjoerai.' 4 

1 avQis Turnebus : aurots'. 
2 €K TrXrjyrjs Turnebus : eKirXayels. 
494 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 595-596 

29. We were arming and preparing for combat 
when Charon returned with a cheerful and smiling 
face, and looking us straight in the eye told us to be 
of good courage ; there was nothing to fear, and our 
plans were working smoothly. a " When Archias and 
Philippus,' , he said, " heard that I had answered the 
summons, they were already heavy with drink and 
their minds, like their bodies, had lost their vigour ; 
it was all they could do to get up and come out to the 
door. ' We hear, Charon,' said Archias, ' that exiles 
have slipped into the city and are lying concealed/ 
At this I felt no ordinary alarm and asked : ' Where 
are they reported to be, and who are they ? ' * We 
do not know,' he replied ; * that is why we sent for 
you, to see if you had heard any more definite news/ 

" Recovering my wits somewhat as from a blow, I 
reflected that the report was mere hearsay ; that 
our plot had not been denounced by anyone privy 
to it (for if someone knowing the true state of affairs 
had betrayed us, they would not be ignorant of the 
house) ; and that a mere suspicion or vague report 
circulating in the city had reached them. And so 
I replied : ' When Androcleidas & was alive I under- 
stand that spates of such idle rumours and false 
reports often gave us trouble, but at present,' I said, 
1 I have heard nothing of the sort, Archias ; I shall 
however investigate the story, if you so direct, and 
if I hear of anything alarming it will be brought to 
your attention.' 

Cf Life of Pelopidas, chap. x. 1-5 (282 f— 283 a). 
b A Theban exile assassinated at Athens at Leontiades' 
command : cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap. vi. 3 (280 e). 

3 av added by Wyttenbach. 
4 v[ias ov ArjcreTai Wilamowitz : ov Xrjaerai u/zds. 

495 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

| 
(596) ' Udvv fJLev ovv,' 6 OuAAiSa? erne* ' fxrjSev, cS 

Xdpojv, d8i€p€vvr]Tov fJL7)8e airvoTOV vrrep tovtcov 
C a7To\Lirr)s m ri yap KioXvei jJLrjSevos Kara^povelv 
dXXd irdvra (fivXarreadai Kal jrpooiyeiv ; koXov 
yap 1 rj rrpovoca Kal to dcr<£aAes , . , a/xa 8e rov 
'Ap^tav viroXaficbv a7rrjy€v els rov oIkov iv & 
TTivovres Tvyyavovoiv . 

9 AXXd firj jjieXXajfjiev, avSpes," €(f>r), " irpooevi;a- 
pL€VOL 8e tols QeoZs etjiajpuev." ravra rod Xapcovos* 
elirovros, ev^opieda roZs OeoZs Kal irapeKaXovpLev 
aXXrjXovs. 

30. "Q.pa p,€V ovv r]V Ka6* tjv dv6pa)7Toi 2 pbdXiora 
rrepl heiirvov elcn, to 8e TTvevpua pidXXov eTTireZvov 
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8l€^LOVGLV. ol pi€V OVV €7TL TOV A€OVTld8r)V Kal 

rov c T77ar^v 3 ra^devres iyyvs dAA^Acov olKovvras* 
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D SttXojv tj p,dyaipav eKaoros (iv Se tovtols rjv Kal 
TleXoTrlSas Kal Aa/xoAcActSas' Kal K.rj(f)icr68topos), 
Xdpcov 8e Kal MeAaw /cat ol pier avrwv iirvr id eoBai 
toIs 7Tepl 'Ap^tav pbeXXovres , rjpu9a)paKia iv8e8v- 

pi€VOL Kal GT€(f)dvOVS 8aCT€LS €)(OVT€S , OL pLCV iXdrTjS 

ol 8e Treves, eviOi Se Kal yyrdovia rcov yvvaiKeiojv 5 
dpLTr€)(6pL€Voi, pueOvovras aTTopupLovpLevot, Kwpui) XP 00 " 
puivovs /xerd yvvaLKcov. 

f H 6 8e "xetpojv, 1 a) 'Ap^eSa/xe, TV\r\ koX rag rcov 
7ToXepLLa>v piaXaKias Kal dyvoias raZs rjpLerepais 

1 yap EB lm 8 : 8c B. 

2 avdpa)iToi\ avOpcoTTot Sieveking. 

3 'YiTdTrjv Xylander(c/. Life o/Pelopidas, chap. xi. 1, 283 c) : 

VTTOLTTrjV. 

496 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 596 

By all means do so, Charon,' said Phyllidas : 
' omit no search or inquiry in this matter ; for what 
is to keep us from making light of nothing, but being 
everywhere cautious and vigilant ? Forethought and 
circumspection are an excellent thing.' With this 
he took Archias in hand and led him back to the 
dining hall where they are now carousing. 

" Then let us not delay, gentlemen," he said ; 
" but address our prayers to the gods and go forth." 
When Charon had thus spoken we began praying to 
the gods and cheering one another on. 

30. It was the hour when people are mostly at 
dinner ; and the wind, growing stronger, had begun 
to bring on a fall of snow mixed with a thin drizzle, 
so that we found very few people abroad as we passed 
through the streets. The party appointed to attack 
Leontiades and Hypates, who lived near one another, 
went out in their mantles, taking none of their weapons 
but a knife each ; among them were Pelopidas, 
Damocleidas, and Cephisodorus. Charon and Melon 
and their party, w r ho were to set upon Archias, went 
out wearing the front plates of their corslets and 
crowned with bushy chaplets, some of silver fir and 
some of pine ; a few were dressed in women's cloth- 
ing. Thus the party represented a band of tipsy 
revellers in the company of women. a 

Our worse fortune, Archedamus, which would have 
made all the indolence and blindness of the enemy 

° Cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap. xi. 1-2 (283 c-d). 

4 oiKovvTds Xylander (cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap. xi. 1, 
283 c) : oIkovvt€S. 

5 yvvaiK€i(x)v van Herwerden : yvvaiKcjv. 

6 7) Leonicus : 6 E ; SB. 

7 xeipcov] \elpov B. 

497 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(596) eiravioovGa toXjjlclis kclI rrapaoKevats kclI KaQdnep 
Spafia T7]v rrpa^iv rjfjicov drr* apxys 8iaTTOiKiXXovoa 

E KwSwwSeGLV €7T€l(JOOLOLS els OLVTO GVV€Opafl€ TO 

epyov, 6i;vv emc^ipovoa koll oetvov dveXTriorov 
TrepiTrereias aycDva. rod yap Xapcovo? ojs iverreoe 

TOLS 1 7T€pl 'Ap^taV KOLl QLXlTTTTOV OVa^O) prjOOLVTOS 
OLKCL$€ KOLL 8iaOK€Vat ) OVTOS rjpL&S €776 TTjV TTpd^LV 

rJKev iv6ev8e Trap 9 vjjlcov imoroXrj Trap* 'Apxiov 
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€<f>7). Kal rrjv p,ev emaroXrjv VTredrjKev vrro to 
TrpooK€<f)dXaiov y alrrjcras 8e Trorrjpiov eKeXevaev 
iyX € ? v ^ai T ° v QvXXLhav e^errepLrre avvex&s irrl 
Ovpas GKei/jopuevov el rd yvvaia irpoaeioi. 

31. Toiavrrjs 8e rdv ttotov eXrriSos Sia7ratSayoj- 
yrjodarjs TrpocrpLL^avres rjpLels Kal 8td rcbv oIkctcov 
evdvs ojodpuevoi rrpos rdv dv8pcova puKpov errl rats 

OvpaiS €CTT7)pL€V €<f)Opd)VT€S TCOV KaTaK€ipL€VOJV €Ka- 

597 orov. rj puev ovv rcov orecfrdvajv Kal rrjs eadrjros 
oifjis 7TapaXoyi£opL€V7) rrjv ern8ripiiav rjpLtov oiyrjv 

1 iveTTeoe rots] <ive7T€ia€ rovs Reiske : eVe'ru^c rots Emperius ; 
iveyeXaorc rots ? Post. 

498 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 596-597 

a match for all our daring and preparation, and which 
had from the outset been enlivening the course of 
our enterprise, like the action of a play, with perilous 
incidents, now joined issue with us in the very moment 
of execution, involving us in a sudden and terrible 
ordeal that threatened unlooked-for disaster to our 
hopes. When Charon, on returning home from his 
encounter with Archias and Philippus, was disposing 
us for the attack, a letter came from Archias the 
hierophant here at Athens to the Archias at Thebes, 
his friend it appears and host, revealing the exiles' 
return, their plot, the house they had entered, and 
their confederates. a Archias, now quite overcome 
with wine and all agog, too, with his expectation of 
the women, took the letter in his hand, but when 
the messenger said that it concerned important busi- 
ness, remarked, " If business is important it can wait 
till tomorrow/ ' b and slipped it under his cushion. 
Calling for a beaker he ordered it filled and every 
moment kept sending Phyllidas to the street to see 
if the women were coming. 

31. These were the hopes that had beguiled them 
over the wine when we came up and, forcing a way 
at once through the servants to the banqueting hall, 
stood for a moment at the door, looking over each of 
the company reclining there. The sight of our chap- 
lets and dress deceived them about our presence in 

Cf Life of Pelopidas, chap. x. 6-10 (283 b-c) ; Nepos, 
', chap, iii ; Paroem. Gr. i, p. 404. 
Cf. Mor. 619 d-e. 

2 KaraKCKXaafjievos] KaraKeKXvGfxdvos Cobet. 

3 kolv] Kal Turnebus ; Kan ? Post. 

4 ro)v\ tlvcov van Herwerden (cf Life of Pelopidas, chap. x. 
8, 283 c) : Cobet deletes. 

499 



PLUTARCH'^ MORALIA 

(597) e7TOl7]G€V €7T€l §€ TTpCOTOS 6 Me'AcOV a)pjJL7](J€ S«X 

fieaov rrjv X € W a T fj ^ a fiy T °v £L<f>ovs e77ifi€f$Xr)KOJS, 
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avrov 7rapa7Top€v6jJL€Vov avriOTrdaas t dvefiorjoev, 
" ov MeAcov ovros, & OuAAi'Sa; " tovtov fiev ovv 
i^eKpovae tt]v €7nf3oArjv* apLa to £l</)OS dveXKOJV, 
8 tav iG7 djjievov Se xaX€7Ttos rov 'Ap^tav emSpa/ztbv 
ovk dvrjKe iraiajv ecus oltt6KT€LV€. 

Tov Se QLXnnrov erpcoae fiev Xapaw Trapa tov 
rpdx^Xov, dfjuvvofjievov Se rots TTapaKeipbevois Ikttoj- 
B fxaaiv 6 Avaideog diro rrjs kXlvtjs xajuai KarafiaXtbv 
dvelXe . 

Tov Se Ka/Jipi^ov rjfJLels Karen pavvofiev d^iovvres 
jjirj rots rvpdvvois porjOeiv dXXd rrjv Trarptoa 
avveXevdepovv , lepov ovra Kai tois dzols KaOojaia)- 
fjievov vrrep avrrjs' ojs Se Kal Sid rov olvov ovk rjv 
evTrapaKo/JUGTOS rep Xoyiafxcp Trpos to avpuc^epov, 
dXXd pL€T€a)pos Kal rerapaypievos aviararo Kal to 
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eftoojv d(f>€Lvat Kal gco^clv iavrov, ei Se jjltJ, ttc- 
7TXrj^€a8ac' 0ed77o/x77os' 4 Se Trapaoras eKoe^uhv 5 
C Kal rw £i</)€i< Trard^as avrov, " evravda," €(/>rj, 
" KeZoo jLtera tovtojv ovs eKoXaKeves' fjurj yap iv 
eXtvOepais are^avojaaio raZs ©T^Sat? pirjoe dvoeias 

1 KajStpixo?] KajSetptx ? Cobet. 

2 KvafjL€vros W. Dindorf : kvoliiiotos. 

3 cmj8oAi7i> Reiske : impovXrjv. 

500 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 597 

the city and kept them quiet a ; but when Melon, the 
first to make a move, set out through their midst, his 
hand on his sword hilt, Cabirichus, the magistrate 
appointed by lot, caught his arm as he passed and 
shouted : " Isn't this Melon, Phyllidas ? " Melon, 
however, disengaged himself, drawing his sword as 
he did so, and rushing at Archias, who was having 
trouble getting to his feet, did not slacken his blows 
until he had killed him. 

Philippus was wounded by Charon near the neck, 
and as he defended himself with the goblets set before 
him, Lysitheiis threw him from his couch to the 
ground and dispatched him. 

We endeavoured to quiet Cabirichus, adjuring him 
not to lend aid to the tyrants but help us set his 
country free, as his person was sacred and consecrated 
to the gods in that country's behalf. But as he was 
not easily to be won over to the wiser course by an 
appeal to reason, the wine also having its effect, but 
was getting to his feet, excited and confused, and 
couching the spear our magistrates are accustomed 
to keep always with them, I seized it in the middle 
and raising it above my head shouted to him to let 
go and save himself, as he would otherwise be cut 
down ; but Theopompus came up at his right and 
struck him with his sword, saying : " Lie there with 
these you toadied to : may you never wear the 
chaplet when Thebes is free and never sacrifice again 

a In the Life of Pelopidas (chap. xi. 3, 283 d) the appear- 
ance of the supposed women is greeted with shouts and 
applause. 

4 ®€07toii7tos Amyot, Aid. 2 : Ozottos. 

5 So EB ; for the accent cf. Herodian, vol. i, p. 509. 22 
(ed. Lentz). 

501 



PLUTARCH'S^ MORALIA 

(597) €tl toXs OeoZs eft cov Karrjpdaa) ttoXXol rfj irarpihi, 

TToWoLKLS V7T€p TCOV TToXepLLCOV €l^OU€VOS' /' TTCGOV' 
TOS §€ TOV KajStpt^OU TO [JL€V lepOV S6pV ©eOKpiTOS 

rrapcbv avrjpTraoev £k tov (f)6vov, tcov $e deparrovTCOv 
oXiyovs ToXfitfcravTas afivvaadai hie<f>6eipapiev rjpLels, 
tovs §e r\Gvyiav ayovras els tov dvSpcova /care/cAet- 
cra/xev ov ftovXopLevot hiarreaovTas e^ayyelXai tcl 
D 7T€TrpayjJieva irplv elhevai koI tcl tcov eTepcov 1 ei 

KdXcOS K€XO)pr)K€V. 

32. ^7Tpdx07] he KaKelva tovtov tov Tpoirov 
€Koifjav oi TTepl YleXoTTiSav tov AeovTidhov tt]v av- 
Xetov rjvvxfj rrpooeXdovTes koX Trpos tov vttolkov- 
oavTa tcov olk€tcl)v ecf>aoav 7]K€iv 'Adrjvqdev 
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dvpav, ipL7T€o6vT€s dOpooi teal dvaTpeifjavTes TOV 
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ddXapiov. 6 8e evdvs €ttl ttjv dXrjOeiav e^evex^els 
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rrpos dfivvav, dStKos p<ev dvrjp kcll TVpavviKos, 
evpcooTos Se ttj i/jvxfj /cat Kcrra X € ^P a pw^aXeos* 
ov fJirjv eyvco ye tov Xvx vov KoiTafiaXeTv koX hid 

OKOTOVS OVfJLjJU^aL TOLS €7Tl<f)€pOfA€VOLS, ClAA' €V (f>COTL 

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tcls els x € W a s eXOecv dvSpdaiv eTTi^aveoTaTOis tcov 

1 irepcov] iraipcjv Leonicus. 
2 /cat] van Herwerden deletes. 

502 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 597 

to the gods before whom you have invoked so many 
curses on your country in your many prayers for her 
enemies." When Cabirichus had fallen, Theocritus 
(who was standing near) caught up the sacred spear 
from the blood, while we dispatched the few servants 
who had ventured to fight back and locked up the 
rest, who made no resistance, in the banqueting hall, 
as we did not wish them to slip away and report what 
had been done until we knew whether the other party 
had been successful. 

32. That action too was carried out as I will de- 
scribe. Pelopidas' party quietly went up to Leontia- 
des' outer door and knocked, telling the slave who 
answered that they came from Athens with a letter 
for Leontiades from Callistratus. a The slave took 
the message and was ordered to open. When he had 
removed the bolt and partly opened the door, they 
all burst in together, bowled the fellow over, and 
dashed through the courtyard to the bedchamber. 
Leontiades guessed the truth at once, and drawing 
his dagger, prepared to defend himself ; he was, it 
is true, an unjust and tyrannical man, yet firm of 
soul and stout of arm. He did not, however, deter- 
mine to dash the lamp to the ground and close with 
his assailants in the dark, but was visible to them 
in the lamplight as he struck Cephisodorus in the 
side the instant the door opened and engaging with 
Pelopidas, who came next, called loudly for the 
servants. But these were held back by Samidas and 
the men with him, and did not risk coming to blows 
with opponents who were the most illustrious citizens 

° Doubtless the well-known Athenian statesman. That 
he was no friend of Thebes can be gathered from Mor. 810 f. 

3 HajjLiSav Reiske : oajjL€L%av (cra/xeiSav E). 

503 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(597) ttoXltoov /cat kclt olXktjv oiacfiepovGiv . dyobv Se rjv 

F tw HeXorriSa 7Tpos tov AeovTidSrjv /cat 8 ta^uf) lgjjlos 

ev reus dvpais tov daXdp.ov urevals ovgclis /cat tov 

YsJf)(f)lGOOajpOV 7T€7TTOJKOTOS €V pL€GCLLS CLVTCUS 1 KOLl 
QvTjGKOVTOS, 0)GT€ JJLT] hvvaodoil TOVS dXXoVS TTpOO- 

/3o7]9€lv. reXos S' 6 r)pL€T€pos Xafitbv puev els rrjv 
K€<f)aXr]v ov pueya rpavpua, Sous* Se 7roAAa /cat 
Kara/3aXd)v rov AeovrcdSrjv eVe'cr^a^e OepjJia) ra> 
K.r]cf)tGo8a)poj' /cat yap etSe ttltttovtcl rov iftOpov 
6 dvrjp /cat ra> IIeAo77tSa tt)v Se^cdv evefiaXe /cat 
tovs dXXovs doTraadpLevos a/xa IXeojs e^eVreucre . 
yevopievoL Se drro tovtojv, inl rov ^rrdr^v 2 rpe- 

7TOVTOLI /Cat TWV OvptOV OpLOLOJS OLVToZs dvOiyfttlGLOV 

(f)€vyovra rov 'Yrrdr^v 2 virep reyovs twos is tovs 
yeirovas diroG^drTovGiv . 
598 33. 'E/cet#ev Se irpos r)pids rjTTetyovro /cat Gvpu- 
fidXXovoLV r)puv encoder rrapd rrjv ttoXvgtvXov. 
aGTraGapievoi Se dXXrjXovs /cat cruAAaA^CTavre? ^X 60 " 
povpiev eVt to SeGfJLCOTrjpcov . e/c/caAeW? Se tov z 
irrl rrjs elpKTTJs 6 OuAAtSas, " 'A^tas/' etfr 7 ]* " KaL 
QlXlttttos KeXevovGL ere ra^ews dyetv eV avrovs 
5 Api^iOeov." 6 Se', opwv /cat rrjs copas rr)v droTriav 
/cat to pur) KaOeGTTjKora XaXelv avra) rov OuAAtSav, 
aAAa deppiov ovtcl rco dycovi /cat pberewpov, vttl86- 
pievos* to TrXaGpia, 5 " tt6t€," eXeyev , " J) OuAAt'Sa, 
B rrjVLKavra pLererrepa/javro SeGpLOjrrjv ol TroXepcap^oi; 
tt6t€ Se Sta gov; tl Se Kopbl^ets irapaGrjpLov; " 
ISov," €(f)rj 6 QvXXlScls, " to rrapdGrjpLov " G ' a/xa 
Se tcq Xoyco £vgt6v lttttlkov e^wv SifjKe tcov TrXev- 
pebv /cat /care/3aAe Trovrjpov dv6poj7rov, cS /cat /xe#' 



504 



I 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 597-598 

of Thebes and excellent fighters. Pelopidas struggled 
and fenced with Leontiades in the doorway of the 
chamber ; as the passage was narrow and Cephiso- 
dorus had fallen between the folding doors and lay 
there dying, the rest were kept from coming to his 
aid. Finally our champion, after receiving a slight 
wound in the head and dealing out many, struck 
Leontiades to the ground and killed him over the 
body of Cephisodorus, still warm with life, who saw 
his enemy fall, gave Pelopidas his hand, and when 
he had saluted the rest, serenely breathed his last. 
This done they turned their attention to Hypates, and 
gaining admittance by a similar stratagem, killed him 
as he fled over a roof-top to the neighbouring house. 
33. From there they made haste to join us and 
met us outside the Porch of Many Columns. After 
exchanging greetings and talk we proceeded to the 
prison. Phyllidas called the gaoler out and said : 
" Archias and Philippus order you to bring Amphi- 
theiis to them at once." The man, observing the 
unusual hour and that Phyllidas was not talking to 
him coolly, but was flushed with the combat and in 
a ferment, saw through the trick and asked : " When 
have the polemarchs ever sent for a prisoner at such 
an hour ? And when through you ? What token of 
authority do you bring ? " " This is my authority," 
said Phyllidas, and, as he said it, ran him through the 
body with a cavalry lance he held, striking down a 

1 [/.coats aureus Holwerda : fxeaois avrols. 

2 TiraTqv Xylander : iWar^ E ; uVaTT^v corrected from 

LTTTTaT^V B. 

3 he tov Turnebus, to fill a lacuna of 8-7 letters. 

4 vTTih6yL€vos Bern. : vTrecSofjievos. 

5 7rAaCT/u,a B : TrdXatofxa E. 

6 Ihov through 7rapdar)fjiov added by Pohlenz, 

505 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(598) rjfJiepav eTrevefirjoav /cat TTpooenrvaav ovk oXiyai 
yvvaiKes. 

c H/zet? Se Tas dvpas rrjs elpKTrjs KaTaoyLoavTes 
eKaXovfiev ovofiaarl rrpcorov fiev tov 'Apbcpldeov, 
etra tcov dXXcov TTpos ov <=kolotos eTTLTrjSetcos el^ev 
ol Se, ttjv cfrcovrjv yvcoplc^ovTes, dveTrrjScov 1 e/c tcov 
XapLevvcov 2 aop,evoi y Tas dXvoeis ecpeXKovTes , ol Se 
tovs Trohas ev tco £vXco SeSefievoc rag ^etpas ope- 
yovTes efiocov Seo/xevot jjurj aTToXeicpOrjvai. Xvofxevcov 
C Se tovtcov rjSrj ttoXXol TTpooecfrepovTO tcov eyyvs 
olkovvtcov , aloOavofxevoi rd Trparrofieva /cat %at- 
povres. at Se yvvaiKes, cos eKaoTT] Trepl rod Trpoo- 
tjkovtos TjKovoev, ovk e\L\xevovoai rots JioicoTcov 
rjOecriv* e^eTpe^ov TTpos aAA^Aas* koX SteTrvvOdvovTo 
rrapd tcov aTravTcovTCov , at Se dvevpovoai rrarepag 
rj dvSpas avTCOv tjkoXovOovv, ovSels Se eKcoXve' 
poTrr) yap rjv fieydXrj TTpos rovs evTvyyavovTas 6 
Trap* avTCov eXeos /cat Sa/cpua /cat Serjoecs ococf>p6vcov 
yvvaiKcov. 

34. 'Ev Se tovtco tcov TTpay/jbdroov ovtcov, ttv96- 
jxevos rov ^Trafxeivcovhav eyco koll tov TopytSav 
D 7]8rj juera tcov cf>iXcov avvaO poit.eodai Trepl to ttjs 
'AOtjv&s lepov, eTTOpev6fjL7)v TTpos avTovs* rjKov Se 
7roAAot /cat aya#ot tcov ttoXitcov ojjlov /cat ovveppeov 
del TrXeioves. cbs Se a777^yyetAa /ca#' e/caarov au- 
tols toc TTeTTpay\xeva /cat TrapeKaXovv ftorjdeiv eXdov- 
tcls els ttjv dyopdv, a/xa TrdvTes evdvs eTTt ttjv 
eXevOepiav eKrjpvTTOV tovs TroXiTas. tols Se tot€ 6- 
xXols tcov ovviOTapLevcov ottXcl TTapelypv at re aroal* 

1 av€7rr]hajv Wyttenbach : a7T€7Tr}8a)v, 

2 xafi€vvtov Stephanus : x a f JL€ ^ VO)V * 

3 7]d€mv] €0€glv Wyttenbach. 

506 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 598 

vile fellow, on whom not a few women trod and spat 
the next day. 

We then split down the gaol door and first called 
out the name of Amphitheus and then those of the 
rest with whom we were severally connected. Re- 
cognizing our voices they leapt joyfully from their 
pallets, dragging their chains ; and those whose feet 
were confined in the stocks stretched out their arms 
and cried out, begging not to be left behind. While 
these were released, not a few of the people who lived 
near by were already joining us, getting wind of what 
was afoot and elated with it. The women, as one 
after another heard news of someone close to her, 
ran out into the streets to meet one another, un- 
mindful of our Boeotian manners, and made inquiries 
of the passers-by. Those who had found a father or 
husband followed along, no one stopping them ; for 
all who met them were mightily swayed by their own 
pity and the tears and entreaties of decent women. 

34. This was the situation when I heard that 
Epameinondas and Gorgidas were already assembling 
with their friends at the temple of Athena and went 
to find them. Many brave citizens had gathered 
there and more and more kept arriving. a When I 
had given them a full account of what had passed, 
urging them to go to the market place and reinforce 
us, all of them at once set to summoning the citizenry 
to rally to the cause of liberty. The crowds that then 
formed found weapons in the colonnades, which were 

° Cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap. xii. 1-4 (284 a-c) for the 
remaining scenes of the night. 

4 ai tc aroai Turnebus (from Life of Pelopidas, chap. xii. 1, 
284 a) : at d* carta i. 

507 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(598) rrArjpeis ovoat TravrohaTrcov Xa(f)vpa>v, Kal rd rcov 
iyyvs oIkovvtojv ipyaorijpLa pba)(aipo7Toia)v . rjKe Se 
kolI *Y7Tiro<j9ev€i&as fjuerd rcbv (f>iXu)v Kal oiKercov 
tovs eTnSeSrjiJLrjKorag Kara Tvyrp> 777069 ra *Hpa- 
E fcAeta aaATTiyKras 1 7TapaXa/ji^dva)v . evdetos Se ol 
puev €776 7-779 ay o pas eG^piaivov ol Se Kar aXXovs 
tottovs, rravraxoOev eKrapdrrovres rovs vrrevav- 

TLOVS, OJ$ TT&VTCOV <}<f)€GTa)TU)V . ol fJL€V OVV XaKOJ- 

vi^ovres 2, €K rrjs aXXys rroXeajs £tt1 3 rrjv KaS/xetav 
€(j)€vyov eniOTTaoapLevoi Kal rovs Kpeirrovs* Xeyo- 
pievovSy eltoOoras Se ire pi rrjv aKpav Kara) 5 vv- 

KT€p€V€LV. Ol Se CLVO), TOVTOJV fJL€V aTOLKTOJS Kal 

TedopvfirjfjLevcos eTTL^eofxevajv, rjfJL&s Se 7T€pl rrjv 
ayopav a^opajvres, ovSevos jxepovs rjovxafovros, 
dXXa rravraxodev ip6(j)a)v Kal Oopvfiojv ava<f>epo- 
F [Jievajv, Kara^aivecv puev ov Sievoovvro, Kaiirep 7T€pl 
TrevraKoaiovs Kal xiAlovs* to ttXtjOos ovres, €ktt€- 
TrXrjy/jLevoL Se rov klvSvvov dXXa>s irpov^aoiCpvTO 
AvoavoplSav TrepL/JLeveiv, 7 Trapeaeadai yap €<f>rf rrjs 
rjfjLepas €K€Lvr]s. 8lo Kal rovrov puev varepov, d>s 
TTwdavojjbeda, xP r )l xa(TL ttoXXoIs i^filojoav 9 tcov 
AaKeSaifJLOvlajv ol yepovres, e Hpi777uSav 10 Se Kal 
" ApKeaov 11 a7T€KT€ivav evOvs eV K.opcv9cp Xafiovres. 
rr)v Se KaS/xetav vttogttovSov TrapaSovres rjfjuv 
aTTrjXXaTTOv /xera rcov Grpartajrcov. 

1 craA7rty/cras] GaXmKras B. 

2 ovv XaKcuvi^ovres Reiske : /cat Ka7rvl£,ovT€s* 

3 €K rrjs dXXrjs ttoXccds em (eV ttjs ttoXzojs iirl Bern.) our 
supplement of a lacuna of 21-19 letters. 

4 KpetTTovs] eKKpirovs Wilamowitz ; Kptrovs ? 

5 kolto) Turnebus : /cat ra>. 

6 tt€vtclko(jIovs /cat x^ovs Wilamowitz (from Life of Pelo- 
pidas, ehap. xii. 4, 284 b ; cf. also 586 e, supra, and Diodorus, 
xv. 25. 3) : TT€VTaKioxi>XLovs» 

508 



ON THE SIGN OF SOCRATES, 598 

full of trophies of all kinds, and in the workshops of 
the cutlers who dwelt near by. Hippostheneidas too 
appeared with his friends and servants, bringing the 
trumpeters who happened to be in town for the 
festival of Heracles. They at once set to blowing 
their trumpets, some in the market place, others 
elsewhere, from all sides filling our opponents with 
alarm as if the whole city had risen. The partisans 
of Sparta fled from the town to the Cadmeia, drawing 
along with them the so-called " Incomparables," a 
body of men whose custom it was to bivouac nightly 
at the foot of the citadel. The garrison on the height, 
with this disordered and terrified rout pouring in, 
and with us visible to them down in the market place, 
no quarter remaining quiet, but noises and the 
sounds of tumult being borne up to them from all 
sides, were in no mood to descend into the town, 
although fifteen hundred strong, but were terror- 
struck and took refuge in the pretext that they 
were waiting for Lysanoridas, who had promised 
to return that day. a For this reason he was later 
sentenced by the Spartan Elders to a large fine ; 
Herippidas and Arcesus were put to death by them 
the moment they were apprehended in Corinth. 5 
They surrendered the Cadmeia to us under a truce 
and set about withdrawing with their forces. 

a Lysanoridas had gone to Haliartus : cf. 578 a, supra, 
b Cf. Life of Pelopidas, chap. xiii. 3 (284 d). 

7 7T€pt,IJL€V€lV Reiske : 7TapajJL€V€LV. 

8 TTap€<j€oQai yap €<f>T) Post : yap followed by a lacuna of 1 6 
letters and rj. 

9 ttoXXols (fxovov Manton) itpq^iojaav nos, to fill a lacuna of 
17 letters in E : -v ovk SXiyoLS e^fiiajaav B. 

10 c Hpt7T7uSav Bern, (cf textual note on 586 e, supra) : 
epjjLnnTloav. n dpK€aov B lss : dpxeaov E c B lt ; apx* top E ac # 

509 



ON EXILE 

(DE EXILIO) 



INTRODUCTION 

The essay is evidently addressed to an exile from 
Sardis (cf. 600 a, 601 b), probably at the moment in 
Athens (cf. 604 c, 607 e), who has been plausibly 
identified with the Menemachus of Sardis for whom 
Plutarch wrote the essay Praecepta Gerendae Rei- 
publicae. a Plutarch does not state the terms of exile, 
except to say that his friend was not banished to one 
specified area, but could travel freely so long as he 
did not return home (cf. 604 b). & 

There is no evidence, internal or external, which 
makes possible a precise dating of the essay. The 
reference to Sunium, Taenarus, and the Ceraunian 
mountains as the limits of continental Greece (601 a) 
may mean that the essay was written at a time when 
Epeirus, at least in part, was still included in the 
province of Achaia ; but this gives little help, since 
it is not known when Epeirus was established as a 

° Cf. G. Siefert, " De Aliquot Plutarchi Scrip torum 
Moralium Compositione atque Indole," in Commentationes 
Philol. Jenenses, vol. vi (1896), pp. 74-89 ; Wilamowitz in 
Hermes, lxii (1927), p. 296. 

b It is evident that one of the milder forms of relegatio was 
used here : cf. Mommsen, Romisches Strafrecht, p. 967. 
Plutarch's suggestion (602 b-c) that his friend should choose 
a new city indicates that the exile was in perpetuum. 

vol. vii s 513 



\ 

PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

separate province. Again, as the very similar words 
in the Life of Phocion (754 f) show, Plutarch may 
here be taking over an expression from some earlier 
author. Nor does the remark in 605 b help to fix the 
date of the work. Throughout the period of Plutarch 's 
literary activity there were many prominent figures 
— such men as Martial, Quintilian, Juvenal, Dio 
Chrysostom, Epictetus, Musonius, and Favorinus — 
who lived for manjf years away from their native 
lands. Seneca says that in his time a large part of 
the persons living in any given city came from else- 
where. & 

The identification of Plutarch's exiled friend with 
Menemachus of Sardis has some bearing on the date 
of the essay. If this identification is correct, it was 
written some time after the Praecepta Gerendae Rei- 
publicae, which refers to Domitian in a way that 
suggests that his reign had recently ended : eVay^os 
€7rl AopeTtavov (815 d). Hence the essay must have 
been written after the death of Domitian in a.d. 96. 

Plutarch has employed in this essay many of the 
conventional topics which occur also in the consola- 
tions on exile written by Teles, Musonius, Seneca, 
and others. c A. Giesecke, who made a study of 

a J. A. O. Larsen, Roman Greece (An Economic Survey of 
Ancient Rome, vol. iv, Baltimore, 1938), p. 438, note, gives 
the evidence for the reduction in size of Achaia under Hadrian 
or Antoninus Pius. 

b Seneca, Ad Helv. 6. 4-5 ; cf. Favorinus, Trepl <j>vyrjs col. 
viii. 41 (G. Vitelli and M. Norsa, II Papiro Vaticano Greco 
11. 1, Studi e Testi, 53, Vatican City, 1931). 

c The use of commonplaces in moral essays was a recog- 
nized procedure among" ancient philosophers, as Cicero has 
indicated in the Tusc. Disput. iii. 34 (81) : " Sunt enim certa 
quae de paupertate, certa quae de vita inhonorata et in- 
gloria dici soleant ; separatim certae scholae sunt de exilio, 

514 



ON EXILE 

ancient writings on exile, a found that the similarities 
between Plutarch, Musonius, and Teles are especially 
conspicuous. He concluded that Bion and Ariston 
of Chios must have provided a common source for 
these writers. b Subsequently, B. Hasler made a 
comparative study of consolatory topics in connexion 
with the recently discovered work of Favorinus on 
exile. c 

In the initial exhortation to a rational attitude 
toward exile, Plutarch asserts that the evil of exile 
lies in opinion only (599 d, 600 D), d but that, even 
assuming that exile itself is an evil, we can abate it 
by diluting it with the good still remaining to us, as 
wealth (601 f, 602 a, 604 b), 6 friends, and leisure. 

The second main division of the De Exilio proceeds 
from the statement that " no native land is such by 
nature " (600 e). Plutarch then develops the common 
theme that the whole universe is our native land. 
The consequence that he draws from this, however, 
is not that the particular place where he happens 
to be is a matter of no importance to a wise man/ but 
rather that the exile would do well to choose for 

de interitu patriae, de servitute, de debilitate, de caecitate, de 
omni casu in quo nomen poni solet calamitatis. Haec Grae- 
ci in singulas scholas et in singulos libros dispertiunt ; . . ." 

° A. Giesecke, De Philos. Vet. quae ad Exil. Spectant Sen- 
tentiis (Leipzig, 1891). b Op. cit. p. 94. 

c B. Hasler, Favorin iiber die Verbannung (Bottrop i. W., 
1935). 

d Cf. Seneca's similar statement about grief in Ad Marc. 
19. 1. 

e Contrast the attack on wealth as a good in Favorinus, 
col. xvi. 31, and Seneca's argument that poverty is not an 
evil in Ad Helv. 10. 

/ Cf. Seneca, Ad Helv. 8. 6 : " Quantum refert mea quid 
calcem ? " 

515 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

himself the best spot he can find, and in time it will 
become his native land (602 c). 

In the following discussion of places of exile Plu- 
tarch praises at some length the islands of the Aegean. 
That he is still thinking primarily of external goods 
is abundantly clear from his portrayal of life on an 
island (603 e). The advantages of exile are further 
supported by the example of the many great men 
who voluntarily departed from home (604 d ff.). a 

The fourth major division of Plutarch's essay is 
a refutation of certain charges commonly brought 
against exile. This division contains many topics in 
common with the Cynic-Stoic consolations. Plutarch 
first answers the charges Euripides brings against 
exile in the Phoenissae, a work which was also attacked 
by Favorinus and Musonius. & He also quotes apo- 
phthegms of the two famous Cynics, Diogenes and 
Antisthenes (606 b, 607 b). c Toward the end of this 
section he mentions several mythological instances 
of exile, and an allusion to the exile of Apollo pro- 
vides a transition to the Empedoclean teaching that 
human life on earth is an exile from heaven (607 c). 
The conclusion of the essay is Platonic in character, 
containing allusions to the Phaedrus, the Timaeus, 
and the Phaedo (607 e-f). 

Thus the De Exilio does not have the severity of 
the Cynic doctrine, but rather combines in Plutarch's 
typical manner acceptance of the good things of this 
life with expectation of a better life to come. Plutarch 
uses the commonplaces of popular philosophy to 

a This is also a topic in Seneca, Ad Helv. 6. 2 ff., and 
Favorinus, col. viii. 41. 

6 Cf. Musonius, p. 48. 6 ff. (ed. Hense) ; and Favorinus, 
col. xv. 35. 

c See the notes on 606 a ff. 

516 



ON EXILE 

develop his theme, but imposes on them his own 
distinctive outlook on life. 

One translation can be added to those already 
listed. a The essay is No. 101 in the catalogue of 
Lamprias. 

The text rests on vw/3 2 a. Occasionally AEyirn are 
cited. 

° Plutarchus de exilio, Angelo Barbato interprete. Nurem- 
berg, 1517. 



517 



(599) IIEPI <DYrH2 

1. Tcov Xoycov dpiorovs koll jSejSatordVous', ojanep 
rtov c/)iXojv y (f>aalv etvai rovs iv rals ovjx<f)opaZs 
TTdpovras dx^eXipbCDS koX /3or]9ovvTas' irrel irapeiol 
B ye TToXkoi koX TrpoohiaXiyovrai rocs irrTaiKooiv, 
dXXd axp-qoTCDS , fi&XXov Se fiXafiepoos, Kaddrrep 
clkoXvjjlPol TTViyo/jievois iTTiyeipovvres fiorjOeTv, jrepi- 
TrXeKOjjievoL ko\ uvyKarahvovres 1 ' Set Se rov rrapa 
rcov <f)iXa>v koll Tcbv fiorjOovvrajv Xoyov TraprjyopLav 
etvai, fir) crvvrjyopiav, rod Xvttovvtos' ov yap avv- 

SaKpVOVTCOV KCLl OVVeTTldprjVOVVTOJV tOOTTep ^O/DCOV 

rpayiKwv iv rots' dfiovXrjrois ypeiav e^o/xev, dXXa 

TTapp r T]GloX > 0[ieV(JdV KoX OlOaOKOVTCDV OTL TO XviTeZodai 

KOLL TO 2 TCLTTeiVOVV idVTOV ilTl TTOLVTL fieV dypT^OTOV 

C €GTl /Cat yiv6fJL€VOV K€VCOS Kdl aVOTjTOJS , OTTOV 8' 

avrd rd Trpdyfiara SiSojoiv, vtto rod Xoyov ifjrjXacfcr)- 
devra koll dvaKaXv(f)6evra , Trpos eavrov elrreZv 

ov8ev TTerrovdas heivov, dv (jltj 7Tpoo7roifj, 

KOfJuSfj yeXoZov ion jjlt] rrjs oapKos TrvvOdveaOai 

TL 7T€7TOvd€, jJL7]$e Tr]S lp V XV^ € ^ ^ t( * T ° CTV/JLTTTajfJia 

1 ovyKarabvovT€S v : avyKaraSvvovrcs. 
2 to] omitted by vwjS 2 . 
3 d a 2 : €i 8c. 
518 



ON EXILE 

1. As it is with our friends, so it is with the words 
we speak : best and most to be depended upon, we 
are told, are those which appear in adversity to some 
purpose and give help ; for many people visit the 
unfortunate and talk to them, but their efforts do no 
good, or rather do harm. These people are like men 
unable to swim who try to rescue the drowning — they 
hug them close and help to drag them under. The 
language addressed to us by friends and real helpers 
should mitigate, not vindicate, what distresses us a ; 
it is not partners in tears and lamentation, like 
tragic choruses, that we need in unwished-for circum- 
stances, but men who speak frankly and instruct us 
that grief and self-abasement are everywhere futile, 
that to indulge in them is unwarranted and unwise, 
and that where the facts themselves, when reason 
has groped them out and brought them to light, 
enable a man to say to himself 

You've not been hurt, unless you so pretend, b 

it is utterly absurd not to ask the body what it has 
suffered, or the soul whether it is the worse for this 

° The distress is due to unfounded opinion : cf. 600 d-e, 
infra. 

b From the Epitrepontes of Menander : frag. 9 (vol. i, 
p. 44 Korte) ; cf. Mor. 475 b, 

519 



\ 
PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(599) tovto 1 xzLptov yeyovev, dXXa to is e^codev ovvaxOo- 
puevois Kal away avaKT oven SiSaaKaXois xpfjaOai 
ttjs XvTrrjs. 

2. "Odev avrol kclO* avTOVs yivoLievoi tojv gvja- 

TTrcofjLdrcov, cooirep (f>opTia)v, eKaoTov tov crraOfiov 

€^€rd^a)fJL€v. 2 to (ikv yap cra>/za mc^erai rco tov 

D fiapvvovros dxOet, rj Se fax*) t °ls Tipdy\iaoi ttoX- 

XoLKtg to fidpos i£ avTrjs TrpooTidrfoiv, 6 Xidos 

(f)VG€L GKX-qpOS, 6 KpVGTOiXAoS <f)VO€l l{jV)(p6s €GTIV, 

ovk etjcoOev eiKrj TavTas tols avTiTVTTias e7Ti(f>€povTes z 
Kal tcls 7Trj^€is' <f)vyds 8e Kal d8o£las Kal ti/jlwv 
airofSoXds, a)OTT€p av TavavTia* OT€(f)dvovs Kal 
dp)(ds Kal TTpoehpias, ov ttjv avTOJV <f>vcnv, dXXa 

TTJV rjLL€T€paV KpLGLV fJL€TpOV €%OVTa TOV Xv7T€LV Kal 

ev(f)paLV€LV, eKaoTOs iavTcp Kovcf>a Kal fiapea Kal 
pdSia </>ep€iv 7T0i€L Kal TOVvavTiov . e^ecrTi Se 
aKovetv tov fiev HoXvvetKovs aTTOKpivop,£vov rrpos 
to IpdyTTjixa TOVTO 

E — ri to GT€p€o6ai TTaTplSos ; rj KaKov p>dya; 
— jjLeyioTOV €pyco 8' ecrrt li€l£ov r) Xoyco* 

tov Se 'AXKfiavos, cos 6 ypdifjas to lrnypa\i[idTiov 
520 



ON EXILE, 599 

mischance, but instead to seek instruction in grief 
from those who come from the outside world to join 
their vexation and resentment to our own. 6 

2. Let us, therefore, withdraw from the world and 
taking our calamities one by one examine their 
weight, as if they were so many loads ; for while the 
burden felt by the body is the actual weight of 
the thing that presses upon it, the soul often adds 
the heaviness to circumstances from itself. It is by 
nature that stone is hard, it is by nature that ice is 
cold ; it is not from outside themselves, fortuitously, 
that they convey the sensation of rigidity and 
freezing ; but banishment, loss of fame, and loss of 
honours, like their opposites, crowns, public office, 
and front-seat privileges, whose measure of causing 
sorrow and joy is not their own nature, but our 
judgement, every one makes light or heavy for him- 
self, and easy to bear or the reverse. We can listen 
on the one hand to Polyneices, when, on being asked 

What is the loss of country ? A great ill ? 

he replies 

The greatest ; and no words can do it justice d ; 

on the other hand, we can hear what Alcman has to 
say, as the author of the little epigram has repre- 

° Cf. Dio Cassius, xxxviii. 23. 3. 

b Cf. Mor. 610 b-c. 

c Cf. Mor. 475 b and Dio Cassius, xxxviii. 23. 4. 

d Euripides, Phoenissae, 388 f. ; quoted 605 r, infra. 

1 TOVTo] TOVTOJV VW. 

2 araOfjiov i^ cranio fxev Wyttenbach : Ov/xov e^erd^ofxcv. 

3 iTTi^ipovres vw c a 1 : <j>4povr€S w ac (im^cpofxev a 2ss ). 

4 ravavTia] rovvavriov VW. 

521 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(599) 7T€7TOLrjK€ 

HdpSies, apxcuos 1 Trarepcov vo/jlos, et fxkv iv vpuv 

irpecfro/JLav, 2 Kepvas* rj tls av rf jLta/ceAas 5 
Xpvaocfropos, pfjaacov AaAa 6 Tvp,Trava- vvv Se' jxol 
'AA/c/idV 

OVVOjJLCL, KCLl iLTTapTOLS 66/X6 7ToXvTpL7To8oS, 7 

/cat Movcra? £8drjv 'EAAr^t'Sa?, 8 at fie rvpdvvcov 
dfJKav Aaa/cuAea) /cpetaaova 9 /cat Yvyeoa. 

F to yap avro rrpaypLa rep fiev evxprjerrov rj 86£a, 
Kaddrrep vofjucrfia Sd/ctuw, rep Se 8vcFXP r } <TTOV KaL 

PAafie pOV i7TOL7](J€V. 

3. "Eotoj Se Setvdv, axmep ol ttoXXol Ae'youat 

KOLl aSoVGLV, T) (f)Vyrj . /Cat ydp TO)V PpcDjJLdrcov 

TTLKpd ttoXXol /cat Spt/ze'a /cat Sa/cvovra rr)v aiaOrjoiV 
eartv, aAAa puyvvvres avrols eVta rtov yXvKecov 
kcl\ Trpoorjvajv rrjv drjoiav dc/xupovpiev. ecrrt Se /cat 
Xp(*>\L(XTCL Xvjrrjpd rfj olfjei, rrpos a ytVerat to avy- 
X€io9ou /cat [xapavyelv Sta aKXrjporrjra /cat /3t'av 
oOO aviarov. et rotvuv ta/xa r^9 ovaxprjor tas €K€lvtjs 
e/zt£auev r^v ovctay aurot? t) tt)v oj/rtv dnecrrpe- 
i/ra/xev 11 em rt tcov ^Aoepcov /cat TTpocrrjvajv, rovro 

€^€GTL TTOielv /Cat 77/30? TOt GVfJLTTTCOjJLara, K€pCLV- 

vvvras avrols rd xPV (JL l Jia ' KaL <j>*>XdvO pa)7ra T ^ v 
vvvl crot TTCLpovrcov €V7Topiav y (fatXovs, aTrpaynoov- 

1 dpxouos] dpxouo.i' Anth. 

2 irp€<f>6fjLav Anth. : eVpe^o/x^v. 

3 Kepvas Anth. : /ceAo-as 1 . 

4 rjv (and so tt 2 ; 77 Reiske) ns av 77 Salmasius : ^ ns avrjp 
(ff orioav r] Anth.). 5 /xaAceAas] /Sa/ceAas- Ursinus. 

6 AaAa Meineke : /caAd. 7 iroXuTpiirohos Anth. : ttoXIttjs. 

8 'EAA^ytSa?] 'EAiKaWoas" Anth. 

9 Kp€tGoova] {j,€i£,ova Anth. 

523 



ON EXILE, 599-600 



sented him 



Sardis, of old the sojourn of my sires, 
Had I been bred in thee, then had I been 
Some priest or temple eunuch, tricked in gold, 
Smiting the voluble timbrels ; now instead 
My name is Alcman, and my country Sparta, 
City of many tripods ; I have been taught 
The Hellenic Muses, who have raised me high 
Above the despots Dascyles and Gyges. b 

Thus opinion had made the same event useful for the 
one, as it makes a coin pass current, but useless and 
harmful to the other. 

3. Assume that exile is a calamity, as the multitude 
declare in speech and song. So too, many foods are 
bitter and pungent and irritate the taste ; but by 
combining with them certain sweet and pleasant 
ingredients we get rid of the disagreeable savour. 
There are colours too, painful to the sight, and when 
confronted with them our vision is blurred and 
dazzled by their harshness and unrelieved intensity. d 
Now if we have found that we could remedy this 
inconvenience by mingling shadow with them or 
turning our eyes aside and resting them upon some- 
thing of a greenish and pleasant shade, 6 the same 
can be done with misfortunes as well : they can be 
blended f with whatever is useful and comforting in 
your present circumstances : wealth, friends, freedom 

a The Greek name Alcman is supposed to have replaced 
the poet's original Lydian name. 

6 Alexander Aetolus, frag. 9 in Collectanea Alexandrina 
(ed. J. U. Powell). c Cf. Mor. 406 b. 

d A favourite analogy with Plutarch : cf. Mor. 469 a with 
the note in the L.C.L. 

• Cf. Mor. 854 b-c. * Cf. Mor. 610 e. 

10 avidTov] aKparov Wilamowitz. 

11 dTT€OTp€lpafJL€v] d7r€arpon/jafX€V a. 

523 



\ 
PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(600) vr\v, to purjOev evSetv ra>v dvayKaiojv Trpos tov 
fitov. ov yap otuat ttoXAovs elvai HapSiavcov ot 
fjirj tcl era 7rpay/xara, /cat /xera (f>vyrjs, puaAAov 
eOeArjcrovcriv avrols vnapxeiv /cat ayan^GOVGLV errl 
gevYj^ ovtco oidyovres, 1 rj, 2 Kaddrrep oi KoyALaiy toZs 
B oorpaKois ovfJL<f)V€LS SvTes , dAAo Se p,r)8ev dyadov 

€XOVT€$, TWV 3 OLKOL [AeTeX €LV aAviTCOS. (4.) OJGTTep 

ovv ev KOJjJicpSia Tts" rjTVxrjKora (frlAov dappeZv 
/cat rrjv rvyy)V apLVveadcu* TrapaKaAcbv, epofxevov, 
" rtva rpoirov; " aTTOKpiverai, " (friAoaocfrajs," ovtqjs 
/cat rjpieZs avrrjv dfivvcofieda <f)iAooo(f)ovvTes dtjlcus' 

tov Ata Se ttcos vovra; rov fiopeav Se 77x09; 

irvp fyrovfiev, j3aAav€iov, l/xdrtov, areyrjv /cat yap 
ovx vojjl€Vol KadrjpLzda ov8e KAaiopuev. /cat crot 
tolvvv Trap* ovrivaovv eoTi to KaTeiffvypievov tov- 
to tov fSLov jjiepos dva^ojTrvpeZv /cat dva6dA7T€LV, 
€T€pa>v ftor)6r]iJLdTa>v fjLrj heopbevov, dAAa xP c ^ ) l JLevov 
C evAoyiGTOis tols Trapovoiv . at fiev yap tar/ot/cat 
GiKvai to (f>avAoTaTOV e/c tov adypiaTOS dvaAaju,- 
fidvovoai Kovcf)L^ovaL /cat ocp^ovai to Aoittov, ol he 
(f>iA6Av7Toi /cat ^tAatrtot rep rd ^etptara tcov ISlojv 
avvdyeiv del /cat otaAoyt£e<70at /cat TrpooTeTT\Kevai 
toZs dvtapoZs axpT)OTa /cat rd xPV <7i l JLa ttolovgiv 
eavTols ev a) /xdAtara Kaipco fiorjOeZv Tre<f)VKe. tovs 5 

1 8iayovT€S w a 2 : Stayovra Vj8 2ss a 1 . 

2 i} w 2 a : otv; rj ot w. 

3 rcov w 288 a : to) v ; rots w 1 /? 288 . 

4 d/AtW<70ai] ajxvvaodcu vw. 

5 tovs Donatus Polus : to, 

524 



ON EXILE, 600 

from politics, and lack of none of the necessities of 
life. a For I fancy that there are not many Sardians 
who would not prefer your circumstances, 5 even with 
exile thrown in, and be content to live on such terms 
in a foreign land, rather than, like snails, which are 
of a piece with their shells but enjoy no other blessing, 
maintain a painless connexion with their homes. 
(4.) As, then, in the comedy a character who is urging 
an unfortunate friend to take heart and make a stand 
against Fortune, when asked, " How ? " replies, " like 
a philosopher," so let us too make a stand against 
her by playing the philosopher worthily. But how 
are we to face 

Zeus when he pours down rain ? And how the North Wind ? d 

Why, we look for a fire, a bath-house, a cloak, a roof : 
in a rainstorm we do not sit idle or lament. You too, 
then, are as able as any man to revive this chilled 
portion of your life and restore it to warmth : you 
need no further resources ; it is enough to use wisely 
those you have. For whereas the cupping-glasses e 
of physicians, by drawing out of the body its most 
worthless elements, relieve and preserve the rest, 
lovers of grief and fault-finding, by constantly collect- 
ing and counting up what is worst in their lot, and 
by getting absorbed in their troubles, make even 
the most useful things in it useless for themselves 
at the moment when these would naturally afford 
the greatest help. For it is not Zeus, dear friend, 

a Cf. Mor. 469 a. 

b Cf. Mor. 611 b and Boethius, Philos. Cons. ii. 4. 17. 
e Cf. Mor. 611 b. 
d Kock, C.A.F. iii, Adespota, 118. 

e For the analogy of the cupping-glass cf. Mor. 469 b and 
518 b. 

525 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

jl YQ'P " 8oiov? ttlOovs," <L <j>iXe y ovs "OfJLrjpos €(f>rj 
Krjpcov epLirXeiovs " iv ovpavco Kelodai, tov pev 
ayadcbv, tov Se (fravXtov, oi>x 6 Zeus TapLLevcov 
KadrjTai /cat jJL€0iels rot? \xev rynia /cat pLepLypbeva, 
rots Se CLKpara pevpiara tlov kclklov, aAAa, rjpLtov 
avrcov oi fJLev vovv exovres, e/c tlov ay ad tov toZs 

KCLKols €7TapVr6pL€VOL, TOV filoV 7TOLOVOLV T)8lO) KOLI 

TTOTipLCorepoVy rols 8e ttoXXols, tocnrep rjdpLols, ipu- 

pi€V€L Kdl TTpOOLOXtTCLl TOL (fxivAoTOLTa, TLOV /3eA~ 
TLOVLOV VTTeKpeOVTCOV. 

5. Ato /caV aXiqOcos /ca/ca> tlvl /cat Xv7Trjpcp rrepL- 
7T€oa>pL€V, luayeadai Set to IXapov /cat to evOvpov 
€K tcov imapxovTGOv /cat VTToAeiTTopevoov ayadtov, 
t<2> oiK€Lop to dXXoTpLOV e/cAeatVovTas" * cov 8e rj 
envois ov8ev ex€i kclkov, aAAa oXov /cat ttclv to 

E XvTTOVV €K K€vf]S 86£r]S aVCL7T€TrXcLOTaL, TCLVTOL §€t, 
Ka9cL7T€p Tols 8e8oLKOCTL TCL TTpOOLQTTela 77atSl06? 

eyyvs /cat vtto X e W a ttolovvtzs kcll dvaoTpecjiovTes 

i0L^Opi€V KCLTCLC^pOVeLV, OVTLOS lyyVS CL7TTOpL€VOVS 
KCLL OVV€p€L8oVTCLS TOV XoyLOpLOV, TO OaOpOV KCLL 
TO K€VOV /Cat T€TpayCp8rjp€VOV a7TOKaXv7TT€LV. 

Olov €otlv rj vvv ool irapovoa peT&OTaoLS 1 e/c 
ttjs vopL^opLevrjs TTCLTptSos. (f>vo€L yap OVK eoTL 
TTCLTpls, coonep ov8e olkos ov8e dypos ov8e %aA- 
Kelov, a>s 'ApLOTCOv eXeyev, ov8e laTpelov aAAa 
yiveTCLL, pcaXXov 8e SvopLCL^eTCLL /cat /caAetrat, tov- 

1 iA€TaaTa<7is Xy lander : Karaoraois. 

° II. xxiv. 527-532 as quoted and paraphrased by Plato, 
Republic, 379 d ; the version of the mss. of Homer is different. 
The Platonic version is quoted in Mor. 24 b, 369 c and 473 b 
(where see the notes in the L.C.L.) ; the Homeric version is 

526 



ON EXILE, 600 

that sits by the " two urns " of Homer, a which stand 
in heaven " brimful," the one of good, the other of 
evil " dooms," dispensing them, releasing to some 
a gentle and well-tempered flow, to others, an un- 
diluted stream of misery ; rather, it is ourselves : the 
wise among us, by drawing from the good and pouring 
it upon the bad, make their lives more pleasant and 
potable b ; whereas in the multitude, as in filters, the 
worst remains and adheres as the better flows away 
and vanishes. 

5. If, therefore, we suffer some real and truly pain- 
ful calamity, we must summon cheerfulness and 
peace of spirit by drawing upon the store of good 
still left us, using our own resources to smooth out the 
roughness of what comes from outside ourselves ; but 
with things which have no evil in their nature, and 
whose painfulness is wholly and entirely a figment 
of unfounded opinion, we must act as we do with little 
children who are frightened by masks c : by bringing 
the masks close and putting them into their hands 
and turning them about we accustom the child to 
make light of them ; so, by coming to close quarters 
with these things and applying to them the firm 
pressure of reason, we must expose their unsound- 
ness, their hollo wness, and their theatrical imposture. 

Such is your present removal from what you take 
to be your native land. For by nature there is no such 
thing as a native land, any more than there is by 
nature a house or farm or forge or surgery, as Ariston d 
said ; but in each case the thing becomes so, or rather 

quoted with approval in the Letter of Condolence to Apol- 
lonius (Mor. 105 c). 

b Cf Mor. 469 c and 610 r. 

c Of. Arrian, Epict. ii. 1. 15. 

d Cf Stoicorum Vet. Frag. i. 371, p. 85 (ed. von Arnim). 

527 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(600) « > \ * > > \ / 

v ' TCOV CKOLOTOV CL€L 77/00? TOV OLKOVVTCL KCLl ^pCO/X€VOV. 

6 ydp avOpcDTTos, fj <f>*qoiv 6 UXdrcov, " cf>vrov ovk 
eyyctov ovoe aKtvrjrov, aAA ovpaviov zotlv, 
toGTrep €K pit>v)s to oxoua rfjs K€(j)aXrjs opdov 

LOTWOrjS, 1 TTpOS TOV OVpCLVOV dv€OTpafJLfJL€UO V , O0€V 
€V fl€V O 2 'Hpa/cA^ €LTT€V 3 

*Apyeios fj ©Tj/Jatos" ov yap etr^o/xat 
pads' airas pLOL rrvpyos 'EAAt^ojv iraTpis. 

6 8e Ha)KpaTr)s jSeArtov, ovk 'AOrjvalos ovSe "EAA77V, 
dAAa " Rda/xto? " ctvat (frrjaas, d)S dv Tig " c Pd- 

601 SiOS " €L7T€V fj " T&opivOlOs" OTL pLTjSe HoVVLO) jLt^Se 

Tacvdpoj purjSe tols KepaiWot? iveKAeioev kavTOV. 

*0pas tov inpov rovo* arreipov aide pa 

/cat yfjv 7T€pi£ €xovd* vypals iv* dyKaXais; 

OVTOL TTfS TTaTpLhoS fjpLCOV Spot, 5 Kal OlfSels OVT€ 
<f>VyOLS €V TOVTOIS OVT€ £eVOS OVT€ dA\o8a7Tos, OTTOV 

to avTO nvp, vhojp, diqp , dp^ovTes ol avTol /cat 
SiOLKrjral /cat TrpvTaveis' rjAcos, oeXrjvr], <f)OJO<f)6pos % 
ol avTol 6 vopuoi 7iaaiv, v<f) 97 ivos rrpooTaypiaTOS 
/cat puds fjyepLovlas' rporral jSopetot, TpoTrai votlol, 
B IcrqpLepia, 8 UAeidg, 'ApKTOvpos, wpai 07r6pa)v, Spat 
(f)VT€LO)v 9 - els 8e paoiAevs /cat dpxcov, " Oeos, apXW 

1 laTwarjs] IdrdaTjs Bern. 2 €v fiev 6 Stobaeus : o /xev. 

3 €i7r€v] €L7T€v ipoiTTjdels Stobaeus. 
4 €xov9' vypals iv Lucian, Jup. Trag. 41 : €\ovra vypals. 

5 Benseler deletes elal after Spot. 

6 avrol] avroi 8e vw. 7 v<j>\ d<f> y vwj8 2 . 

8 larjfiepLa] i&rjfiepiai a 2 Capps. 9 <j>vr€i(x)v\ <I>vtcov vw. 

° Timaeus, 90 a ; cf. Mor. 400 b. 

b For the notion that the upper parts of plants are " down " 
and the lower parts " up " (implied in Plato, Timaeus, 90 a-b) 

528 



ON EXILE, 600-601 

is so named and called, with reference to the occupant 
and user. For man, as Plato a says, is " no earthly " 
or immovable " plant," but a " celestial " one, — the 
head, like a root, keeping the body erect — inverted 
to point to heaven. b Thus Heracles spoke well when 
he said 

an Argive I 

Or Theban, for I boast no single city ; 

There is no fort in Greece but is my country c ; 

whereas the saying of Socrates is still better, that he 
was no Athenian or Greek, but a " Cosmian " d (as 
one might say " Rhodian "or" Corinthian "), because 
he did not shut himself up within Sunium and Taenarus 
and the Ceraunian mountains/ 

Seest thou yon boundless aether overhead 
That holds the earth within its soft embrace ? / 

This is the boundary of our native land, and here no 
one is either exile or foreigner or alien ; here are the 
same fire, water, and air ; the same magistrates and 
procurators and councillors — Sun, Moon, and Morning 
Star ; the same laws for all, decreed by one com- 
mandment and one sovereignty — the summer sol- 
stice, the winter solstice, the equinox, the Pleiades, 
Arcturus, the seasons of sowing, the seasons of plant- 
ing g ; here one king and ruler, " God, holding the 

cf. Aristotle, Be Anima, ii. 4 (416 a 2-5), Be Part. An. iv. 10 
(686 b 34 f.), Be Inc. An. 4 (705 a 26-b 8). 

c Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespota, 392, imitated by 
Crates (Frag. 15, Diels, Poetarum Phil. Frag. p. 222). 

d Cf. Cicero, Tusc. Bisput. v. 37 (108) ; Musonius, p. 42. 
1-2 (ed. Hense) ; Arrian, Epict. i. 9. 1. 

e The limits of Greece to the east, south, and north : cf 
Life of Phocion, chap. xxix. 4 (745 f). 

1 Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Eur. 941. 1-2 ; also quoted 
in Mor. 780 d, 919 b. 

9 The civil months differed in Greece from city to city. 

529 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(601) T€ Kal jxeaa Kal reXevrrjv eyiov rod rravros^ evdeia 
irepaivei Kara <f)vaiv TrepLTTopevopievos' rep 8e 
eWrcu 2 Aikt) twv aTToAenropLevojv rod deiov vopcov 
ripuopoSy" fj xpojpLeQa irdvres avdpojrroi (frvaei rrpos 
Travras avdpamovs ojarrep TroALras. 

6. To Sd (J€ jJLTJ KOLTOLK€LV HdpSeiS OvOlv ZoTlV 

ovSe yap 'AOrjvcuoi rravres kcltolkovoi KoAAutoV, 3 
ovhe K.opLv6ioi Ys^pdvetoVy ovSe UtTdvrjv AaKQjves. 
dpa ovv £evoi Kal aTroXtSes elacv 'Adrjvatajv ol 
IxerauTavres £k MeAlrrjs els Atd/xeta, 4 ottov /cat 
fjurjva MerayeLTVicova 5 Kal dvoiav Itt{1ovv\lov ayovoi 
C rod fjLeTOLKiGjjLov rd MerayciVvia, rrjv rrpos irepovs 
yeiTviaaiv €vkoXojs Kal IXapcos eKSexopievoi, Kal 
arepyovres ; ovk dv €lttols. tl ovv rrjs olkovjjl€VY]s 
fjiepos, tj rrjs yrjs drrda^Sy erepov erepov fiaKpdv 

€GTLV, TjV VTToSeiKVVOVCTLV 6 OL fJLaOrjfJLaTLKol G7]jJL€LOV 

\6yov e^ovaav docaardrov rrpos top ovpavov ; dAA' 

rjfJLeLS, 0)07T€p fJLVpfJLr)K€S Tj fieXirrat, fJLVpfJLr)KiaS 

pads rj KvifjeArjs eKrreaovres , dhiqpbovovpLev Kal £evo- 
rraOov/JLev, ovk elSores ovSe jjLepbaOrjKores 7 otKeia 
rd 8 rrdvra rroieladai Kal vopuXew, coairep earl. 

1 jxeaa through iravros] TeXevrrjv Kal fjueoa twv ovtlov airdvrajv 
excuv Plato. 2 €7T€tcu] del <jvv€7T€Tai Plato. 

3 KoXXvtov Diibner : koXvttov. 

4 Ai6/x€La Xylander : StajfjulSa. 

5 /xct ay €ltvlo)v a w : /xeTayetrviaWa. 

6 viTobeLKvvovoLv] airooeiKvvovoiv VW. 

7 ovhe fxeixaOrjKores Stobaeus only. 8 ra Stobaeus only. 

° Plato, Laws, 715 e— 716 a ; quoted Mor. 781 f, 1124 f. 

b For the notion that the whole world is our country cf. 
Mor. 329 c ; Democritus (Diels and Kranz, Frag. d. Vorso- 
Tcratiker 6 , ii, p. 194. 16 f., Democritus, 247) ; Philo, Qvod 
Omnis Probus Liber Sit, 145 ; Seneca, Ad Helv. 9. 7, Ep. 
xxviii. 4 ; Arrian, Epict. iii. 24. 66 ; Favorinus, col. ix. 23. 

530 



ON EXILE, 601 

beginning, middle, and end of the universe, proceeds 
directly, as is his nature, in his circuit ; upon him 
follows Justice, who visits with punishment those 
that fall short of the divine law," a the justice which 
all of us by nature observe toward all men as our 
fellow-citizens . b 

6. That you do not live in Sardis is nothing ; 
neither do all Athenians live in Colly tus, all Corin- 
thians in Craneion, all Laconians in Pitane. Are 
those Athenians foreigners and men without a country 
who removed from Melite to the region of Diomeia, 
where they observe both the month Metageitnion 
and a festival, " the Metageitnia," c named for their 
migration, accepting this change of neighbours in a 
serene and joyful spirit, and remaining content with 
their condition ? You would not say so. What part, 
then, of the inhabited world, or of the whole earth, 
is remote from another, when astronomers teach that 
in* comparison to the universe the earth is a mere 
point, without extension ? d But we, when like ants 
or bees we have been driven out of one anthill or 
beehive, are dismayed and feel strange, possessing 
neither the knowledge nor the instruction that would 
teach us to take and consider the whole world to be 

For the whole topic cf. Zeller, Die Philosophie der Griechen, 
iii. 2 6 , p. 203, note 5, and W. W. Tarn, " Alexander the Great 
and the Unity of Mankind," in the Proceedings of the British 
Academy, xix (1933). 

c Metageitnios means " of the change of neighbours." 
Cf. L. Deubner, Attische Feste (Berlin, 1932), p. 202. 

d Cf. Aristarchus, p. 352. 5 (ed. Heath ; cf. pp. 308-310) ; 
Geminus, 16, p. 176. 9 f. (ed. Manitius) ; Cicero, Tusc. Disput. 
i. 7 (40) ; Seneca, Ad Marc. 21.2; Theo Smyrnaeus, pp. 
120, 128 f. (ed. Hiller) ; Ptolemy, Syntaxis Mathematica, i. 
6, p. 20. 5 ff. (ed. Heiberg) ; Cleomedes, i. 11, p. 102. 22 ff. 
(ed. Ziegler) ; Chalcidius, chap, lxiv, p. 132. 9 f. (ed. Wrobel). 

531 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(601) KCLLTOi yeXcopiev rrjv dfieXrepiav rov <f)duKovros iv 
*A6rjvais fieXriova aeArjvrjv elvat rrjs iv YLoplvdco, 
rpoTTOv rivd ro olvto Trdaxovres orav dfi^iyvocofxeVj 
im £evr)s yevofievoc, rrjv yrjv, rrjv OdXarrav, rov 
depa, rov ovpavov, ojs erepa /cat hia<f)epovra rcov 
D Gvvrjdcov. rj {lev yap envois iXevOepovs rjfias /cat 
XeXvfievovs d<j)ir)oiv, avrol he r^iels 1 avvheoptev 
eavrovs, Gvorevoyo)p'ov[xev , iyKaroiKohofiovpLev, els 
lUKpd /cat yXLaxpcL avveXavvofiev. elra ra>v fiev 
Hepcrcov j8aatAe'a>v KarayeXcofiev, el ye hr) dXrjda>s 2 
to rod Xodorrov jjlovov vhojp rrivovres dvvhpov av- 
roZs rrjv dXXr)v 7tolovglv oLKovfJLevrjv orav he \iera- 
OTW/jLev els erepa yaypia y rov Kry</>tcro£> yXi^opievoi 
/cat rov bjvpcorav rj ro iavyerov rj rov ilapvaaov 
irmToOovvres , drroXiv /cat doiKrjrov avrols rrjv ol- 
KovfJLevrjv rroiovfiev. 

7. Alyvrrrlcov p,ev ovv ol hi opyrjv riva /cat 
E x a ^ €7T ^ rr ) Ta T °v jSacrtAea)? els AWiorriav fieroiKil^o- 
fievoi, rrpos rovs heofievovs eiraveXOelv enl re/cva 
/cat yvvaiKCLs, emheiKvvvres rd alhoia KWiKwrepov, 
ovre ya/jiojv e<f>aoav ovre rraihojv drroprjoeiv a^/ot 
oS ravra [led* eavrcov e^cjooiv evrrperrearepov he 
ion /cat oe\xvorepov elrreiv ojs orrov /cat orco 
fierpiajv* Trpos rov /3t'ov evrropeiv avjjL^e^rjKev, iv- 
ravOa ovros ovr' arroXis ovr dvearios ovre £evos 

1 avrol 8e Tjficls Stobaeus : r)fj,€ls Be avrol. 

2 aAi^tDs"] dXrjOks a. 

3 to Tavyerov nos : rov ravyerov a 2 ; rov rrjvyerov. 

4 fierptcov] fjLerpicov tojv Castiglioni. 

a Cf. Teles, p. 23. 3 f. (ed. Hense) ; Arrian, Epict. i. 25. 28. 
b Cf. Herodotus, i. 188. 
532 



ON EXILE, 601 

our own, as indeed it is. Yet we laugh at the stupidity 
of the man who asserts that at Athens there is a better 
moon than at Corinth, although we are in a sense in 
the same case as he, when, on coming to a foreign 
land, we fail to recognize the earth, the sea, the air, 
the sky, as though they were distinct and different 
from those familiar to us. For nature leaves us free 
and untrammelled ; it is we who bind ourselves, con- 
fine ourselves, immure ourselves, herd ourselves into 
cramped and sordid quarters. a And then we scoff 
at the Persian kings, if in truth, by drinking no water 
but that of the Choaspes, 6 they turn the rest of the 
inhabited world for themselves into a waterless 
waste ; but when we move to other lands, in our 
attachment to the Cephisus and our longing for the 
Eurotas or Taygetus or Parnassus, we make the in- 
habited world empty of cities for ourselves and unfit 
for habitation. 

7. The Egyptians indeed, who because of some 
outburst of anger and severity on the part of their 
king, were migrating to Ethiopia, replied to those 
who entreated them to return to their children and 
wives by pointing with Cynic licence to their private 
parts and remarking that they would be at no loss 
for either marriage or children so long as they had 
these with them. c One can, however, with greater 
decency and decorum, say that wherever a man 
happens to find a moderate provision for his liveli- 
hood/ there that man lacks neither city nor hearth 

c Cf. Herodotus, ii. 30 ; Diodorus, i. 57. Plutarch, per- 
haps intentionally, represents the Egyptians as migrating 
because of their king's " anger and severity ; " in Herodotus 
and Diodorus they migrate from resentment at being slighted 
by him. 

* Cf. Musonius, p. 44, 16 (ed. Hense). 

533 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(601) i(JTL. fXOVOV €X€LV Set TTpOS TOVTOIS VOVV KOU Xoyi- 

F Gfiov, axjTTep dyKvpav Kv^epvrjTrjv tva 7TCLVTL XPV~ 
odai At/zeVt irpoooppLicrQeLs hvvrjrai. ttXovtov puev yap 
aTTofiaXovra pahiajs /cat ra^eojs ovk eanv aAAov 1 
avvayayelv, Trarpls Se y ever at rrdaa 770 At? evdvs 
dv9pa)7Tcp xPV G ^ aL l^eiJLaOrjKOTL /cat pi^ag exovri 

TTCLVTCLXOV tfqV T€ Kqi Tpi(j)€o6ai KOLL TTOJVtX TOTTCp 2 

7rpoac/)V€a9 ai hwafxevag, otag et^e ©e/ztaro /cAt]s\, 
ota? A^ju^t/ho? o Q)aXr)p€vg. ovrog /xev yap iv 
'AAe^avSpeta /xera, rrjv <f)vyrjv Trp&rog tov rtbv 
UroXefJiaiov </)lXqjv, ov jjlovov avrog iv d<j>96voig 
Sirjyev, dXXa /cat rots' ' AOrjvaLotg Sojpedg eirepLirev , 
602 QefjuGTOKXrjs Se, ^op^yta /JaatAt/c^ Trpvravevofievog , 
€ltt€lv Aeyerat Trpog rrjv yvvacKa /cat rovg *7ratSas" 
aVa>Ao/ze#a dv, et pur] a7^a)Ao^te#a. ,, St6 /cat Ato- 

y€V7)S 6 KVCOV, 7Tp6g TOV etTTOPTa, " HlVO)7T€Lg gov 

<f>vyr)v e/c Ylovrov Kariyvojoav," " iyd> oe," elrrev, 
e/cetVa>v iv Ylovrco \xovr\v " — 

a/coat? eVt prjypuGLV d£evov z iropov.* 

HrparovLKos Se tov iv Septra) £evov rjpojrrjGev i<f>* 
orcp rtbv dhiKTuiarajv <f>vyr) reVa/crat Trap* avTolg 
iTTiTLjAiov aKovGas S' oVt Tovg paSiovpyovg <f>vya- 
SevovGL, " ri ovv," etWev, " ovk ipaoiovpyrjoas 
B ottojs e/c TTfS crrevo^a>ptas > Tavrrjs pberaorfjg ; " ottov 

1 pahitos /cat ra^eco? ovk eoriv aXXov Stobaeus : pdov ovk 
eon koX Tdxecos. 2 tottco Donatus Polus : rpoina, 

3 a^ivov Hercher (from Eur.) : evgeivov (with a papyrus of 
Eur.). 4 nopov Salmasius : novrov. 

534, 



ON EXILE, 601-602 

nor is an alien. Only he must also have good sense 
and reason, as a skipper needs an anchor that he may 
moor in any haven and make use of it. For while loss 
of wealth cannot easily and quickly be repaired, every 
city at once becomes a native city to the man who 
has learned to make use of it and has roots which 
can live and thrive everywhere and take hold in any 
region, roots such as Themistocles and Demetrius 
of Phalerum had. For Demetrius was after his 
banishment first among the friends of Ptolemy at 
Alexandria, and not only lived in plenty himself, 
but even used to send largesse to the Athenians ; 
while Themistocles, when royally maintained by the 
King's bounty, is reported to have said to his wife 
and children : "It would have been our undoing not 
to have been undone." a For this reason, to the one 
who remarked : " The Sinopians condemned you 
to banishment from Pontus," Diogenes the Cynic 
replied : " But I condemned them to stay there," b — 

Out where meet the shore 
The breakers of the Inhospitable Sea. c 

Stratonicus d asked his host in Seriphos what crime 
was punished there with banishment ; when told 
that persons guilty of fraud were expelled, he said : 
" Then why not commit fraud and escape from this 
confinement ? " — where the comic poet e says that 

a Cf. Mor. 185 f and the note; Teles, p. 22. 14 f. (ed. 
Hense) ; Aristeides, Or. xx. 9, vol. ii, p. 19 (ed. Keil). 

6 Cf. Diogenes Laert. vi. 49. 

c Euripides, Iphigenia in Tauris, 253. 

d A celebrated Athenian citharoedus and wit of the fourth 
century. 

e Kock, C.A.F., Adespota, 812 ; perhaps from the Seri- 
phioi of Cratinus : cf. Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. iv, p. 672, 
frag, com, anon. CCXCV c. 

535 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(602) (f>rjcrlv 6 kojjjllkos tcl avKa rats a(j)€v86vais rpv- 
yaodai Kal rravra e^ctv oaa fir) 1 8el rrjv vrjaov. 

8. *Av yap GKoirfjs dvev Kevrjs 86£rjs rrjv dXrj- 
decav, 6 \ilav ttoXlv €.yoyv i;evos iarl rtov dXXa>v 
arraacov koll dAAorpios" ov yap 8ok€l KaXov ov8e 
oiKaiov €Lvat KaraXiTrovra rrjv iavrov vejieiv ere- 
pav 

Ti7Taprav eXax^S, ravrav 2 Koo\xei 

Kav a8o£os rj, kolv voad)8r]s, kov rapdrrrjrai ord- 
G€<Jiv vcfS iavrrjs Kal 7xpdy\iaai \irj vyialvovoiv. 
ov 8e r) tvx 7 ) T V V i° Lav d<\>r)pryrai, rovrco 8l8coglv 
eyzw rrjv dpeoaaav . rd yap KaXov €K€lvo rrapdy- 
C yeXfia rcjv HvOayopeiwv, " iXov fiiov rdv z dptarov, 
r)8vv 8e avrov rj avvfjdeia Troirjaei," KavravOa oo<f>6v 
iarc Kal xPV aL l JLOV ' " ^Aou ttoXlv rrjv dpiorrrjv Kal 
rjSlarrjv, 7rarpi8a 8e avrrjv 6 xpovos Troir\oei" Kal 
rrarplha fir) TrepLGTTtoaav, fir) evoyXovoav , fir) TTpoa- 

/ tt > / yy\ tt / o ' f T~> / 

rarrovaav etaeveyKai, Trpeapevaov ecs Jrco- 

}} tt c /o >• \ ( / >* tt \ / ti 

firjv, VTrooe^ai rov rjyefiova, AeLrovpyrjaov. 
dv yap tovtojv ns fivrjfiovevrj <j>pevas Zywv Kal fir) 
TTavraTraaL rerv(f>a)fievos , alprjaeraL Kal vrjaov 
oLKeiv, (f>vyas yevofjcevos, Yvapov r) TSIvapqv, 

GKXrjpdv, aKapnov, Kal <f)VT€V€odai KaKrjv, 

ovk dOvficov ov8e dSvpdfievos ov8e Xeya>v €K€iva 

1 oaa fxrj nos (oaojv ov Cobet ; oa* ov ?) : oacov. 

2 ravrav Eur. : ravrrjv. 

3 rov (cf. Mor. 123 c)] omitted in a. 

536 



ON EXILE, 602 

the figs are gathered in with slings, and remarks that 
the island is well provided with every incommodity. 
8. Indeed, if you lay aside unfounded opinion and 
consider the truth, the man who has a single city is 
a stranger and an alien to all the rest ; for it is felt 
he can neither in decency nor in justice forsake his 
own city to inhabit another : 

Your lot is Sparta : look to Sparta then, 

whether it be obscure, or unhealthy, or a prey to 
faction and turbulence. But Fortune grants posses- 
sion of what city he pleases to the man she has de- 
prived of his own. For that excellent precept of the 
Pythagoreans, " choose the best life, and familiarity 
will make it pleasant," b is here too wise and useful : 
" choose the best and most pleasant city, and time 
will make of it your native land " — a native land that 
does not distract you, is not importunate, does not 
command : " pay a special levy," " go on an embassy 
to Rome," " entertain the governor," " undertake a 
public service at your own expense." For if a person 
in his senses and not utterly infatuated bears this in 
mind, he will choose, if exiled, to live even on an 
island, Gyaros or Cinaros, 

Rocky, unfit for corn or vine or tree, c 

not downcast or lamenting or uttering the words of 

° From the Telephus of Euripides : Nauck, Trag. Graec. 
Frag,, Eur. 723 ; cf. Mor. 472 d and note. 

b Cf. Mor. 123 c and 466 f, and the Gnomologium Vatica- 
num 9 461 (ed. Sternbach, Wiener Stud, xi, 1889, pp. 209 f.) 
with the parallels noted there. 

c Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespota, 393 ; Kock, 
C.A.F., Adespota, 1238. 

4 eloeveyKcu] €io€V€yK€ Cobet, but see Lysias, Or. 19. 43, p. 155. 

537 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(602) rd tcjv irapd St/zojviS^ yvvaiKtov, 

D tcrx €L ^€ fJL€ TTop^vpeas dXos d/JL^trapaaaofjievas 
opvpiaySos, 1 

dXXd jjl&XXov TO rov OlXltt7tov XoyL^opLevos' 7T€<7<hv 
yap ev TraXaiorpa /cat pLeraar panels, <hs et$€ rov 

aWfJLCLTOS TOV TV7TOV, " CO ' Hpa/cAct^/' €L7T€V, " COS 

/jiLKpov fJLepovs rrjs yfjs (frvaec fierexovres oXrjs 
ifice/JLeda rrjs oli<ovfJL€V7]s." 

Q. Olfxai o€ rrjs Na£ot> yeyovevai Oeariqv, el 8e 
fJ^rj, rrjs y 'Yplas, 2 ivravOa ttXtjolov ovarjs' aAA' 
€K€Lvrj fxev e^eopct rov ^(^cdXrrjv /cat rov ^Orrov, 
avrrj Se rod 'Qplcovos rjv olKrjrrjpiov. 6 Se 'AA- 
Kfidltiv IXvv veo7Tayrj rov 'A^eAciou Trpooxoovvvvros 
E iTTcpKrjaev vnoc/yevycov rds Eu/zevt'Sas-, cos oi 7TOL7]ral 
Xeyovaw iyoo 8e /ca/cetvov £t/ca£a>, (frevyovra ttoXl- 
tikols rapa^ds 3 /cat ordoeis /cat avKo^avrias ipc- 
vvdjheiSy eXeaOai /3pa^u yo y ? lov dnpaypLovoos Iv 
rjavx^o: koltoik€lv. Tifiepios Se Kataap iv KaTTplais* 
eirrd errj SLrjrrjdT] /ze^pt rrjs reXevrrjs, /cat to rrjs 
olKovjJL€vr)s rjyefJLoviKov fiopiov, 5 ooarrep els /capStav 

1 opvfiaySos j3 : opvyjxahos. 

2 y 'Tpta? L. Holstenius, Diibner : dovpias. 

3 rapaxas Emperius : dpxas. 

4 KaiTpiais y 2 : Kearpiais. 

5 /jiopLov Kronenberg (Wilamowitz deletes) : Upov. 

a Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec, Simonides, 51 ; Diehl, Anth. 
Lyr. Gr. ii. 28. 

6 Plutarch is doubtless writing from Chaeroneia. 

c These are the Aloadae, who when nine years old were 
nine cubits broad and nine fathoms high : cf. Homer, Od. 
xi. 305-310. For their stay at Naxos cf. Pindar, Pythian 
Odes, iv. 88 f., and Diodorus, v. 52. 

d Orion was yet huger than the Aloadae (cf. Homer, Od, 

538 



ON EXILE, 602 

the women in Simonides a 

The clamour of the blue salt sea 
Tossing about me, hems me in, 

but he will rather reason as Philip did, who said, on 
being thrown in wrestling, as he turned about and 
saw the imprint of his body : " Good God ! How 
small a portion of the earth we hold by nature, yet 
we covet the whole world ! " 

9- You have, I think, seen Naxos, if not, Hyria, 
which is not far from here b ; yet Naxos had room 
for Ephialtes and Otus c ; Hyria was the habitation 
of Orion. d When Alcmaeon was fleeing before the 
Eumenides, he settled, as poets tell, on newly 
hardened silt built up by the Acheloiis e ; but my 
conjecture is that he too, fleeing from the tumults, 
factions, and fiendish legal blackmail of his country- 
men, chose to dwell on a small plot unharassed and 
in peace. Tiberius Caesar passed the last seven years 
of his life at Capri ; and the ruling part of the in- 
habited world, as if gathered up into a heart/ made 

xi. 309 f.) ; for his birth at Hyria cf. Strabo, ix. 2. 12 
(p. 404). 

* Eriphyle, the wife of Amphiaraus, was bribed by a neck- 
lace to betray her husband, who in consequence took part 
in the war of the Seven against Thebes, and disappeared 
from among the living, but not until he had ordered their 
son, Alcmaeon, to avenge him. After slaying his mother 
Alcmaeon was told by the Delphic oracle that he could 
escape the Furies by finding a country that had not existed 
when his mother uttered her dying curse. He found such a 
land in the alluvial deposits at the mouth of the Acheloiis. 
Cf. Thucydides, ii. 102 ; Pausanias, viii. 24. 8-9 ; and Nauck, 
Trag. Graec. Frag. pp. 379-380. 

t An allusion to the Stoic doctrine that man's soul has a 
ruling part situated in the heart : cf. Stoicorum Vet. Frag. 
ii. 837-839, p. 228 (ed. von Arnim). 

539 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(602) (jvvrjyfjievov, ovSafiov fiereGrrj roaovrov ypovov 
oXK €K€lvo) fxev at rrjs rjyefiovLas ^povrlhes, em- 
XeofJLevou Kal Trpoo^epopievai navraxodev, ov Kada- 
pdv irapeiypv ov8e aKVfxova rrjv vrjoiooriv rjovxtav 
F to Se e^eoTLV, els fiLKpav aTrofiavTi vijoov, ov piiKpoov 
aTrrjAAdx@CLi kolkcov, ovtos dOXios icrri firj Trpoa- 
XaXoov eavroo ra HivSapiKa fMrjhe iiraSajv ttoAAolkis, 

ea, $pr\v, Kvirdpiaoov , 

ea Se vofxov irepihaCov } 

ijjiol 8' oXiyov SeSorcu fiev yds, 2 odev a 8pvs, 3 

ov 7T€v9eojv 8' eXaxov, ov oracrta>i>, 4 

ov8e TTpoorayiidrajv rjyejJLovLKtbv, ov8e virovpyiGiv 
ev ttoAltikcus ^pctats' Kal Xeirovpyiodv SvoTrapairi]- 
tcov. (10.) 07tov yap ov (fyavXoos So/cei Xeyeiv 6 
KaAAt/xa^os" to 

jjirj axoivcp HepalSt, rrjv ao(f>irjv, 

rjiTov rrjv evSaijJLovLav gxolvols Kal rrapaadyyais 
603 jxerpovvres, edv vrjoov olKcofxev hiaKooiojv arahioov, 
dXXd jXTf reaodpoov rjjJLepoov, woTrep rj HiKeXLa, 
irepiTrXovv exovoav, ohvvav eavrovs Kal 6pr]veiv 
o&eiXojJLev cbs KaKoSai/juovovvres ; ri yap rj TrXarela 

1 ea (frprjv Kwnapiooov eav Be vo/jlov TrepiBa'Cov Papy. Oxyr. v. 
841 : e\a<f>po\v Kvirdpioaov <j>i\eei,v edv (edv a 2 ) Be vofiov Kptfras 
TTepiBaiayv. 

2 BeBorai fjuev yds Housman : fiev yds BeBorai. 

3 a Bpvs Reiske : aBpvs (dpBvs w). 

4 ov irevdeoiv S' eXaxov ov oraoiuiv Grenfell and Hunt : 
Trevdeoiv Be ovk eXaxov oraolojv. 

a Paeans, iv. 50 ff., partly preserved in Oxyrhynchus 
Papyri, v. 841 ; cf. Sandys, Pindar, pp. 530 ff. in the L.C.L. 
The words are spoken by the hero Euxantius of Ceos ; he had 

540 






ON EXILE, 602-603 

not the slightest change in its abode for all that time. 
Yet in his case the cares of state, pouring in upon 
him and brought in from everywhere, made the island 
repose not unmixed and not free from storms ; where- 
as the man who finds that by disembarking on a small 
island he can be rid of no small troubles, is pitiful 
indeed if he does not recite to himself the words of 
Pindar a and often repeat them as a spell b : 

Forgo, my heart, the cypress ; 

Forgo the contested land ; 

To me but little earth is given, where grows the oak ; 

But to my lot has fallen no sorrow, no discord, 

or commands from the governor or ministrations to 
the needs of countrymen and public services that are 
difficult to decline. (10.) For when Callimachus c is 
applauded for saying, 

Use not a Persian rope to measure art, 

are we to measure felicity by " ropes " and parasangs, 
and if we dwell on an island of two hundred stades' 
circumference, and not, like Sicily, four days' sail in 
circuit, 4 are we to torment ourselves and lament our 
wretched plight ? For what has breadth of land to 

been offered land in Crete, but preferred to remain on his 
little island. The text and translation of this fragment are 
in places uncertain. 

6 For chanting words over oneself as a spell cf. Plato, 
Phaedo, 114 d, Republic, 608 a, and Laws, 665 c. 

c Callimachus, Aetia, Frag. 1. 18 (ed. Pfeiffer, Oxford, 
1949). Callimachus doubtless had in mind the largest of 
the figures given for the schoinos or " rope," sixty stades 
(Herodotus, ii. 6), which would be nearly seven miles. 

d Thucydides (vi. 1. 2) says that for a merchant vessel the 
voyage around the island required not much less than eight 
days ; Ephorus (quoted by Strabo, vi. 2. 1, p. 266) says that 
the trip required five days and nights. 

% 541 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(603) X C ^ } P a TTpOS T O v dXvTTOV filoV / OVK OLKOV€LS TOV 

TavrdXov Aeyovros iv rfj rpaycohia, 

GTreipoj S' dpovpav ScoSe^' rjfjiepcov 686v t 
JiepeKwOa 1 ^copov, 

elra \xzt dXlyov Xiyovros' 

OVjJLOS Se 7TOTJJLOS 2 OVpCLVtp KVptOV CLVCO 
€pa£,€ TTL77T€L Kdl jJL€ 7TpOO(/)COV€L TOLO€' 

yivcoGK€ Tav9pa)7T€ia fjcrj oifteiv dyo.v ; 

6 8e NavolOoos rrjv zypvyjuopov ^nepetav kcltcl- 

Xlttojv Sia to yeLTVL&v tovs K.vkXo>7tcls CLvrfj kcll 

B /xeraara? €t9 vrjoov " eKas dv8pcov z dXcfrrjordtov " 

kcll kcltolkcov dv€7TLjjiiKTO? dvdpcoTTtov " drrdvevOe 

TToXvkXvGTCx) ivl TTOVTCQ," TOV 7]8lOTOV 7TCLp€OK€VCLO€ 

fiiov tols iavrov TroXirais. ras 8e Ku/cAaSas 1 
Trporepov (Jiev ol MtVa> TralSes, vorepov 8e oi 
KdSpou kcll NeiAcoo, KCLTtoKrjcrav, iv als rd vvv ol 
dvorjroL <f)vyd8es olovtcll KoXd^eoOat. kclltol tto'lcl 
(f)vya8LKrj vfjoos ovk eon 7rXarvrepa rrjs S/aA- 
Xovvrias x^ ) P a ^> ^ v V Sevo^cuv fierd rrjv orpareiav 

TO ALTTCLpOV €LO€ yY]pCLS ; 7] AKaOrjfJLLCL, 

T piO^XitOV 8pCL)(lJLLOV ^COpiStOV ioJVrj jJL€VOV , oIkT}- 

rrjpLOV r\v TlXdrtovos kcll ZevoKparovs /cat TloXeficu- 

1 fiepeKvvOa A 2 E : €p€Kvvda (ip€Kdv6a jS 2ss ). 

2 ov/ios 8e rroTjjLos Porson : 6vjjl6s 8e nod* dfios (dfivos vw). 

3 dvhpcov Homer : dXXcov. 

a From the Niobe of Aeschylus : Nauck, Trag. Graec. 
Frag., Aesch. 158 ; cf. Mor. 778 b and note. 
h Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Aesch. 159. 
c Homer, Od. vi. 4. 
d Homer, Od. vi. 8. 

542 






ON EXILE, 603 

do with the life free from pain ? Have you not heard 
the words of Tantalus in the tragedy ? He says, 

The field I sow is twelve days' journey long, 
The Berecynthian land a 

and then says a little later : 

My fate, while reaching upward to the skies, 
Falls to the earth, and speaks these words to me : 
Learn not to honour human things too much. b 

Nausithoiis, by leaving " the broad land of Hypereia " G 
because the Cyclopes were its neighbours, moving 
to an island " far from industrious men/' d and dwel- 
ling apart from human traffic " far off in the stormy 
seas," e provided his countrymen with the most 
pleasant of lives. It was first the children of Minos, 
and later the children of Codrus and Neileus, that 
settled the Cyclades, where at present the thought- 
less exiles fancy they are punished. Yet what island 
of exile is not more spacious than the district of 
Scillus, where Xenophon after his campaign lived 
to see a " comfortable old age " ? ' The Academy, 
a little plot of ground bought for three thousand 
drachmas, was the dwelling of Plato and Xenocrates 

e Homer, Od. vi. 204 f. 

i Cf. Homer, Od. iv. 210, xi. 136, xix. 368, xxiii. 283. 
After taking part in the expedition of the Ten Thousand, 
in the Spartan campaigns in Asia, and in the battle of 
Coroneia, Xenophon was exiled and settled at Scillus, a 
district in Elis south of Olympia. Here, according to 
Diogenes Laertius (ii. 52), he composed his histories : cf. 
605 c, infra. By " campaign " Plutarch doubtless means 
the march of the Ten Thousand, as Xenophon's participation 
in this expedition was thought to have led to his banishment 
(cf. Diogenes Laert. ii. 58 ; Dio Chrysostom, Or. viii. 1 ; 
Pausanias, v. 6. 5). 

543 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(603) vos, olvtoOl a^oXa^ovraJv kcu KarafiiovvTCOv rov 
C drravra y^povov ttXtjv jjllclv 1 rjfiepav iv fj SevoKpdrrjs 

Kdd' eKOLGTOV €TOS €IS aOTV KOLTrjei, AlOVVGLCOV 

KCLivols rpaycohoiSy imKoapioov, cos €(f>aaav, rrjv 
ioprrjv. ' ApLaroriXrj 2 8e kol XeXotSoprjKe 0ed- 

KpiTOS 6 XlO? OTL TTjV TTOLpa? QlXilTTTCp KCU, 'AAe£- 

dvSpco Slairav aycLTTrjaas 

elXero vaUiv 
dvr * KKahrjpLeias BopjSopou iv 7Tpo-)(oals 

(eoTt yap rrorapLos Trepl IleAAav 4 6V MaKeSoveg 

HopfiopOV KOlXoVCFl). T(X9 §€ VrjOOVS CO(J7T€p €7TLTr]h€S 

Vfjivoov kolI avvLords rjjjuv 6 Trocrjrrjs — 

AjjfJLVOV 8' €LOa(f)LKaV€, TToXlV 0€LOLO QoOLVTOS 
KCLI 

D oaaov 5 Aeofios dvoo, fiaKapoov* eSos, ivrog iipyei 

KCLI 

YiKvpov iXoov alrrelaVy 'JLvvrjos irroXUBpov 

/cat 

ol 8' €K AovXi^ioio 'E^tmcov 6* lepdcov 
v-qocov at vaiovoi Treprjv dXos "HAiSos dvr a — 

Kal rcov €7TL(/)av(jov dvSpoov vrjaov olk€lv ^aC rov 
deoc^iXeararov AloXov, rov oofiwrarov 'OSvcnrca, 
rov avSpetorarov Acavra, rov (j^iXo^evcoraTOV 
'AXkivovv. 

11. *0 pi€V OVV TjTjVOOV, TTvdopieVOS TjV €TL XoL7TrjV 

ef^e vavv jjierd rcov (f)oprioov KaTa7TeTro\iivr\v vtt6 

1 pLiav] tt)v jLttav Capps. 2 ' ApiaTordXr]] -rjs v ; -rjv a. 

3 Trapa] 7T€pl Laur. Con v. Soppr. 57. 

544 



ON EXILE, 603 

and Polemon, who taught and spent their lives there, 
except for the one day every year when Xenocrates 
went down to the city for the new tragedies at the 
Dionysia, and graced the festival, as people said. 
Theocritus a of Chios went so far as to abuse Aristotle, 
because he had conceived a taste for the style of 
living at the court of Philip and Alexander, and 

preferred to Academe 
A dwelling in the flow of Slime, — 

there being a river near Pella which the Macedonians 
call Borborus. 6 Homer, who praises the islands and 
recommends them to us as though by design — 

To Lemnos came she, town of godlike Thoas, c 
and 

All that Lesbos bounds toward the sea, 
Seat of the blest, d 



and 
and 



Taking steep Scyros, fortress of Enyeus, * 

Men from Dulichium and the sacred isles 
Echinae, facing Elis over the sea / — 



also says that of famous men Aeolus the dearest to 
the gods, Odysseus the wisest, Ajax the bravest, and 
Alcinoiis the most hospitable, dwelt on islands. 

11. Zeno indeed, when he learned that his only 
remaining ship had been engulfed with its cargo by 

° Diehl, Anth. Lyr. Gr. i. I 3 , p. 127. 

b That is, " Slime." c II. xiv. 230. 

d II. xxiv. 544. • II. ix. 668. ' II. ii. 625 f. 

4 IlcAAav nos : 7reXXr)v (ttoXw w). 5 oooov Homer : oaa. 
6 (jLOLKapaiv] MaKapos most mss. of Homer. 
7 <f>r]ol Donatus Polus : <f>aal. 
vol. vii t 54<5 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(603) rrjg daXdoarjs, '•-■ evye," etnev, " & TVX 7 }* rrotets, 
els rpificova " Kal fiiov <j)iX6oo(f)ov *' avveXavvovoa 
E^as"" dvrjp Se purj TeTV(/)a)pLevos navTanaoi purjoe 
oxXofJiavajv ovk dv, of/xat, jjLefjufjaiTO rrjv rvxrjv 1 
avveXavvopuevos els vrjaov, aAA' eTracveaeiev otl tov 
ttoXvv dXuv Kal pepufiov eavrov, Kal rrXdvas ev 
a7To$r)iJLLais, Kal klv&vvovs ev daXdoor), Kal dopv- 
fiovs ev dyopa, TTepieXovoa, pbovcpiov Kal oxoXalov 
Kal aTTepiOTTaoTov Kal loiov fiiov ojs dXrjOcos SlSojol, 
KevTpco Kal oiaarrniari irepiypd^aaa rrjv tcov avay- 
Kaia>v xP € ^ av ' TToia yap vrjaos oLKtav ovk e'xet, 
TrepiTraroVy Xovrpov, Ix^vs, Xaya>ovs, dypa Kal 
Trachia xprjaOat fiovXofievois; to 8e 2 pieyiOTOV, 
7]ovx^s, rjs Sli/jcjolv erepoi, aol TroXXaKis tvx^Zv 
F eveoTiv. dXXd TreTTevovTas Kal aTTOKpvTTTopievovs 
olkol avKO(f>dvTai Kal TroXvirpdypuoves e^xvevovTes 

Kal 8ld)KOVT€S €K TCOV 7TpOaGTLO)V Kal TCOV KTJ7TCOV 

els dyopdv Kal els avXrjv jSia Kardyovoiv , els 8e 
vrjaov ovk evoxXtov tls, ovk alrcov, ov 8ave LL^opLevos, 
ovk eyyvrjaaaOai irapaKaXcov , ov ovvapxaipeoidoai , 
604 8C evvoiav 8e Kal rroOov ol fieXrioroi tcov dvay- 
Kaicov Kal olKeicov TrXeovaiv, 6 8e a'AAos" fiios davXos 
Kal lepos avelrai tco povXopievcp Kal pLepiaOrjKOTL 
GXoXd^eiv. 6 8e tovs Trepirpexovras e£a> Kal tov 
plov to TrXeloTOV ev iravhoKeiois Kal TropOpieiois 3 
dvaXiGKoVTas ev8aipiovlt ) cov opuocos euTi tco tovs 
7rXdvr]Tas olopieva) tcov airXavcov aoTepcov irpaTTeiv 

1 fJL€fJLlpaLTO T7)V rvxyv VW : tt)v tu^v [liyj^sairo, 

2 Be added by Bern. 3 7rop6fieloLS w : 7rop0/xiW. 

54>6 



. 



ON EXILE, 603-604 

the sea, exclaimed : " Well done, Fortune ! thus to 
confine me to a threadbare cloak " and a philosopher's 
life a ; while a man not wholly infatuated or mad for 
the mob would not, I think, on being confined to an 
island, reproach Fortune, but would commend her 
for taking away from him all his restlessness and aim- 
less roving, wanderings in foreign lands and perils at 
sea and tumults in the market place, and giving him 
a life that was settled, leisurely, undistracted, and 
truly his own, describing with centre and radius a 
circle containing the necessities that meet his needs. 5 
For what island is there that does not afford a house, 
a walk, a bath, fish and hares for those who wish to 
indulge in hunting and sport ? And best of all, the 
quiet for which others thirst, you can repeatedly 
enjoy. But at home, as men play at draughts and 
retire from the public eye, informers and busybodies 
track them down and hunt them out of their suburban 
estates and parks and bring them back by force to 
the market place and court ; whereas it is not the 
persons who plague us, who come to beg or borrow 
money, to entreat us to go surety for them or help 
in canvassing an election, that sail to an island, it is 
the best of our connexions and intimates that do so 
out of friendship and affection, while the rest of life, 
if one desires leisure and has learned to use it, is left 
inviolate and sacred. He that calls those persons 
happy who run about in the world outside and use 
up most of their lives at inns and ferry-stations is like 
the man who fancies that the planets enjoy greater 

a Cf. Stoicorum Vet. Frag. i. 277, p. 64 (ed. von Arnim) ; 
Mor. 87 a and notes ; and the Gnomologium Vaticanum (ed. 
Sternbach, Wiener Stud, x, 1888, pp. 243 f.). Plutarch 
amplifies the quotation here, as in Mor. 467 d. 

b Cf. Mor. 513 c and note. 

547 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(604) OLjieivov. kolitoi tcov rrXavrfroiv eKaaros, Iv pad 
ocfralpa, Kaddrrep Iv vrjaa), TrepLTToXtov, 8ia(j>vXdrT€L 
rrjv tol^lv " rjXios yap ovx VTrepprjoercu peer pa," 
(f)7](TLV 6 ' HpaKXeiros • el 8e pur], 'lEpwves pav, 
AiK7)$ erriKovpoiy i^evprjoovcnv." 
B 12. 'AAAa, ravra fxev, ai (f>tXe, kgll rd roiavra 
rrpos €K€lvovs Xiyojpuev KaKeivois eTraScofiev of? els 
vrjaov aTTCpKioixevoig aveTTLfJUKTa 7tol€l tol aAAa 

ttovtos aXos ttoXltjs, 1 o TroXeXs aeKovras ipvKei' 

aol Se, ovx evds 8e8opbevov jjlovov, aAAa aTreiprj- 
fievov TOTTOVy rracrajv eariv i£ovola ttoXzojv r) pads 
ku)Xvois. aAAa purjv ra> >' ovk dpxoptev ov8e [iov- 

A/ ? o \ > n ~ >> ' //) 2 ^<<> 

evopuev ovoe aya)vou€TOvpL€v avTLues to ov 

araoid ^o/xev, ovk 3 dvaXioKopiev ov8e tt poor) prrj pbe8 'a 4 

Qvpais rjyepLovos' ov8ev 5 pieXei vvv r)pav* oons 6 

K€KXrjpa)pL€vos ttjv inapxlav iorlv, el aKpdxoXos, 

C et €7raxdr)s aXXa>s." aAA' 7 r)pi€LS, KaOdirep 'A/o^t- 

XoxoSi ttjs Qdoov rd Kap7TO(f)6pa /cat oivoVeSa 

Trapopwv 8 id to rpaxv Kal avuypLoXov , SiejSaAe rrjv 

vrjoov elirojv 

f/Q> OJfi tf 9 it e / 

rjoe o ajar ovov pa^t? 
€orrjK€v vXrjs dyplrjs 9 e7TLOT€(f)rjs, 

ovtojs rrjs (frvyfjs TTpos ev piepog to d8o£ov evrei- 

1 TroXifjs added from Homer. 

2 avridzs Emperius : av avndrjs. 3 ovk] ovh* Stegmann. 

4 7TpoarjpT^iJ,€da] irpooapTOj^Ba Capps. 

5 ovhh Reiske : ouSe. 

6 /xe'Aet vvv r)puv nos : vvv fjbiXXei rjjjuv (vvv rjfjuv (jlcXci, Benseler ; 
vvv /xcAet Sieveking). 

7 aAAoos, aAA' Reiske (dAA' Basle ed. of 1542 ; dAA' anAus 
Castiglioni) : dAA' cos. 

8 rjBe Se a 2 : r) Se. 9 ayplrjs Bergk : aypias. 

548 



ON EXILE, 604 

felicity than the fixed stars. And yet each planet, 
revolving in a single sphere, as on an island, preserves 
its station ; for " the Sun a will not transgress his 
bounds," says Heracleitus b ; " else the Erinyes, 
ministers of Justice, will find him out." 

12. But, my dear friend, let us address the pre- 
ceding remarks and the like and repeat them as a 
spell to those others who have been banished to an 
island and are cut off from the rest of the world by 

The grey salt sea, that bars the way to many 
Against their will c ; 

but for you, to whom one solitary spot is not appointed, 
but forbidden, the exclusion from one city is the 
freedom to choose from all. Further, set off against 
the consideration " I do not hold office or sit in the 
council or preside at games " the other considera- 
tion : "I am not involved in faction ; I am not ex- 
hausting my fortune ; I wait upon no governor ; I care 
not now who has obtained the province, whether he 
is quick to anger or in other ways oppressive." But 
we are like Archilochus. d As he, overlooking the 
fruitful fields and vineyards of Thasos, because of its 
steep and rugged surface maligned it, saying 

This island, like the backbone of an ass, 
Stands up beneath its cover of wild wood, 

so we, intent upon one part of exile, lack of fame, 

a In Greek astronomy the sun is a planet. 

b Diels and Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker 6 , i, p. 172, 
Heracleitus, b 94 ; quoted also in Mor. 370 d. 

c Homer, II. xxi. 59. 

d Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. ii, p. 389, Archilochus, 21 ; or 
Diehl, Anth. Lyr. Gr. z fasc. 3, frag. 18. 

549 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(604) vofxevoL, irapopcjopiev rrjv aTTpaypLoavvrjv kolL ttjv 
GXoXrjv kol ttjv eXevOepiav. kolitoi tovs ye Tlepoajv 
fiacrtXeas epiaKapi^ov ev Ba/3uAam tov ^et/xaJva 
SidyovTOLS, ev 8e M^Sta to depos ev 8e Hovools 

TO 7]8lGTOV TOV €apOS\ €^€GTL 8tj7TOV KCU Tip 

fjiedeGTOJTL 1 pbVGTTjpioLS ev ^Xevolvi SiaTplfieiV, 
AiovvoLois ev doT€L 2 7Tavr]yvpi^€Lv y 3 Uvdicov dyo- 
pbevwv els AeXc/>ovs ftapeXdeiv, 'lodfiLajv el? Y^opwdov, 
D dvTrep fj cj)iXodeojpos' el 8e paq } g^oXtj, TrepiiraTOS, 
dvdyvcooLS , vrrvos dOopvfitjTos, to tov Acoyevovs 
' ApLGTOTeArjs dpLGTa otolv So/07 QiAiTnTco, Ato- 
yevr]Sy otclv Aioyevei," pafjTe tt pay /xar etas, payre 
dpxovTOS, firjre rjyepiovos ttjv avvrjOrj Siatrav TrepL- 

GTTCOVTOS. 

13. Ata TOVTO TtOV <f)pOVipLOJTaTOJV KOLL GO^OJTa- 

tojv oXiyovs dv ev'pois ev tclis eavTCov iraTpioi 
KeKTjSevjjLevovs , ol he. TrXecaTOL, pbrjSevos dvayt<d- 
l^ovtos, auTot 4 to dyKvpiov 5 dpapuevoL, pLedojppLiaavTO 
tovs fiiovs kclI peTeoTTjoav ol puev els 'AOrjvas, oi 
he e£ 'AOrjvcov. tls yap etpr\Ke ttjs eavTOV naTpioos 
eyKojpuov tgiovtov olov Eu/HmS^s*; 

fj TrpdjTa piev Xecbs ovk erraKTOs dXXodev, 
E avTOxOoves o ecfrvpbev at §' a'AAai 7r6XeLs, 
Treoacov 6pLota>s G §ta<f)o prjOelo at ftoXats, 7 

1 fjL€0€GTa>Ti,] fieyeoTcoTL w ; /aeref ovri j3 2ss . 

2 acrrct Reiske : apyei. 

3 7rav7]yvpl^€iv] crvfjL7Tavr)yvpi^€LV Capps. 

4 avrol jS 2ss A 2ss E : avro. 

5 ayKvpiov a 2ss : dpyvptov a ; apyvpia vw. 

6 ofjLOLcos] oiioLais Lycurgus, Against Leocrates, 100, p. 161. 

550 



ON EXILE, 604 

overlook its lack of politics, its leisure, and its freedom. 
Yet the kings of the Persians were called happy for 
spending the winter in Babylon, the summer in 
Media, and the most pleasant part of spring in Susa. a 
Surely the exile too is free to sojourn in Eleusis during 
the Mysteries, to keep holiday in the city b at the 
Dionysia, and to visit Delphi for the Pythian and 
Corinth for the Isthmian games, if he is fond of 
spectacles ; if not, he has at his command leisure, 
walking, reading, undisturbed sleep, and what Dio- 
genes expressed when he said : " Aristotle lunches 
at Philip's pleasure, Diogenes at his own," c since no 
politics or magistrate or governor disrupts the cus- 
tomary tenor of his life. 

13. On this account you will find that few men 
of the greatest good sense and wisdom have been 
buried in their own country , d and that most of them, 
under compulsion from no one, weighed anchor of 
their own accord and found a new haven for their 
lives, removing some to Athens, some from Athens. 
For who has pronounced such an encomium on his 
native land as Euripides ? 

Where, first, the people are no immigrants 
But native to the soil ; all other cities, 
Disrupted once, as in the game, have been 

a Cf. Mor. 499 a-b and note, and Dio Chrysostom, Or. vi. 
1-7. 

b That is, Athens. 

c Cf. Diogenes Laert. vi. 45. 

d Plutarch here answers the complaint that the exile is not 
buried in his country : cf. Teles, p. 29. 1 (ed. Hense) and 
Favorinus, col. xxix. 1. 

7 bKufroprjQelaai jSoAcus] Bia^opals eVriCT/z-eVcu Lycurgus. 

551 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(604) aAAat Trap* aAAaw elaiv eloaywyipLoi. 1 

el 8rj 2 irdpepyov XPV n KOfXTrdaai, yvvai,* 
ovpavov virep yrjs ex°l xev ev KeKpa\xevov ? 
lv* ovt ayav rrvp ovre X € W a ovfi7r{ i tu€i H 
a S' f EAAas 'Acrta t e/CT/oe<£et 6 /caAAtora, yrjv 
SeXeap 7 exovres rrjvSe, 6 avvdrjpevojJLev. 

dAA' 6 ravra ypdipas els Ma/ceSovtav cpx €TO /cat 
Trap* 'Apx^Xdco KcCrefiioocrev. a/oq/coas' 8e 7rov 9 /cat 
tovtl to eTTiypanpLariov 

F AlaxvXov Ev(f)opLa)vos 'AOrjvatov roSe KevOei 

/jLvrjjjLa Kara(/>dLfJb€vov rrvpo<f)6poio IVAas" 

/cat yap /cat ovtos els St/ceAtav aTrrjpe /cat HljjlojvlSyjs 
nporepov, to Se 'H/ooSdrou 'AAt/capvacrea^ 10 
laropLrjs dnoSeL^LS roSe " xl 7roAAot p,eraypd<f>ovGLV 
'HpoSorov Qovpiov / fiercpKYjae yap els 0ou- 
piovs 12 /cat rrjs aTroiKias eKeivqs fJLereax 6 - T ° 8e 
605 lepov /cat Sat/Jbovtov ev fiovaais TTvevpia, 

QpvyLas KoapLrjTOpa jLta^a?, 

"OjJirjpov, ov tovto TreTToirfKe iToXXals djjL<f)LCFpr]Trjoi- 

1 claaycoyi/jLOL Lycurgus : ayajytpLOi. 
2 Br) Xylander (8' o$v Dobree ; /ecu Emperius) : be. 

3 yvvai Stephanus, Aid. 2 : yvvalK^s. 
4 K€Kpa(ju€vov Xylander : ovyK^Kpafxivov {-fifi- vw). 

5 OVfl7rLTV€L NailCk : OVfJL7TLTV€L. 

6 t €KTpe<f)€L Musgrave : re rpi<j>€i. 

7 yrjv BeXeap Lobeck : rrjabe eXeap. 

8 TrjvBe added by Lobeck. 

9 8c nov Emperius (he Brjrrov Wyttenbach) : 8i' irrtov. 

10 aXiKapvaaecos] aXiKapvacrdcos a (-aaaecos V ; "aarorjos w), 

11 drroBei^is roSe] drroBe^s vjbe w, 

552 



ON EXILE, 604-605 

Pieced out by importation from abroad. a 
If, madam, you permit a passing boast, 
The sky above our land is temperate, 
Where neither comes excess of heat nor cold, 
And all the fairest fruits of Greece and Asia 
With Attica as bait entice we hither. b 

Yet the writer of these lines went off to Macedonia 
and spent his remaining years at the court of Arche- 
laiis. You have doubtless also heard this little poem : 

The Athenian, Aeschylus, Euphorion's son, 
This grave conceals in Gela's fields of corn. c 

For he also sailed away to Sicily, as Simonides did 
before him. The statement " This is the setting 
forth of the researches of Herodotus of Halicar- 
nassus " d is altered by many to read " Herodotus of 
Thurii," as the author migrated to Thurii and joined 
in the settlement of that colony. Take that spirit 
of poetry, holy and inspired, 

Who glorified the Phrygian fray, e 
Homer : what else has made many cities contend 

° From the Erechtheus of Euripides : Nauck, Trag. Graec. 
Frag., Eur. 360. 7-10. There was a game in which a compact 
body of pieces was called a " city." Cf. Adam on Plato, 
Republic, 422 e (Cambridge, 1902). 

b Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Eur. 981. Plutarch, no 
doubt relying on his notes {cf. Mor. 464 f), has here combined 
two different passages. 

c Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec. ii, p. 241, Aeschylus, no. 4 ; 
or Diehl, Anth. Lyr. Gr. i. I 3 , p. 78. 

d Herodotus, i. 1. For the " change," which may be what 
Herodotus actually wrote, see Jacoby in Pauly-Wissowa, 
Suppl. ii. 205-213, and J. E. Powell, The History of Herodotus 
(Cambridge, 1939), pp. 63 f. 

e Pindar, frag. 345 (ed. Snell). 

12 Qovplovs Xylanpler : Oovpovs. 

553 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(605) \ xov ^oXecriv, on fir) [Mas iariv iyKcofjuaarrj^; kclI 
£eviov Ato? 77oAAai Ttfial /cat pueydXai. 

14. Ei Se c/)rj(J€L tls on 86£av ovtol /cat rifxas 
edrjpevov, em tovs orocfrovs eXde /cat ra? (rotas' 
'AOrjvrjai a^oAa? /cat Star picas' dv aire pur aaai rag 
ev AvKeltp, ras ev 'A/caS^uxa, ttjv Urodv, to 
UaXXd8iov y to 'OtSetov. el ttjv UepL7TaTrjTLK7)v 
dander) fxdXiGTa koX TedavpLCLKas, 'AptaToreA^s' rjv 
g €K UTayetptov, Qe6(f>paoTOS ££ 'Epeaou, 1 St/xxtcov 
e/c AaLLifjaKov y TXvklov 2 e/c TptodSos, 'Apicrrcov €/C 
Kea), KptroAao? Oaa^AtTTys" €t 3 ttjv Htcolktjv, 
TjTjvcov KiTteus*, KAeavffys 1 "A.aoios* Y^pvonriros 
YioXevs, Aioyevrjs Ba/JuAawtos* , ' AvTinciTpos Tap- 
aevs, 6 8e *A9r]valos 'Ap^eS^/uo?, els ttjv Hdpdtov 5 
jxeTdOTds , ev JSaftvXtovi Htcolk^v StaSo^v aTreXnre. 
tls ovv tovtovs eoitogev; ovoecs' aAA clvtoi ot- 
toKovTes T^au^tav, 6 rjs ov udvv iieTeoTiv ot/cot toIs 
rjVTivaovv 86£av fj 8vvapav eypvoi, ra puev dXXa 
Xoyois tovto 8e epyois rjLi&s 7 StSacr/couat. /cat yap 

VVV OL SoKljJLLOTCLTOL /Cat KpClTLOTOL L^LOOLV €77"i ^eVTfS , 

Q ov {leTaoTciOevTes , aAAa pLeTdGTavTes , ov8e cfrvya- 
8ev9evTes, aAAa cf)vy6vTes clvtol rrpdypuaTa /cat 
TrepiGTracrpLovs /cat ao^oAtas", a? at iraTpi8es (frepovat. 

1 'Epc'orou Victor ius : epealov Stobaeus : tydaov. 

2 TAu/ccoy] yXavKcjv 8e Stobaeus ; Au/co>v Xylander. 

3 6i n Par. 2076 : cfc. 

4 "Actctio? Leonicus : Avaios. 

5 irapQcov a 2 : Trdpdov. 

6 ^CTu^tav] T)Gvxiav koX oTrovhrjv Stobaeus. 

7 epyois rjfJL&s] rjixas epyo> Stobaeus. 

a That is, the god of strangers. 
554* 



ON EXILE, 605 

for him, but the fact that he eulogizes no single one ? 
So too the honours of Zeus Xenios a are numerous 
and great. 

14. If it is objected that these men went in quest 
of fame and honours, go to the wise men and to the 
schools and resorts of wisdom at Athens ; pass in 
review those in the Lyceum, in the Academy ; the 
Porch, the Palladium, b the Odeum. c If it is the 
Peripatetic school you favour and admire most, 
Aristotle was from Stageira, Theophrastus from 
Eresus, Straton from Lampsacus, Glycon d from the 
Troad, Ariston from Ceos, Critolaiis from Phaselis ; 
if the Stoic, Zeno was from Citium, Cleanthes from 
Assos, Chrysippus from Soli, Diogenes from Babylon, 
Antipater from Tarsus, and the Athenian Archedemus 
removed to the country of the Parthians and left a 
Stoic succession at Babylon. Who, then, pursued 
these men ? No one ; it was they who pursued peace, 
which at home is hardly the portion of those who have 
any fame or power, and thus, while teaching the rest 
of their doctrines by what they said, teach us this 
lesson by what they did. So too at present those men 
who are of most approved and surpassing merit live 
abroad, not forced to depart, but departing of them- 
selves, and not put to flight, but themselves fleeing 
the cares, distractions, and press of business that 
are the product of their native lands. 6 Indeed the 

b For Cleitomachus' lectures in the Palladium cf. S. 
M elder, Academicorum Philosophorum Index Herculanensis, 
coll. xxiv. 36, xxv. 8, xxx. 9. 

c Chrysippus is said to have taught in the Odeum : cf 
Mor. 1033 e, Diogenes Laert. vii. 184, and Athenaeus, 336 e. 

d More commonly known as Lycon : cf. Diogenes Laert. 
v. 66. 

e Cf. Musonius, p. 43. 8 if. (ed. Hense). 

555 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(605) koX yap rots iraXaioiSy cog eou<ev, at Moucrat ra 
KaXXiora rcov ovvrayfidrcov /cat 8oKipLcorara (f>vyr]v 
Xaflovoai ovvepyov eirereXeoav . " ©ovkvSlStjs 
'Adrjvouos ovveypaifse rov iroXepiov rcov rieAoTroi/- 
vrjolcov /cat ABrjvuicov " ev QpaKrj rrepl rrjv 2/ca- 
7Trrjv f/ YXr]v, Sevocfycov ev HklXXovvtl rrjs 'HAeta?, 
O1A10T09 1 ev 'UTrelpop, Tt/zatos' 6 Tav popueveir^s ev 

D 'AOrjvais, i Av8poricov 'Adrjvcuos ev Meydpous, 
BaK^vXtSrjg 6 TroLrjTrjs 2 ev HeXoTrovvrjocp . irdvres 
ovtol /cat TrXeoves aXXoi, rcov rrarpihoov eKireoovres, 
ovk drreyvcooav ovSe eppa/mv eavrovs, dXX e^prj- 
oavTO rals evfivtais, e^>68iov rrapd rrjs tvx*)S ttjv 
c/)vyrjv Xafiovres , St' rjv iravTaypv /cat redvrjKoreg 
fjLvrjjjLovevovrai- rcov 8e eK^aXovrcov /cat /caraoTa- 
oiaodvrcov z ov8e els Xoyos ovdevos* diroXeXeiiTTai. 

15. A16 /cat yeXolos eoriv 6 vojjll^oov aSo^tav rrj 
(f>vyfj TTpoaeivai. ri Xeyecg; d8o£6s eon Aioyevrjs, 
ov ISoov *AXe£av8pos ev tjXlco Kadrjfjievov eTnard? 
rjpoorrjCFev ei tlvos Setrat, rov 8e firjOev aAA' fj 

E opLLKpov aTTOOKorioai KeXevoavros , eKTrXayels to 
(/ypovrjjjLa, irpos rovs <j>LXovs elirev, " el purf 'AAe£- 
avopos rjptrjv, lALoyevrjs av rjpL?]v; rjoogec oe 

Ka/xtAAos e/c rrjs 'VcopLTjs eXavvopLevos, rjs 8evrepos 
KTLGT'qs vvv dvayopeverat; /cat fjLrjv QepLioroKXfjs 
ov ttjv ev rots "EAA^at 86t;av <f>vycov aW/JaAev, 
aAAa rrjv ev rols fiapfidpois 7TpooeXaj3e' /cat ov8eis 

1 <DtAioTO? Leonicus : ^iXnnros. 

2 7Toir)Tr)s] 'lovXirjTrjs Cobet ; Ketos ttoltjttjs Capps. 

3 KaraaTaoLaodvTOJv Emperius : oraoiaadvrojv. 

4 ovdevos] ovSevos a. 

a Thucydides, i. 1. 

6 For the fame of exiles cf. Favorinus, col. iii. 24 if., where 
Diogenes, Heracles, and Odysseus are cited as examples, 

556 



ON EXILE, 605 

Muses, it appears, called exile to their aid in perfect- 
ing for the ancients the finest and most esteemed of 
their writings. " Thucydides of Athens composed 
the history of the war of the Peloponnesians and 
Athenians " a in Thrace at Scapte Hyle ; Xenophon 
wrote at Scillus in Elis, Philistus in Epeirus, Timaeus 
of Tauromenium at Athens, Androtion of Athens at 
Megara, and the poet Bacchylides in the Peloponnese. 
All these and many more, when driven from their 
country, did not despair or lie prostrate in grief, 
but put their native abilities to use, accepting their 
exile as a provision granted by Fortune for this end, 
an exile that has made them everywhere remembered 
even in death ; while of those who banished them and 
triumphed over them in the struggle of factions not 
one enjoys at present the slightest recognition. 

15. He, therefore, who thinks that loss of fame is 
attendant upon exile is ridiculous. 6 What nonsense ! 
Is Diogenes lacking in fame ? Why, Alexander, 
seeing him sitting in the sun, stopped to ask whether 
he wanted anything ; and when Diogenes merely 
requested him to stand a bit out of his light, the 
king, struck with such high spirit, said to his friends : 
" Were I not Alexander, I should be Diogenes." d 
Was Camillus deprived of fame when he was banished 
from Rome, of which he is now acclaimed the second 
founder ? e Indeed Themistocles after his banish- 
ment did not lose his fame among the Greeks, but 
won new fame among the barbarians f ; and no one 

c Cf Diogenes Laert. vi. 38 ; Cicero, Tusc. Disput. v. 32 
(92). 

d Cf. Life of Alexander, chap. xiv. 2 (671 d-e), and Mor. 
331 e-f and 782 a. 

* Cf Life of Camillus, chap. i. 1 (129 b), and Livy, vii. 
1. 10. t Cf Dio Cassius, xxxviii. 26. 3. 

557 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(605) zotiv ovtojs dcfuXoTifJios ovSe dyevvrjs, os pi&AAov 
av efiovAero Aeaj^corrjs 1 6 ypaifjdfievos rj ®epu- 
aroKAfjs 6 cfrvyaSevdels etvai, /cat KAcoStos" 6 e/c- 
F jSaAcov t) K.iKepo)v 6 eK^ArjOets, /cat 'Aptaro^aJv o 
Karrjyoprjaas rj Tipiodeos 6 pLeracrrds €/c rrjs 
7Tarpl8oS' 

16. 'AAA' €77€t TToAAoVS TO, TOV Eu/3t7TtSoU KlV€l y 

Svvcltcos rrjg (f>vyrjs' Karrjyopelv Sokovvtos, tSa>/zev 
a Aeyei /ca#' eKaorov epa)rd)v /cat aTTOKpivopuevos* 

— Ti to orepeadai Trarpihos ; rj /ca/cov pueya; 

— /xeytarov epycp S' earl pbet^ov rj Aoyw. 

— ris 6 Tpoiros avrov ; tl (frvydoLv 2 to 8vcr- 

> 3 

^ Tvyes; . 

— ev pcev pLeycorov ovk e^€t irappr)oiav. 

— SovAov toS' etnas, purj Aeyeiv a ris (f>povel. 
606 — rr)v tcjv KparovvTCOv dfjiad Lav* (f>ip€LV xpeojv. 

ravra TTpcbrcos 6 ovk opBcos ovSe dArjOcos d^iovrou. 
TrpcoTOv puev yap ov SovAov to " purj Aeyeiv a ris 
cf>pov€L," aAAa vovv e^ovros dvSpos iv Kaipols /cat 
irpdypiaoLV ix^fivOlas /cat GLOjTrrjs Seopuevois, tooirep 
avros dXAaypQi fteArtov etpr\Ke 

aiydv 0' orrov Set /cat Aeyeiv Iv* do(j>aAes' 

eneira " rrjv rwv Kparovvrojv dpuaOiav " ovx rjrrov 
ot/cot [JLevovras rj cfyevyovras dvdyKrj (f>epecv, aAAa 
/cat puaAAov TToAAaKts ol puevovres ra>v aVaAAa- 
yevrajv rovs loxyovras iv moAeoiv dSiKCos rep ov- 

1 A€coPa)T7)s Kontos : Xeoo^drrjs (AeojKpaTrjs /2 2 ). 

2 <j>vydmv Eur. : <j>vydGL. 3 ovgtvx*s] Sucr^epe? Eur. 

4 ttjv . . . afiaQtav] rds . . . dfiadlas Eur. 

5 TTpcoTcos] op&s cos Reiske ; TrpooO* op&s cos Pohlenz. 

558 



ON EXILE, 605-606 

is so indifferent to fame or so ignoble that he would 
rather have been Leobotes, a who brought the indict- 
ment, than Themistocles, who was condemned to 
exile, Clodius the banisher than Cicero the banished, 
or Aristophon, who made the accusation, than Timo- 
thelis, who withdrew from his native land. 

16. But since many are stirred by the words of 
Euripides, 5 who is thought to arraign exile very 
forcibly, let us see what he has to say on the several 
counts of his indictment, as he presents them in the 
form of question and answer : 

Joe. What is the loss of country ? A great ill ? 
Pol. Surpassing great ; no words can do it justice. 
Joe. What is it like ? What ills beset the banished ? 
Pol. One greater than the rest : speech is not free. 
Joe. That is a slave's part — not to speak one's mind. 
Pol. The folly of the mighty must be borne. 

These initial assumptions are wrong and untrue. In 
the first place it is not a slave's part V not to speak 
one's mind," but that of a man of sense on occasions 
and in matters that demand silence and restraint of 
speech, as Euripides G himself has elsewhere put it 
better : 

Silence in season, speech where speech is safe. 

In the next place we are compelled to bear " the 
folly of the mighty " no less at home than in exile ; 
indeed, those who remain behind are often in even 
greater terror of men who wield unjust power in 
cities through chicane or violence than those who 

a Cf Life of Themistocles, chap, xxiii. 1 (123 c). 

6 Phoenissae, 388-393 ; cf Musonius, p. 48. 6 if. (ed. 
Hense). Jocasta asks the questions, Polyneices answers. 

c From the Ino of Euripides : Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., 
Eur. 413. 2 ; quoted also in Mor. 506 c. 

559 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

' * KO(f>avr€LV rj fiid^crOai SeSiacFL. to Se fieyiorov 
/cat aT07T(i)TaTov €L Trapprjoiav Tcov (f>vyd8cov OL(f)aL- 
pelrar davfiaorov yap el Qe68a>pos aTTapprjotaoros 
rjv, os 1 Avaifiaxov rod fiaoiXeojs elirovros irpos 
avrov, " r) rrarpls ere roiovrov ovra efe/JaAe; " 

" Vat," €L7T€, " flTj 8wafJL€Vr) (f)€p€LV, t007T€p Tj 

HepLeXrj rov Aiovvoov" eirihet^avros 8e avrcp 
TeXeacf>6pov 2 iv yaXedypa, rovs ocfrdaXfjiovs i£opoj- 
pvy\xevov koX 7re pLKeKOfifievov rrjv plva Kal rd cora 
Kal rr)v yAcorrav 3 eKrerp:t]p,evov , Kal elirovros, 
" ovtojs eyw hiaridrjiii rovs /ca/ccDs* /xe iroiovvras "' 

TL 0€ \?) €000) pCp fJL€A€L, €(prj , TTOrepOV V7T€p yTJS 

C rj V7TO yrjs oryner ai; " 4 ft 8e; Aioyevrjs ovk elxe 
Trapprjoiav, os els to 5 QiXIttttov arparorreSov rrap- 
eX6d>v onrjvtKa jJLaxovfJLevos 6 e^copet rols "EAA^at, 
Kal 7rpos avrov dvaxOels ojs KardoKOTros, " vat," 
KardoKOTTOS e<f)rj d<j>u)(d at rrjs d7rXrjortas 7 avrov 
Kal rrjs defrpoavvrjs, tjkovtos iv fipaxel Kaiptp Sia- 
KvfSevoai rrepl rrjs r)yepiovlas dfia Kal rod aajp.aros ; 
rt he; 'Avvtfias 6 KapxTJ^ovios ovk exprjro nap- 
prjoia 7rpos 'Avrtoxov, ovra fiaoiXea* cfivyds a>v, 
OTTiqvlKa, Katpov StSovros, eKeXevev 9 avrov em^ct- 

1 os Laur. Conv. Soppr. 57 2 : o. 

2 TeXeo^opov] TeXcafopov (cf. Athenaeus, 616 c) ? 

3 yXa>TTav] yXcocrcrav VW. 

4 rt he through arjirerai supplied by Bern, from Mor. 499 d. 

5 to] to tov a. 

6 fJLaXOVfl€VOs] fJLaXOfJL€VOS (-ov w) vw. 

7 a<j>lxdo.i ttjs aTrXrjGTtas] ttjs airXrjaTLas aftxdcu a. 

8 ovtcl paoiXea Bern. : paoiXia ovtcl. 

9 GKeXevev] eKeXevoev v. 

° Cf. Musonius, p. 48. 19 if. (ed. Hense). 
560 



ON EXILE, 606 

have taken their departure. But the last and greatest 
absurdity is that banishment should deprive the exile 
of free speech : it is astonishing if Theodorus b was 
without free speech, the man who, when King 
Lysimachus said to him : " Did your country cast 
out a man of your qualities ? " replied : " Yes ; I 
was too much for it, as Dionysus was for Semele." c 
And when the king showed him Telesphorus ^ in a 
cage, his eyes gouged out, his nose and ears lopped 
off, his tongue cut out, and said : " To this plight 
I bring those who injure me," Theodorus replied : 
" What cares Theodorus whether he rots above the 
ground or under it ? " e And did Diogenes lack 
freedom of speech — Diogenes who appeared at the 
camp of Philip as the king was advancing to join 
battle with the Greeks, was brought before him as 
a spy, and answered that he had come to spy indeed — 
on Philip's insatiable greed and folly in coming to 
stake on the cast of the dice in a few decisive moments 
both his empire and his person ? f Did Hannibal the 
Carthaginian mince his words to Antiochus, an exile 
to a king, on that occasion when he urged him to 

6 Theodorus of Cyrene, surnamed " the atheist " or " the 
god," a philosopher of the Cyrenaic school, lived in the fourth 
and third centuries. 

c Cf. Diogenes Laert. ii. 102 ; Philo, Quod Omnis Probus 
Liber Sit, 129 f . ; Philodemus, On Death, col. xxxii. 23 f. 
Semele, when big with Dionysus, asked to see Zeus in his 
full glory ; Zeus complied, and Semele was consumed in 
flames. Zeus took the unborn child and sewed it in his thigh, 
and thus Dionysus was born a second time. 

d Cf. Athenaeus, 616 c, and Seneca, Be Ira, iii. 17. 2-4. 

e Cf. Mor. 499 d with the note, and Stobaeus, vol. iii, pp. 
316 f. (ed. Hense). 

* Cf Mor. 70 c ; Life of Demosthenes, chap. xx. 3 (855 b) ; 
Diogenes Laert. vi. 43. 

561 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(606) pelv rots' TroXepiiois , rov Se dvoapievov /cat ra 
OTrXayxya KOjXveiv (f)doKovros, erreriji^aev throw 
" ov tl Kpeas Xeyei Troieis, 1 ov ri vovv ex (x)V dy- 
namos'; " dAA' ovSe yeojpuerpcov (f>vyrj 7rappr\olav 
ov8e ypajit/zart/cdV 2 acfraipeirai, rrepl &v taaat /cat 
D jjLefJLadrjKaaL StaXeyofievajv, TroOev ye 8rj kclXcov /cat 
dyadojv avOpojTrojv; dXXd ro ay ewes iravraypv 
rr)v cf>wvrjv " €p,<j) parrei, rr]v yXojooav airoarpe^ei, 
ay^eiy oiomav TroieZ." 

a o ef^s* rou r^vpiTTioov 7rota rtva eoriv ; 

— at S' eXTTiSes fiooKovoi <j>vyd8as y ojs Xoyog. 

— KaXols pXeTTovori 3 y' o/x/xaatv, 4 pueXXovoi Se. 

/cat rovro rfjs afieXrepias eyKXrjfia jjl&XXov rj rfjs 
cbvyrjs ear iv. ov yap oi fiaOovres ovSe eiriordpievoi 
XprjoOai rots' Trapovcnv, dAA' ot del rod fieXXovros 
eKKpepLajievoi /cat yAt^o/xevot rcov airovrodv ojs eiA 
E oyehias 8ia<\>epovrai rr\s eXirihos, Kav /JL-qSeirore rod 
rei^ovs eKros TrpoeXdojoi. 

— <f>LXoi Se rrarpos /cat £eVot a' ovk dxfceXovv; 

— ev rrpaooe' ra (f>lXojv S' ovSev, rjv ns Svorvxfj. 5 

— ouS' Tjvyeveid cr' fjpev el$ vi/jos fxeya; 

— kokov ro firj ex eiv ' T ° y^^os* 6 ovk efiooKe fie. 

1 Trolls] okott€ls Pflugk (but for tls = os cf. Mayser, 
Gramm. d. griech. Pap. aus d. Ptolemaerzeit, ii. 1, p. 80 and 
note 1). Hannibal's Greek is colloquial. 

2 ypafJLfJLCLTLKajv W : ypaixfjuiKcov. 

3 pXeTTovol] fiXeTTovoai a scholium on Eur. 

4 ofifjiaaiv a 2 : ofifiaai. 

5 y\v rt? SvoTvxfj] fy Tt ovoTvxfjs Elmsley. 

6 yevos some mss. of Eur. : yevos o\ 

a Cf. Cicero, Be Biv. ii. 24 (52), copied by Valerius 
562 



ON EXILE, 606 

seize a favourable chance to attack the enemy, and 
when the king resorted to sacrifice and said that the 
entrails opposed such a course, Hannibal rebuked 
him with the words : " You defer to a piece of meat, 
and not a man of sense " ? a Nay, exile does not even 
destroy freedom of speech in geometers and gram- 
marians, when they converse about the subjects they 
know and have been taught ; how, then, could exile 
destroy it in good and worthy men ? b It is meanness 
of spirit that everywhere " stops up the voice, ties 
the tongue, chokes, imposes silence." c 

What are we to say of the next words of Euripides ? d 

Joe. Tis said that exiles live upon their hopes. 
Pol. Their eyes hold promise, but they tarry ever. 

This too is rather a charge against stupidity than 
against exile. 6 For it is not those who have learned 
and know how to put the present to good use, but 
those who are ever hanging upon the future and 
longing for what they do not have, that are tossed 
about on hope as on a raft, though they never go 
beyond the city wall. 

Joe. Did not your father's friends and hosts avail you ? 
Pol. Prosper : your friends are naught when trouble 

comes. 
Joe. Nor yet did noble lineage raise you high ? 
Pol. To have not is a curse ; birth would not feed rae^ 

Maximus, ii. 7, ext. 6. Here the king is Prusias, not Antio- 
chus. 

b Cf. Philo, Quod Omnis Probus Liber Sit, 48-50. Teles 
(p. 21. 2-5 Hense) cites flute-players and actors — notorious 
migrants — as examples. 

c Demosthenes, Or. xix {Be Falsa Leg.). 208 (p. 406); 
quoted also in Mor. 88 c. d Phoenissae, 396-397. 

e Cf. Musonius, p. 50. 15 ff. (ed. Hense). 

f Euripides, Phoenissae, 402-405. 

563 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(606) tclvtcl rjSr] Kal dxdpiara, rov UoXvveiKovs arifJLiav 
fjiev 1 evyevelas, d(j>iXiav Se rfjs cf>vyrjs Karrfyopovv- 
ros, os Sia rrjv evyevetav rj^icodr] fjuev <f>vyas tbv 
ydfjuov fiaoiXiKoov t c/>lXcov Se ovpLfiaxicL Kal Suva/xei 
F Toaavrrj 7T€(f)paynevos iarpdrevaev, cos avros ftera 
fiiKpov ofJboXoyei' 

7toXXol Se 2 Aavacov Kal WlvKrjvatcov a/cpot 
rrdpeioiy Xvrrpdv ydpiv, avayKalav S', ipuol 
8l86vt€S. 

SjJLOLa Se Kal rd rfjs pa^rpos, 6Xo(f)vpo[jL€vr)s 

iyco 8e gol ovre rrvp dvfjifja 3 
vopupiov* iv ydpLots, 5 
dvvfievaia 8' 'Ictju/^vos 6 iKrjSevdr) 
Xovrpoc/)6pov ^AtSas*. 

ravrrjv eSet yaipeiv Kal dyairav TrvvOavopLevrjv 7 
vaiovra* jSacri'Aeta rrjXiKavra rov vlov rj Se dprjvovaa 
ttjv ovk dva<j>deloav XapL7rd8a Kal rov ov rrapa- 
607 G^ovra Xovrpov 'lopirjvov, cos iv "Apyei pbrjre v8cop 
rcov yapiovvrcov pjryre Trvp e^ovrcov, ra rod rvcfrov 
KaKa Kal rrjs d^eXreptas rfj (f>vyy) TrepiridiqoLv. 

17. 'AAA' €7Tovei8iarov 6 <j>vyds ian. rrapd ye 
tols a<j>pooiv y ot Kal " rov tttco^ov " Xoi86pi)pLa 

1 jjl€v] fiev rrjs Capps. 

2 Se added from Eur. 

3 iya) through dvrjipa] iyw o* ovre gol irvpos dvrjipa <f>u>s Eur. 

4 vo/jufAov Eur. : yovLfiov. 

5 ydjiois] ydfiots ws rrpiirti jjuarepi fxaKapta Eur. 

6 dvvpiivaia o* ^gjjltjvos] dvvfievaia o' *Igjjl7)vov ^cupis 1 Capps. 
For Plutarch's aspiration of 'lonyvos cf. W. Schulze, Kleine 
Schriften, p. 393. 

7 7rvvdavo{jLevr)v] omitted in vw. 

8 vaiovra a 2 : /catovra. 

564< 



ON EXILE, 606-607 

These words of Polyneices now smack of ingratitude, 
when he charges noble birth with depriving him of 
honours and banishment with robbing him of friends ; 
for he, an exile, won a princess in marriage by his 
noble birth, and when he took the field had that great 
and powerful alliance of friends to defend him, as he 
himself admits a few lines later : 

And many Danaan chiefs and Mycenaean 
Are here to do me kindness — sorry kindness, 
But sorry though it be, I need it sore. ° 

In the same vein are his mother's words, when she 

laments : 

But I have lighted 
No ritual torch to celebrate thy nuptials ; 
No hymeneal pride of soft ablution 
Attended this alliance of Hismenus. b 

She should have rejoiced and been content when she 
learned that her son dwelt in so great a palace ; 
instead, bewailing the unlit torch and Hismenus, who 
had provided no ablution, as though in Argos bride- 
grooms had neither water nor fire, she imputes to 
exile the miseries arising from infatuation and 
stupidity. 

17. But " exile " is a term of reproach. c Yes, 
among fools, who make terms of abuse out of 

a Euripides, Phoenissae, 430-432. 

b Euripides, Phoenissae, 344 f., 347 f. Hismenus was the 
river in Thebes from which the water for the bridegroom's 
ritual bath was taken. Jocasta appears to speak of the river 
as if it were a kinsman of the bridegroom and had thus become 
allied to the bride. Text and interpretation have both been 
disputed. 

c This charge is also presented and answered by Teles (p. 
25. 8-10 Hense), Seneca, Ad Helv. 13. 4 ff., and Favorinus, 
col. xxv. 13 fF. 

565 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(607) 7TOLOVVTCU 1 Kal ■* TOV (f)a\aKp6v " KCLL " TOV fXLKpOV " 

/cat vrj Ata tov ^evov /cat tov pueToiKov. 

aAA(X fJLYJV ol fJLTJ TOVTOLS V7TO(f)€p6/JL€VOL OaVfJid^OVGL 

tovs dyaOovs, kclv nevrjTes cool, kolv i;evoi, k&v 
<f>vydo€S* aAA' oz>x opcofiev, toorrep tov Wapdevojva 
Kal to 'EAeucrtVtoj/, ovtoj Kal to Qrjaelov arravras 
TTpooKvvovvTas ; Kal p,r)V e<f>vye ©rjaevs ££ 'Adrj- 
voov, St' ov oIkovgl vvv 2 Adrjvas dvOpooTTOL, Kal 
B ttoXlv dnefiaAev r\v ovk ecr^ev, aAA' avTOS €7TOLrjo>€. 
Tfi Se 'EAeucrtvt tI ActVcTat /caAoV, av alaxvvoopieda 3 
rov YaViaoAttov, os €K QpaKrjs /zeracrTa? ifjLvrjoe Kal 
[JiveX tovs f/ EAA^va9; KoSpos Se tlvos d)v e/3acrt- 
Aevcrev; ov M.eAdv9ov, cf>vyd8os e/c M.ecror)vrjs ; to 
Se tov * AvTiodevovs ovk eVatrets' rrpos tov enrovTa 
otl " Qpvyia gov* eoTiv rj firjTrjp "• " /cat yap 
rj toov Oeoov " ; tl ovv ov Kal av, AoiSopovpievos 
<f)vyds, y> aTTOKpivr), ' Kal yap 6 tov 'Hpa/cAeou? 
tov koAAlvlkov TraTrjp <f>vyas rjv, Kal 6 tov Atovvaov 
TTaTTTTOS, obs i^eTre/JLcfidr] TTjV TLvpOJTTTJV aV€Vp€LV> 5 
OV$€ aVTOS €7TaV7jAd€, ' OotVt£ 7T€(j>VK00S, €K S' 

C opt£erat * yevos ' els Tas Qrj^as Trapayevopbevos 

1 ttoiovvtoli a 2 : TTOiovvra. 

2 els after vvv deleted by Dubner. 

3 alaxwcofxeda Stephanus : rjcrxwofxeda (rjGxwojjxeda vw). 

4 gov] omitted in vw. 

5 dvevpelv] i^cvpclv a 1 ; avopeiv v ; dveXelv w. 

a Cf. Diogenes Laert. vi. 1. Plutarch calls Antisthenes' 
mother a Phrygian ; Diogenes Laertius and Seneca (De Const. 
Sap. 18. 5) call her a Thracian. 

566 



ON EXILE, 607 

" pauper," " bald," " short," and indeed " foreigner " 
and " immigrant." But those who are not carried 
away by such considerations admire good men, even 
if they are poor or foreigners or exiles. Nay, do we 
not observe that like the Parthenon and the Eleusi- 
nium, so the Theseum is saluted with reverence by 
all ? Yet Theseus was banished from Athens, though 
it is because of him that Athens is now inhabited ; 
and that city was lost to him which he did not take 
possession of, but himself created. What glory 
remains to Eleusis, if we are to be ashamed of 
Eumolpus, who, a migrant from Thrace, initiated and 
still initiates the Greeks into the mysteries ? Whose 
son was Codrus, who became king ? Was it not of 
Melanthus, an exile from Messene ? Do you not 
commend Antisthenes' retort to the man who re- 
marked, " Your mother is a Phrygian : " " So too is 
the Mother of the Gods " ? a Why then do not you, 
when " exile " is cast in your teeth, make a similar 
reply : " So too the father of Heracles the victorious 
was an exile, so too the grandsire b of Dionysus, when 
sent out to find Europa, like her, did not return, 
though ' Phoenician born,' but by coming to Thebes 
expatriated his ' descendant,' c 

6 That is, Cadmus. For Cadmus as an exile held in honour 
cf. Teles, p. 28. 4 (ed. Hense). 

c Adapted by Plutarch from the Phrixus of Euripides : 
Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Eur. 819. 3 : 

<Dotvi£ TT€<j>vKO)Sy €K 8' d/xeijSeTai yevos 

" Phoenician born, his race he did exchange 
For Greek." 

Plutarch uses the word genos (" race " in Euripides) in the 
sense of " descendant," and substitutes " expatriated " for 
" did exchange." 

567 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(607) eviov opaiyvvaiKa 1 

fxaivofievaLS Aiovvoov* 
avOeovra* rivals " 4 ; 

Kat 7T€pl [lev Sv AlaxvXog fjVL^aro kcu vneSr)- 
Xojoev evTTCjv, 

dyvov t 'AttoAAco 5 <f>vyd8' oltt* ovpavov deov, 

evarofid [jlol Keiadco " /ca#' 'HpoSorov o 8* 
'E/xTreSoAcATys" iv apxfj T fjs <f)i\ooo<f>Las Trpoava- 

earcv 6 avdyKT]s xprj/za, 0€a>v iprjcfyicrfjia 77"aAatdv, 
€vt4 tls afJLTrAaKirjOL (fyovco 7 (f)iXa yvia fjurjvrj* 
SaLfJLoves ol re fiaKpcLLCovos AcAd^acx 9 filOlOy 
rpis [iiv puvpias tbpas and /za/cdpa>i> dXd\r]odai, 10 
D rrjv 11 kcll eyco vvv elfju, 12 <f>vyds deodev kcu dXiJTrjs, 

ovx icLVTOV, aXX a</> y iavrov iravras aTroSeiKwai 
fieravoLGras evravda koX ^evovs kcll (frvydoas rjfJL&s 
ovtcls. " ov yap af/xa/' (frrjatv, " rjfjuv ovSe 7rvev\xa 
avyKpaOev, to avdpojTroi, $V)(r)S overlay /cat apxty 
7Tapeax €V > dAA' £k tovtojv to aco/xa avpLTreTrXaorai, 
yrjyeves Kal dvrjrov" rrjs Se ipvxfjs dXXaxodev 

1 cmov opoiyvvaiKd Mor. 389 B, 671 c : evyvopai yvvaiKa. 

2 fiaLvofjudvais (fJLaivofjLevas v) oiovvoov vw Mor. 389 B : 8td- 
vvgov iicuvofjievais {oiovvoov is put after ti\loxoi in Mor. 671 c). 

3 dvdeovra Mor. 389 B, 671 c : dvovra. 

4 rt/Liats] rt/xatat ilfor. 671 c. 

5 'AttoAAoj Aesch. : dnoXXajvos. 

6 lartv Simplicius : 'ion n. 

7 <£di>a> Hippolytus : <£dj8eo. 8 /U17V17 Hippolytus : pnv. 
9 fioLKpaicovos AcAa^acrt Hippolytus : fAOLKpaicoves \e\6y\aoi. 

10 dAdA^crflat Stephanus : cAdA^crAe (iXdXrjoOe v). 

11 t^v (ow w) : twv Hippolytus. l2 etfii Bern. : efyU* 

568 



ON EXILE, 607 

Euhius Dionysus, 
Rouser of women, 
Him that is adored in frenzy " ? ° 

Now as to the matters at which Aeschylus b hinted 
darkly when he said 

And pure Apollo, god exiled from heaven 

" let my lips " in the words of Herodotus c " be 
sealed " ; Empedocles,^ however, when beginning 
the presentation of his philosophy, says by way of 
prelude : 

A law there is, an oracle of Doom, 
Of old enacted by the assembled gods, 
That if a Daemon — such as live for ages — 
Defile himself with foul and sinful murder, 
He must for seasons thrice ten thousand roam 
Far from the Blest : such is the path I tread, 
I too a wanderer and exile from heaven, 

indicating that not he himself merely, but all of us, 
beginning with himself, are sojourners here and 
strangers and exiles. " For," he says, " no com- 
mingling of blood or breath, O mortals, gave our souls 
their being and beginning ; it is the body, earth- 
born and mortal, that has been fashioned out of 
these," e and as the soul has come hither from else- 

a Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec, Adespota, 131 ; quoted also 
in Mor. 389 b and 671 c. 

b Supplices, 214 ; quoted also in Mor. 417 e. 

c ii. 171. 1 and 2. The phrase is also used in Mor. 417 c 
and 636 e. 

d From the KaOapfiol : cf. Diels and Kranz, Frag. d. Vorso- 
kratiker\ i, pp. 357 f., Empedocles, b 115. 1, 3, 5, 6, 13. Cf. 
also Mor. 418 e. 

e This is Plutarch's interpretation, not a direct quotation 
or paraphrase. 

569 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(607) rjKovarjs 8evpo, rrjv yeveaiv aTTohrjfjiiav viroKopi- 
^erac ra> TTpaordrcp tcov ovofJLdrcjov. to 8e olAt)- 
Oeararov, </)€vyei /cat TrAavarai, detocs eAavvofievrj 
86ypLaai /cat vojjlols, eira, djarrep ev vrjcraj adXov 
e^ovarj 1 ttoAvv, KaOdirep (firjolv 6 UAdTOJV, " oorpeov 
E Tportov " ivSeSefjievrj 2 rw crwfiari Sta, to jjctj fivrj- 
fioveveiv pirjSe dva^epetv 3 

i£ olrjS TLfJLTJS T€ KCLl OOOOV* JJLTjK€0? SAfioV 

fJLedeorrjKev, ov Hd.pSecov 'AOtjvcls, ov8e Ys.opiv6ov 
Arjfjivov rj Hf<vpov, aAA' ovpavov /cat aeArjvqg yrjv 
djJLeii/jafjLevr] /cat tov €ttl yrjs [Ilov, dv 5 piiKpov iv- 
ravda rorrov e/c tottov rrapaAAd^rj, hvoavao^rel 
koI ^evoiraOel, Kaddirep <f)VTOV dyevves aVo/xapat- 

VOfJLeVT). KCLITOI <j)VTO) fJL€V €GTL TLS X^P " ^AAoV 

erepag erepa rrpoacfyopos, ev fj rpecfyerac /cat /3Aa- 
ardvei fieAriov, dvdpclmov 8e oi)8els a</>atp£trat 
F tottos evSaifjiovLav, tboTTep ov8e dperrjv ov8e cf)p6- 
vtjolv. aAA' ' Ava£ay6pas jxev ev ra> 8eo fjLcorrjp Leo 
rov tov kvkAov TeTpayajviopLov eypacfre, HojKpaTTjs 
8e, cf)dpjjiaKov ttivujv, e$iAoo6<\>ei /cat irapeKaAei 

(j)lAoOO<f)eZv TOVS GVVTjOeiS, €v8ai fJLOVL^OfJLeVOS VTT* 

avTtov tov 8e Oae^ovra /cat tov TdvTaAov, el? 
tov ovpavov dvafidvTas y ol TtonyraX Aeyovoi tolls 
pbeyioTais ovpL<f)opaZs rrepLTreoeZv 8ta ttjv defrpocrvvrjv. 

1 exovorj] ixovorjs VW. 

2 iv$€$€jjb€vr)] bebefxevrj Stobaeus (Se8eo-/x€u/Ltevot Plato). 

3 fJLV7)fjiOV€V€LV fJLTjhe dva(f)€p€Lv] dvGL(f>ep€LV fJLTjSe (AvrjfjLOvevew 

Stobaeus. 

4 oaaov Aid. 2 : ooov. 5 dv Stobaeus : Iva. 

a This is apparently Plutarch's interpretation of " that 
path is mine." b Phaedrus, 250 c. 

570 



ON EXILE, 607 

where, he euphemistically calls birth a " journey," a 
using the mildest of terms. But it is truest to say 
that the soul is an exile and a wanderer, driven forth 
by divine decrees and laws ; and then, as on an 
island buffeted by the seas, imprisoned within the 
body " like an oyster in its shell," as Plato b says, 
because it does not remember or recall 

What honour and what high felicity c 
it has left, not leaving Sardis for Athens or Corinth 
for Lemnos or Scyros, but Heaven and the Moon for 
earth and life on earth, if it shifts but a short distance 
here from one spot to another, it is resentful and feels 
strange, drooping like a base-born plant. d And yet 
for a plant one region is more favourable than 
another for thriving and growth, but from a man no 
place can take away happiness, as none can take away 
virtue or wisdom e ; nay, Anaxagoras in prison was 
busied with squaring the circle/ and Socrates, when 
he drank the hemlock, engaged in philosophy and 
invited his companions to do the same, and was by 
them deemed happy g ; whereas Phaethon and Tan- 
talus, as poets tell, when they had ascended to 
heaven, met with the most grievous disasters through 
their folly. 71 

c From Empedocles' Kadapnoi : cf. Diels and Kranz, 
Frag. d. Vorsokratiker Q , i. p. 359, Empedocles, b 119. 1. 

d Cf. Plato's description of man as a " celestial plant " 
quoted 600 f, supra, and note. 

e Cf. Life of Aristeldes, chap. xii. 2 (326 b) ; Musonius, 
p. 42. 6 (ed. Hense) ; Dio Cassius, xxxviii. 26. 2 ; Philo, 
Quod Omnis Probus Liber Sit, 150. 

f Cf. Diels and Kranz, Frag. d. Vorsokratiker*, ii, p. 14, 
Anaxagoras, a 38. 

3 Cf. Mor. 499 b and Plato, Phaedo, 58 e. 

h Socrates and Phaethon are also contrasted in Mor. 
466 e-f. 

571 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE 

(CONSOLATIO AD UXOREM) 



INTRODUCTION 

The Consolatio ad Uocorem is the letter written by 
Plutarch to his wife on receiving news of the death 
of their daughter Timoxena (611 d), who died at the 
age of two (610 e). She was named after her mother, 
and her birth had been preceded by that of four boys 
(608 c). Of Plutarch's children two had already died, 
the eldest and " fair Charon " (609 d). It has been 
supposed that the four sons and Timoxena were 
Plutarch's only children. But this means that Ovya- 
rpiSrj (608 b) — literally " daughter's daughter " — and 
ya/jL/ttfjos — literally " son-in-law " — must be taken in 
some other sense. The passage cited by R. Volk- 
mann a (Dionysius, Lysias, 27) does not establish the 
sense of " niece " for OvyarptSrj, as the person in 
question was both niece (on her father's side) and 
granddaughter (on her mother's) of the same man. 
Three persons are mentioned in the Moralia as " sons- 
in-law," b w T hich would imply at least one other 

° Leben, Schriften, und Philosophie des Plutarch von 
Chaeronea (Berlin, 1869), i, p. 29. 

b Craton {Mor. 620 a) ; Firmus {Mor. 636 a) ; and 
Patrocleas {Mor, 642 c). R. Volkmann, op, cit. i, pp. 57 f., 
Wilamowitz, Commentariolum Grammaticum, iii, pp. 23 f., 
and W. Christ, Gesch. d. gr. Litt. 5 , ii. 1, p. 368, suppose that 
ya/Ltj8pdj, as applied to these three, does not mean " son-in- 
law." Volkmann thinks it may mean " brother-in-law," 
while Wilamowitz takes it to mean " niece's husband " and 
asks what other name Plutarch could have given to such a 
relation. 

575 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

daughter. There has been some reluctance to admit 
the existence of such a daughter because of a passage 
that might be taken to indicate that Plutarch was 
married but once, a and because the other known 
children of Plutarch — Soclarus, Autobulus, and 
Plutarchus — can all be accounted for among the four 
sons mentioned in the letter. 6 

Plutarch must have written the letter in the 
interval between receiving the news at Tanagra and 
rejoining his wife at Chaeroneia, which is somewhat 
over forty miles distant as the crow flies — a journey 
of one or two days. Presumably the letter was 
written at Tanagra and sent on in advance. Several 
of Plutarch's writings are judged from their incom- 
plete state to have been draughts found among his 
papers after his death ; this letter, then, may not 
have been published by Plutarch himself, but given 
to the world by the piety of his literary heirs. c Yet 
consolations in epistolary form were often, like other 
letters, written for publication. d 

Traditional topics are common in all literary genres, 
and especially so in consolations, which must be pro- 
duced within a limited time if they are to have 

° Life of Cato the Younger, chap. vii. 3 (762 e) ; cf K. 
Ziegler in Pauly-Wissowa, vol. xxi 1 (1951), coll. 648 f. 

6 For Soclarus cf Mor. 15 a ; for Autobulus and Plu- 
tarchus, Mor. 1012 a. It is conjectured that the eldest child 
who had died (609 d) was Soclarus, as his name does not 
appear with those of Autobulus and Plutarchus in the dedica- 
tion of the Be Animae Procreatione in Timaeo (1012 a). 

c The title varies in the mss. It is not unlikely, then, that it 
does not come from Plutarch. In spite of the haste in which the 
letter was probably written, it contains only one serious hiatus, 
ix^Tco cos (608 b) — and here the text is doubtless corrupt. 

d The epistolary form is frequent in consolations ; it is the 
natural form for conveying a message of comfort at a distance. 

576 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE 

their fullest effect. Consequently the writer has all 
the more reason to avail himself of traditional argu- 
ments, modifying them to suit the particular circum- 
stances. In this essay Plutarch's selection and 
adaptation of these topics is in part influenced by the 
particular circumstances (the death of their infant 
daughter) and in part by his Platonic philosophy. 

A comparison with other ancient consolations, such 
as the Consolatio ad Apollonium, the Pseudo-Platonic 
Axiochus, Seneca's Ad Polybium de Consolatione and 
Ad Marciam de Consolatione, the first book of Cicero's 
Tusculans, and the third of Lucretius' De Rerum Na- 
tura, reveals these constantly recurring themes. For 
example, some answer must be given to the question, 
What becomes of the soul after death ? In the 
Axiochus and the Tusculans it is argued that whether 
the soul survives or perishes, death is in neither case 
an evil. Lucretius maintains that death is no evil 
because the soul perishes; Plutarch, because the soul 
survives. 

The pattern for the philosophical consolations of 
the Hellenistic age was set by Crantor. a Behind 
Crantor there was a long literary tradition, extending 
from Homer through tragedy and the public funeral 
orations at Athens. Plutarch treats traditional 
themes with great freedom. For example, it is a 
commonplace that the state of man after death is 
comparable to that before birth. Plutarch refers this 
topic, not to the child who died, but to the grieving 

° Cf. C. Buresch, " Consolationum a Graecis Romanisque 
Scriptarum Historia Critica," in Leipziger Studien, ix (1886); 
J. van Wageningen, " Bijdrage tot de kennis der ' Consolatio 
mortis ' bij Grieken en Romeinen," in Verslagen en Mededee- 
lingen der koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdee- 
ling Letterkunde (Amsterdam, 1918), pp. 175-197. 

vol. vii u 577 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

mother, exhorting her to turn her mind back to the 
time before the child was born (610 d). The con- 
ventional device of giving comfort by dwelling on 
the losses of others, equally or more grievous, here 
takes the form of reminding the mother of her earlier 
bereavements (609 d). The warning against the 
irritation of grief by ill-timed consolations becomes 
in this essay a reproof to the person who " allows 
anyone who happens to pass by to meddle with his 
suffering as with a rheumatic sore " (610 c). The 
calculation of the good and evil in life, which in most 
consolations leads to the reflection that life is mostly 
evil and death an escape, 6 here results in a favourable 
balance, and Plutarch reminds his wife of the many 
blessings she still enjoys (610 e ff.). Finally, the 
traditional topic that the manner of burying the body 
is of no importance to the soul c gives place in this 
essay to the observation that the traditional manner 
of burying children indicates their freedom from 
earthly things and their departure to a better dis- 
pensation (612 A). d 

The date of the essay cannot be fixed with pre- 
cision, but the mention of a granddaughter indicates 
at least that Plutarch was no longer very young. If 
the identification of the deceased eldest child with 
Soclarus is correct, then this letter must have been 

a Cf. Pseudo-Plutarch, Mor. 118 d ff. ; Seneca, Ad Marc. 
2. 3 ; Consolatio ad Liviam, 429 ff. 

b E.g. Axiochus, 366 d ff. ; Pseudo-Plutarch, Mor. 113 e, 
115 e, 117 e ; Cicero, Tusc. Disput. i. 34 (83) ; i. 36 (87) ; 
Seneca, Ad Polyb. 4. 2 f. ; 9. 4 ; Ad Marc. 22. 

c Cf. Cicero, Tusc. Disput. i. 43 (104). 

d In making this interpretation of the burial customs 
Plutarch substitutes for the notion of ritual purity that of 
purity or freedom from error. 

578 






CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE 

composed after the essay Quomodo Adolescens Poetas 
Audire Debeat, in which Soclarus' education is dis- 
cussed. 

A few translations of the letter can be added to 
those listed earlier. a 

The work is No. 112 in the catalogue of Lamprias, 
where two other consolations, now lost, are men- 
tioned : 7rapafxv6rjTtKos irpbs 'Ao-KXrjirLaSrjv (No. Ill) 
and 7r/obs Qrfo-riav TrapapivdrjTiKo^ (No. 157). 

The text is based on LC a v. AE7rn are occasionally 
cited. 

a La Mesnagerie de Xenophon ; les Regies de mariage de 
Plutarque ; Lettre de consolation de Plutarque a safemme ; 
le tout traduict de grec en frangois par M. Estienne de La 
Boetie . . . (Paris, 1571-1572). 

" A Consolatory Epistle from Plutarch to his Wife, on the 
Death of their Daughter, translated into English by E. 
Goodwin," Gentleman's Magazine, vol. liv, no. 6 (June 1785), 
pp. 425-428. 

B. Snell, Plutarch Von der Ruhe des Gemiltes und andere 
philosophische Schriften (Zurich, 1948), pp. 1-8. 

M. Hadas, On Love, the Family, and the Good Life. Selected 
Essays of Plutarch (New York, 1957), pp. 93-100. 



579 



(608) nAPAMYOHTIKOS 1 nPOS THN TYNAIKA 2 

UAovrapxos rfj yvvatKi ev rrpdrreiv 

B 1- *Or €7T€fju{jas drrayyeXovvra Trepl* rrjs rod 
rraihiov reXevrrjs eoiKe SirjpLaprTjKevat kolO* 686v 
els *A.drjvas TTopevopLevos* eych Se els Tdvaypav 
iXdcbv lirvQopjqv 7rapa 4 rfjs dvyarpiSrjs. 5 rd jjiev 
ovv 7T€pi rrjv ra(f)T]v rjSrj vopiL^oj yeyovevai, yeyovora 
8e e^erco 6 co? crot jiteAAet koX vvv aXviroraTa koI 

TTpOS TO XoLTTOV €^€LV. €L §6 TL f3ovXofJL€V7] fJL7J 
7T€7TOLrjKaS dXXd [jL€V€LS TTjV ijJLTjV yVCOfJLTjV, Ol€i §6 
KOV<j)OT€pOV OLG€LV y€VO/JL€VOV, KOLL TOVTO <E.OTClC 8LyCL 

Traorjs irepiepyias kcll SetcrtSat/xovias 1 , wv rJKLorrd 

OOL {A€T€Cm. 

Q 2. M.6vov, to yvvai } rr\pei /ca/xe rep nddei koX 
oeavrrjv £tt\ tov KadeoTtoros. 6 iyd> yap avro 9 fiev 
ol8a kolI opi^co 10 to ovfJLfiefirjKos tjXlkov ioruv dv Se 
oe rep 8vo<j)opeiv VTrepfidXXovcrav eiipoj, rovro (jlol 
jjl&XXov ivo)(Xr)or€i tov yeyovoros . kclitoi ye 11 ouS' 

1 TTapafivdrjTLKOs] 7TapafjLv6r)TiKr) C (?). 

2 npos rrjv yvvaiKa v Lamprias : els rr)v yvvaiKa rr\v olvtov, 
Biol ttjv rod 7raioos reXevr^v C ; rrpos rr]v Ihiav yvvaiKa. 

3 TTtpX] TOL 7T€pl C 1 . 4 TTapOL C V 11*77 : 7T€pl. 

5 dvyarpihrjs] Ovyarpihovs C 1 . 

6 extra)] omitted by C 1 . 

7 earai] eon C 1 ; eoroj A 2 . 

8 KadearcoTos] yeyovoros C 1 . 9 avro] avros Reiske. 

580 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE 

Plutarch to his wife, best wishes a 

1. The messenger you sent to report the death of 
our little child seems to have missed me on the way 
as he travelled to Athens ; but when I reached 
Tanagra I learned of it from my granddaughter. 
Now the funeral, I suppose, has already been held — 
and my desire is that it has been so held as to cause 
you the least pain, both now and hereafter ; but if 
you want something done that you are leaving undone 
while you await my decision, something that you 
believe will make your grief easier to bear, that too 
you shall have, so it be done without excess or super- 
stition, faults to which you are not at all prone. 

2. Only, my dear wife, in your emotion keep me 
as well as yourself within bounds. For I know and 
can set a measure to the magnitude of our loss, taken 
by itself ; but if I find any extravagance of distress 
in you, this will be more grievous to me than what 
has happened. Yet neither was I born " from oak 

° Literally " do well " or " prosper." Plutarch uses no 
other form of salutation : cf. Mor. 138 a, 464 e, and 1012 a. 
For his motives cf. the third Epistle ascribed to Plato, 315 a-c, 
and the remarks of L. A. Post, Thirteen Epistles of Plato 
(Oxford, 1925), p. 145, and F. Novotny, Platonis Epistulae 
(Brno, 1930), pp. 98-101. 

10 o/u£o>] wpt^co Post. n ye added by Stegmann. 

581 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(0O8) auros" a77o opvos ovo oltto TTzrprjs eyevofjLrjv 
olada Se /cat 1 auT7], toctovtcov jjlol tIkvojv 2 dva- 
rpo^rjs Koivcovovaa, 3 Trdvrojv iKredpapLfxevajv ot/cot 
St' avTU)v rjfjLtov.* ravrrf 8e, on /cat crot ttoOovotj 
Ovydrrjp fxera reooapas vlovs iyevvrjdif] /cd/xot to 
gov ovofjia 9eo9ou Trapeoyev d^op/x^y, otSa dya- 
7Trjrov 6 oiacfyepovTOJS yevopuevov . 7 7Tp6v€OTi Se /cat 

§pi{JLVTr]S IS La TLS 8 TCp 77/309 TCC TTjAiKaVTa <j)lAo- 

GTopycpy to 9 €v<f)pcuvov avrov 10 Kadapov T€ ov d- 
rc^i/aJs 111 /cat 7rdo7]s dpuyes opyrjs /cat pbepajjeojs' 
D aur^ Se /cat cf)vo€L davfJLacrrrjv ea^ev cu/coAtav 12 /cat 
7TpaoT7]Ta, /cat to dvrufnAovv /cat x a P L £°l Ji€V0V 
avrrjs TjSovrjv a/xa 13 /cat Karavorjcrcv rod <f>i\avd pajirov 
irapeiyev ov yap jjlovov fipecfieoiv dAAois, dAAa /cat 
oKeveoiv ols irepirero /cat Tratyviots 1 * rrjv rirQrp; 
StSoVat /cat 7rpoo(f)€p€LV tov puaorov TTpoeKaXetro 15 
Kadduep 77009 16 Tpdrrz^av lotav, vrro cfitAavdpamLas 
fieraSiSovoa tcjv koXcov obv et^c /cat 17 rd rjSiara 

KOLVOVfieVT] TOLS €V(f)paLVOVGLV aVTTjV. 

3. 'AAA' oi>x opcx), yvvai, Std ri ravra /cat rd 
roiavra c^ojorjs [Jiev ereprrev rjjJL&s, vvvl oe dvidoei 
/cat ovvrapd^et AafifidvovTas lirivoiav avrcov. dAAa 18 

1 /cat] omitted by C 1 . 

2 T€KVO)v] TTdtScOV C 1 . 

3 KOLVcovovcra] KOivoiVt\aaaa C 1 . 

4 avrcov rjp,cov] rffxcov avrcov C E 1 !!. 

5 ravrrj] tovto Meziriacus ; tovtois C 1 . 

6 Trapioxev dtj>opiJ,r)v oloa ayaTrrjTOv] 7Tap€(JX €v a&pfJLrjv, aya- 
irrjTov Wilamowitz ; iroiovpLZvov iv avriji 7rapiox*v dya7rr)rov C 1 . 

582 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE, 608 

or rock " a ; you know this yourself, you who have 
reared so many children in partnership with me, all 
of them brought up at home under our own care. 
And I know what great satisfaction lay in this — that 
after four sons the longed-for daughter was born to 
you, and that she made it possible for me to call her 
by your name. Our affection for children so young 
has, furthermore, a poignancy all its own : the delight 
it gives is quite pure and free from all anger or 
reproach. She had herself, moreover, a surprising 
natural gift of mildness and good temper, and her 
way of responding to friendship and of bestowing 
favours gave us pleasure while it afforded an insight 
into her kindness. For she would invite the nurse 
to offer the breast and feed with it not only other 
infants, but even the inanimate objects and play- 
things she took pleasure in, as though serving them 
at her own table, dispensing in her kindness what 
bounty she had and sharing her greatest pleasures 
with whatever gave her delight. 

3. But I do not see, my dear wife, why these things 
and the like, after delighting us while she lived, should 
now distress and dismay us as we take thought of 

° Homer, II. xxii. 126 ; Od. xix. 163. 

7 y€VOfJL€VOv] fJLOL y€VOfl€VOV C 1 . 

8 tls] omitted by C 1 . 

9 to] /caret to Post ; /cat to C. 

10 avrov nos (olvtcjv Stegmann) : avrov C 1 ; avrrjs. 

11 t€ 6V arexvws} ion C 1 . 12 €vkoAiclv C 1 : doxoXtav. 

13 dfxa] dXXd C 1 . 

14 TTaiyvlois] TTaiyviois, e/ceAcuc C. 

15 7TpO€Ka\€LTo] KOLl 7TpOG€Ka\€LTO C. 

16 L (folio 40 rv ) begins with npos. 

17 /zcTaSiSouo-a rtov kclAcov tbv et^e /cat] cjoirep (a>V7T€p Bern.) 
iylvcoGKe /cat et^€ LC 1 . 18 dAAct] ctAAd /cat LC. 

583 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(608) Se'Sta rraXiv 1 jjutj ovveKpaXcofjiev tco Xvttovvtl rrjv 
E (jLvrjfArjv, a)G7T€p rj KXvfJLevT] Xeyovaa 

jjauix) o ayKvAov 
ro^ov KpaveLaSy* yvLivdoid r' 5 ot^ot'aro, 6 

del tf>evyovoa /cat Tpepuovoa rrjv vttolivtjolv rod 
TTdihos, on ovjJL7rapovaav XvTTrpP elye * irdv yap rj 

(j)VOlS <f)€Vy€L TO SvOX^pCLLVOLieVOV . Set 8 Se, 9 0)G7T€p 

avrrj ndvTtov tJolgtov rjpuv daTTaoLia /cat Qeapa /cat 
a/coua/xa Trapelx^v 10 eavrrjv, ovtlos /cat rrjv iirivoiav 
F avrrjs evoiairaaOai /cat ovpifSiovv tjluv TrXeov e)(ov- 
oavy jjl&Wov 8e TroXXairXdaiov , u to evcjypalvov rj to 
Xvttovv [elirep dpa tl tlqv Xoytov ovs 7roXXdKis 
elpriKajxev irpos eTepovs 12 elkos ecttl /cat rjjjuv otfieXos 
ev KaiptQ yeveoOai) , 13 /cat /jlt] Ka6rjo9ou 1x770' eyKe- 
/cActa^at 14 77oAAa7rAaatas' 15 Tats ^Sovat? 6/cetVats* 
Xvttcls dvTa7ro8t86vTas , 16 

4. Kat tovto Xeyovoiv oi irapayevoLLevoi /cat 
daviid^ovcTiV, 11 cos ov8e iLiaTLov dvelXrjcfias TrevOifJLov 18 
ov8e oavTrj rtva Trpoorjyayes rj depcmaivioiv dfiop- 

1 WAtv] omitted in LC 1 . 2 puoa)] fiifirj LC 1 . 

3 ayKvXov SalmasiliS : evdyKaAov. 
4 Kpavelas] Kpavelrjs LC n. 5 r Keil : S\ 

6 oLxptaro Emperius : olx^r LC 1 ; olxoiro. 

7 Xvn-qv Emperius : avrrjv. 8 Set] del LC 1 . 

9 Se] yap LC. 10 Trapetx^v] Trape^eiv LC 1 . 

11 7roAAa7rAa(7tov LC V : 7ToAv7rAdoi,ov. 

12 iripovs] rfjs iralpovs LC 1 . 

13 The punctuation is due to Schomann. 

14 iyK€KXetaOai LC 1 : eyKaAeicrdai. 

15 7ToAAa7rAaoLas] 7roAAa7rAa<j{ai,s LC 1 . 

16 avraiTohihovTas] dvrih&ovTas LC 1 . 

584, 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE, 608 

them. Rather I fear on the contrary that while we 
banish painful thoughts we may banish memory as 
well, like Clymene, who said 

I hate the crooked bow of cornel wood, 

I hate the sports of youth : away with them ! a 

ever shunning and shrinking from what reminded 
her of her son, & because it was attended with pain ; 
for nature shuns everything unpleasant. But rather, 
just as she was herself the most delightful thing in 
the world to embrace, to see, to hear, so too must the 
thought of her live with us and be our companion, 
bringing with it joy in greater measure, nay in many 
times greater measure, than it brings sorrow (if 
indeed it is reasonable that the arguments we have 
often used to others should be of seasonable aid to 
ourselves as well d ), and we must not sit idle and 
shut ourselves in, paying for those pleasures with 
sorrows many times as great. 

4. This also those who were present report — with 
amazement — that you have not even put on mourn- 
ing, 6 that you did not subject yourself or your women 

a From the Phaethon of Euripides : Nauck, Trag. Graec. 
Frag., Eur. 785. Cf. the contrasted cases of Octavia and 
Livia in Seneca, Ad Marc. 2-3 ; cf. also Ad Polyb. 18. 7. 

b Phaethon. 

c Cf. Epicurus, Frag. 398 (ed. Usener) ; Seneca, Ad 
Polyb. 18. 7 : ". . . naturale est enim ut semper animus ab 
eo refugiat ad quod cum tristitia revertitur." 

* Cf. Pseudo-Plutarch, Mor. 118 b-c, and the letter of 
Servius Sulpicius to Cicero (Fam. iv. 5. 5) : " sed potius quae 
aliis tute praecipere soles ea tute tibi subiace atque apud ani- 
mum propone." 

e Cf. Mor. 356 d. 

17 davfjud^ovatv] davfid^ovres LC 1 . 
18 dv€iX7](f)as TrdvdifJLOv] iJAAafas LC 1 . 

585 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(608) (j)tav /cat aiKtav 1 ov8e rjv rrapaoKevrf TroXvTeXeLas 
TravrjyvpiKrjs* rrepl rrjv Tafirjv, dAA' eTrpdrrero 
KOGpaws Trdvra /cat aiajTrfj fxera twv dvayKaiojv, 
609 iyd> 8e tovto fiev ovk iOav/jba^ov, el jjLrjSerroTe 
KaXXajTrtoapLevrj mepl Oearpov r) rrofjLTrrjv, dAAa /cat 
77pos' rjSovas dy^pr)OTOv rjyrjoafjievr] ttjv 77 oXv7 eXe cav , 
iv roZs OKvOpooTTols St6</>uAa£a? to aa^aAe? 4 /cat 
AtroV ov yap iv /3a/c^cu/xaat Set jjlovov ttjv 5 Gcocfypova 
}ieveiv aoiacftdopov, dAAa [xrjoev rjrrov oueodai 6 tov 7 
iv rrevdeai odXov /cat to /ctVryua rov irddovs iyKpa- 
retas 8elo6aL StajLta^oaeV^? ov rrpos to (friXooropyov, 

OJS OL TToXXol VOjJLL^OVGLV, o\XXo\ 77p09 TO d/CoAaOTOV 8 

T7JS ifjv)(rjs. rep fxev yap (friXooropycp ;(apt£d/z€#a 
to rrodelv /cat to ti\lojv /cat to jJue/JLvrjodai, tlov 
B aTToyevofJLevojv , rj 8e Qprjvojv olttXtjotos imdvpiia 
/cat 7700? oXocfyvpaeis i^dyovaa Kal KorreTOVs ato^pd 
fiev oi>x r ) rTOi; tt]? 77ept tols r)8ovds d/cpaotas', Adya> 
8e ovyyvajpaqs eTvyev otl to XvTrrjpov avrr)s Kal 

TTLKpOV OLVTL TOV TepTTVOV Tip atCT^pOJ JjpOOeOTl. TL 

yap dXoywTepov rj to yeXa>TO^ fxev vrrepfioXas /cat 
7repi)(apeias d^atpelv, rot? Se KXavOpuajv /cat dSup- 
ficbv pevpuaoLV, e/c pads Trrjyrjs (f>epojJLevojv, 9 els arrav 

1 a[Mop<f>Lav Kal cu/a'av] eVt/xcAetav LC 1 . 

2 C breaks off after 7ra\. 3 7TavqyvpLKrjs] omitted in L. 

4 da^aXes] a<f>€\es Reiske. 

5 rrjv] dXXd Kal iv Trivdeot ttjv re (ye nos) L. 

6 tjttov oieodai n : oleoQai Jjttov Lav. 

7 rov] omitted in L. 

8 After aKoXaarov two folios of L are lost. 

9 <f)€pOIJL€VOJv] €K<f)epOlJL€VOJV V. 

Cf. Seneca, Ad Helv. 16. 3 f. 
586 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE, 608-609 

to any uncomeliness or ill-usage, and that there was 
no sumptuous display, like that of a festival, at the 
burial, but that everything was done with decorum 
and in silence, in the company of our nearest kin. 
But this was no surprise to me, that you, who have 
never decked yourself out a at theatre or procession, 
but have regarded extravagance as useless even for 
amusements, should have preserved in the hour of 
sadness the blameless simplicity of your ways ; for 
not only M in Bacchic riot " b must the virtuous 
woman remain uncorrupted ; but she must hold that 
the tempest and tumult of her emotion in grief re- 
quires continence no less, a continence that does not 
resist maternal affection, as the multitude believe, 
but the licentiousness of the mind. c For it is 
yielding to a parent's love to long for and honour 
and remember the departed ; whereas the never-sated 
passion for lamentation, a passion which incites us 
to transports of wailing and of beating the breast, 
is no less shameful than incontinence in pleasures, 
although it finds an excuse — more apparent than 
real — in the circumstance that its shamefulness is 
attended with pain and bitterness instead of delight. 
For what is more unreasonable than to do away 
with excess of laughter and jubilation, and yet allow 
free course to the torrents of weeping and wailing 
that burst forth from the same source ? Or more 

b Cf. Euripides, Bacchae, 317 f. : 

kolI yap iv PaKxevfiaaiv 
ova* 17 ye aa><f)pa)v ov hia^Oap'qGerai 

" For even in Bacchic riot 
The virtuous woman will not be corrupted." 
c Cf. Seneca, Ad Marc. 3. 4 : " Quam in omni vita servasti 
morum probitatem et verecundiam, in hac quoque re prae- 
stabis ; est enim quaedam et dolendi modestia." 

587 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(609) e<f)i£vai; /cat irepl fxvpov fxev ivtovs /cat TTopcfrvpas 
Sta/xa^eo-^at rats* yvvcLL^L, Kovpds Se ovyx^pelv 
TTevdLjJLOVs /cat flacfras eoOfJTOS pbeXaivas 1 /cat kclOl- 
C <?€LS apiopcfyovs /cat /cara/cAiaets* zttlttovovs ; kcll, 
o Srj ttclvtcov earl xclA€7tc6tcltov , aV olkctcls rj 
Oepanaivihas koAcll^coctlv dfierpws /cat clSlkcos, 

£vLOTCLo6o,L KCLL KOjAv€LV CLVTCLS, V<fS €CLVTCOV Se COJJLCOS 
KoXcLL^OfieVCLS KCLL TTLKpCOS 7T€pLOpaV €V TTOiOeCTL /Cat 

rtr^ais* 2 paoTCovrjs /cat cj)LAav6pco7TLas oeofievaLS ; 

5. 'AAAa TjfMV ye, yvvaL, rrpos clAAtjAovs ovr* 
iKeivrjs iSerjoe rrjs pLci)(r)s ovre tclvttjs ot/xat Se7j- 
g€lv. evreAeia fjuev yap rfj rrepl to acopua /cat 

CL0pVlfjLCL TTJ 7T€pl OLOLLTCLV OVO€L$ €GTL TCOV (/)LAoo6(f)COV 

ov ovk e^eVA^a? iv ojjllAlcl /cat GwrjOeia yevopuevov 
rjfjLLV, ov8e z tcov itoAltcov* co jJLrj Oeafia Trapex^S 

J) iv lepOLS KCLI OVGLCLLS KCLL deCLTpOLS T7JV G€CLVTrjS 

c\(f)e\eLav' tjotj Se /cat Trepl tcl tolclvtcl rroAArjv 

€VGTCL0€LaV ilTeheL^CO TO TTpeofivTCLTOV TCOV T€KVCOV 

aTTofiaAovocL /cat ttclAlv Ikzlvov tov /caAou Xapa) vos 5 

rjfJL&S TTpoALTTOVTOS. jJL€ (JLVT) fACLL ydp CL7TO daAcLOOrjS 

£ivovs fJLOL ovvohevocLVTCLS CLTrqyyeApievrjs ttjs tov 
7ratStou TeAevTrjs /cat ovvzAOovtcls cljjlcl rot? clAAols 

els TTjV OLKLCLV €7T€L §€ 77oAA?)^ KCLTCLOTCLOLV €COpCO 

/cat r\civyLCLV, cos voTepov §LrjyovvTO /cat rrpos ire- 
povs, coovto (JLTjSev etvcLL SeLvov, aAAa, Kevov aAAcos 

E i£eV7]V€)(0CLL A6yOV OVTCO CTCOcf)p6vCOS KCLT€KOCTpLr)CrCLS 
TOV OLKOV €V KCLLptp TToAArjV CLKOOjJLLCLS i^OVOLCLV 

1 ixeXalvas Emperius : fjbeXaivqs. 

2 tvxcus] Svarvxlais Capps, who compares Thucydides, 
vi. 55. 4 ; but cf. 611 e, infra. 

3 ovhk Stegmann : ovre. 

4 7to\itcov] avjjL7ToXira)v Capps. 

588 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE, 609 

unreasonable than for husbands to quarrel, as some 
do, with their wives about scented unguent for the 
hair and the wearing of purple, but to permit them 
to crop their heads in mourning, to dye their clothes 
black, to sit in an uncomely posture and lie in dis- 
comfort ? And worst of all, if they punish their man- 
servants or maidservants excessively and unjustly, to 
resist and oppose them, but to pay no heed when 
they savagely and cruelly punish themselves in the 
midst of passions and misfortunes that require gentle 
and kindly treatment ? 

5. But we, my dear wife, in our relations with each 
other have had no occasion for the one quarrel, nor, 
I think, shall we have any for the other. For, on the 
one hand, your plainness of attire and sober style of 
living has without exception amazed every philo- 
sopher who has shared our society and intimacy, 
neither is there any townsman of ours to whom at 
religious ceremonies, sacrifices, and the theatre you 
do not offer another spectacle — your own simplicity. 
On the other hand, you have already shown great 
steadfastness in circumstances like the present, when 
you lost your eldest child and again when the fair 
Charon left us. For I remember that strangers 
accompanied me in my journey from the sea and 
gathered at our house with the rest at the news of 
the little child's death ; and observing great com- 
posure and quiet, as they later recounted to others, 
they thought that no tragedy had occurred, and that 
a false report had got abroad — such was the self- 
possession with which you kept order in your house- 
hold at a time that gave full scope to disorderly 

5 Xdpcuvos] Xalpcovos Xylander, after the eponymous hero 
of Chaeroneia. 

589 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(609) StSoVTt, KOLITOI TW <J€CLVTfjs e/CetVOV* i£e6p€lfjaS 

/zaarcp 2 /cat TOjJbrjs rjveaxov, rrjs OrjXfjs TrepldXaoiv 
Aafiovcrqs- yevvcua yap 3 ravra /cat t^tAdaropya. 

6. Tas* Se ttoXXols 6ptofi€V firjTepas, orav tin* 
dXXcov ra 7ratSta Kadapdfj /cat yavcodfj, KaOairep 
Traiyvia XafApavovaas et? xetpa?, etr' aTToOavovrajv 
e/c^eo/xeVas et? /cevov /cat a^apiarov ttzvOos, oi>x 
vtt* euvota? (euAdytOTov yap evvoia /cat /caAdv), 
dAAa fjuKpa) ra> cfrvoLKco TraOei noXv avyKepavvv- 
F fievov to Trpos Kevrjv Sdfav aypta 7rotet /cat /xavt/ca 
/cat hvae^LXaora ra 4 itdvurf, /cat tovto ^atVerat 
p,^ Aa#etv Ataa)7rov 6</>7y yap ovtos otl tov Atos 
Ta? Tt/xa? SiavejjLovros tols ^eots* 27'Tet ^at T ° 
II eV^os" eSoj/cev ovv avrto, irapa toZs acpovfievocs 
Se pLovois /cat OeXovoiv. eV apxfj ^ v °vv ovrco 
tovto ytvopuevov ioTLV clvtos yap zkclotos etaayet 
rd Trevdos e<^' eairrdv. drav Se ISpvvdrj XP^ V< P KaL 
yevrjTCLL ovvTpocfrov /cat ovvolkov, ovSe ttolvv 5 jSouAo- 
jxevcov arraXXoiTTeTai. Std Set fidx^oOai 7rept Ovpas 
avTCp /cat /X77 TTpooUodou 6 <f>povpdv St' eoOrJTOS rj 
610 Kovpds rj twos dXXov tcov tolovtojv a /ca#' rjpiepav 
aTTCLVTCOVTa /cat SuCTa>7ro£>VTa /xt/cpav /cat OTevrjv /cat 

1 €K€LVOV V I €K€LVCO a 1 ; €K€LV7)V II ; €K€LVO (X 2 . 

2 i£49p€iftas tia<jTtp Benseler : fiaada> (fiaGTa) v n) i£e9p€ifras. 

3 y^p] y € Pohlenz ; Wilamowitz would omit. 

4 ra added by Reiske. 

5 7ravu A 2 E : 7raAtv. 

6 7rpocri€cr0cu] rrpoUodai Reiske. 

a C/. L«/« 0/ Demosthenes, chap. xxii. 3 (855 f). 

6 C/. Seneca, £"p. xcix. 4. 

c C/. .Z4/0 0/ Solon, chap. vii. 5 (82 a) ; Diogenes Laert. 

590 






CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE, 609-610 

confusion, and yet you had nursed him at your own 
breast and had submitted to surgery when your 
nipple was bruised. For such conduct was noble, 
and it showed true mother love. a 

6. But we observe that most mothers, after others 
have cleansed and prettied up their children, receive 
them in their arms like pets ; and then, at their 
death, give themselves up to an unwarranted and 
ungrateful b grief, not out of good will toward them 
— for good will is rational and right c — but because 
the combination with a little natural feeling of a 
great deal of vain opinion d makes their mourning 
wild, frenzied, and difficult to calm. And this appears 
not to have escaped Aesop, 6 who said that when Zeus 
was apportioning honours among the gods, Grief 
asked for a share, which Zeus accordingly granted, 
but only from such as should choose and so desire. 
At the outset indeed this is true ; for each person 
takes grief in of his own accord. But once it has fixed 
itself with the passing of time and become his com- 
panion and household intimate, it will not quit him 
even at his earnest desire. We must, therefore, 
resist it at the door and must not let it in to be 
quartered on us by wearing mourning or cropping 
the hair or by any other manifestations of the kind 
that, confronting the mind daily and shaming it into 
submission, make it dispirited, cramped, shut in, 

vii. 116 ; and Arius Didymus in Stobaeus, vol. ii, p. 73. 19 
(ed. Wachsmuth). 

d Cf. Mor. 102 c-d and Seneca, Ad Marc. 7. 1 ; 19. 1 ; 
Ad Polyb. 18. 4. 

e Cf. Mor. 1 12 a, where the story is ascribed to an " ancient 
philosopher " who used it to comfort Queen Arsinoe. Sotion 
(Stobaeus, iii, p. 972. 7 Hense) ascribes a shortened version 
to an unnamed woman. 

591 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(610) dve^oSov kcll apbeiXiKrov Kal ifscxfroSefj Troiel rrjv 
Scdvoiav, c5.9 ovt€ yeXcoros avrfj pierov ovre cfyojros 

OVT€ <f)l\av9pd)7TOV TpaTTettfS TOtavra 7T€pLK€Lpi€Vrj 

Kal \iei-ayf.ipiC > o\xevr\ Sia rd nivdos. dpbeXeiai 8e 
acLfiaros errovrai rep /ca/ca) rovrco Kal 8iafioXal 
rrpos aAeL/jLfjLa Kal Xovrpov Kal rr)v dXXrjv 8iairav 
tov irav rovvavriov eSet rr)v ifjv)(r)v rrovovoav avrrjv 1 
fiorjOeladai 8ta rod ocop,aros eppajpuevov. ttoXv 
ydp djJiPXvveraL Kal ^aAarai 2 rod Xvnovvros y coorrep 
B iv 3 €v8ia KvpLa,* rfj yaXr]vrj rod 5 ocopiaros Sia^ed- 
pievov* lav Se avyjp.b<$ iyyevrjrat Kal rpaxvrrjg e/c 
<f>avXrjs Siairrjs Kal pirj8ev evpueves 7 pLrjSe XP 7 } 01 " 01 ' 
dvairepsnr) rd Utopia rfj faxf) ttXtjv d8vva$ Kal 
XvTraSy coanep rivas* mKpds Kal Svox^pels dvaOv- 
pudoeis, ov8e ^ovXopuevois 9 ere pqSlcos dvaXafieiv 
icTTW roiavra Xapbfidvei irddr] rrjv 10 ifsvxrjv ovrto 

KaKOJ0€LOaV. 

7. Kcu purjv 6 ye pbeyiarov iv rovrco Kal (frofiepco- 
rarov iortv ovk 11 dv (ftofirjdeLrjv, " KaKtov yvvaiKtov 
elcroSovs " Kal (frojvas Kal avvemd prjvrjoeis als 
eKrpLfiovai Kal rrapaOrjyovoi rrjv Xvrrrjv, ov6* vtt* 
C dXXcov ovre avrrjv e</>' 12 eavrrjs 1 * etooai pbapavOrjvai . 
yivtoGKO) yap ttolovs 14l evayxos dytovas rjytovioco rfj 
Qecovos d8eX(f>fj fiorjOovoa Kal /xa^o/xeV^ 15 rals ptera 

1 avrrjv] avrrjv kolO' avrr)v Sieveking. 

2 L (folios 131 rv and 124 rv , an unbroken series) resumes 
with |tcu. 

3 van Herwerden would delete iv. 

4 KVfia] omitted in L. 5 rod] omitted in L. 

6 Siaxc6[jL€vov L (as Pohlenz had conjectured) : Siaxeo/xeVou. 

7 €VfJL€V6s] €Vy€V€S L. 

8 7rXr)v through tlvcls omitted in L and v. 

9 ouSe PovXofxevots L a 2 : ovok 8ov\6fj,evos a 1 tt ; ovok j8ou- 
X6fji€vov n ; omitted in v. 

592 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE, 610 

deaf to all soothing influences, and a prey to vain 
terrors, in the feeling that it has no part in laughter 
or the light of day or the friendly board, since it 
has adopted such habiliments and engages in such 
practices because of its grief. This unhappy state 
leads to widespread neglect of the body and aversion 
to ointment, the bath, and the other usages of our 
daily life. Quite the contrary should happen ; in 
its own suffering the soul should be helped by a 
vigorous condition of the body. For its distress loses 
much of its keenness and intensity when dissipated 
in the calm of the body, as waves are dispersed in 
fair weather ; whereas if the body is in the interval 
allowed to become squalid and unkempt from a mean 
way of life, and if it sends up to the soul nothing 
benign or good, but only pains and sorrows, like acrid 
and noisome exhalations, the sufferings that take 
possession of the soul when it has undergone such 
ill-usage are so serious that an easy recovery is no 
longer possible even if desired. 

7. On the other hand, what is most grave and to 
be dreaded in such a case holds no terrors for me : 
" the visits of pernicious women " a and their cries 
and their chiming in with lamentations, whereby they 
polish and whet the keen edge of pain, and do not 
allow our grief to subside either from other influences 
or of itself b ; for I know what struggles you recently 
sustained when you went to the aid of Theon's sister 

° Euripides, Andromache 930 ; quoted more fully in 
Mor. 143 e. b Cf. Mor. 599 a if. 

10 Aa/x/3avei Tradr) rip] Aafifidvovaav Tradt] L (Xafi^dvovra TrdOr) 
rrjv or \afji,fidv€L nddy] koX ttjv Capps). 

11 ovk] apparently omitted in L. 

12 €</>'] vfi L (?) n. 13 €clvtt}s] avrrjs L (?). 

14 TTOLOVS] OLOVS L. 15 /iC^O/Liei^] fJL€fl<f>OfJL€Vq L. 

593 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(610) oXocj)vpficov Kal dXaXaypicov 1 k'^ojQev imovGais, 
OHJTTep drexvojs rrvp ZttI Trvp <f)€povoais. 2 ras fiev 
yap oLKias rtov c/>lXcov otolv Kaiofievas lSokjl* oftev- 

VVOVGLV COS ^X €l TOLXOVS eKOLOTOS* Tj 8wd(JL€OJS, TCLS 

Se ifjvxcis (f>Xeyofji€voLs 5 avrois 7TpoG(j)epovGiv vtt€K- 
Kavfjuara. Kal rep fiev o^daXpacovri ras x € ^P a ^ °^ K 
ccogl rrpoadyeiv rov ^ovXopuevov ovoe dirrovTai rod 
<f>XeypLaivovTOS , 6 8e irevdcov KaOrjTai Travrl rep Trpoo- 
D Tvxovn rrapexojv cooTrep pevpba Kivelv Kal oiaypiai- 
veiv to TrdOos, €K piiKpov rod yapyaXi^ovros Kal 
kvcovtos 6 els ttoXXtjv Kal 8vax e py KaKOJGiv dva^aivo- 
pi€vov. 7 ravra puev ovv oiS' on (f>vXd£r}. 

8. Tleipco 8e rfj eirivoia pierage povaa Geavrrjv 
aTTOKadiGi dvai TToXXaKts els 8 eKelvov rov xP ovov 
ev a> pLrjSeTroj rov TTaiSuov tovtov* yeyovoros pirjoev 10 
eyKXrjpua TTpos ttjv tvx^]v ecxop<ev, elra rov vvv Kat- 

pOV 11 TOVTOV €K€LVCp GVVa7TT€LV, 12 COS* 13 OpLOLCOV 7TaXlV 

rcov rrepl rjpL&s yeyovoroov . enel ttjv yeveoiv, co 
yvvaiy rod reKVov Sucr^epcuVeiv ho^opuev dpepmro- 

1 6Ao(f)vpna)v Kal dXaXaypicbv] arcvayfiaJv Kal 6Xo(f>vpfxcov L. 

2 <j>epovoais\ €7TL(J)€povcraLS L. 

3 Katofievas iocool] locooi Kaiofxivas L. 

4 ofievvvovaiv through e/caoTOs] ofievvvovoi ^oiqOovvres e/caaros 
(hs ex €i to<X ov s L. 

5 (f>XeyofjL€voLS L : cfrXeyofievas. 

6 kvcjvtos Kronenberg : kXlovtos L ; kivovvtos. 

7 ava£aiv6fi€vov Reiske : ava£r)paLv6[X€vov. 

8 els] omitted in L. 

9 tovtov] rovoe L. 

10 fJLT]0€v] ovoev L. 

11 Kaipov] omitted in L. 

12 Gvva7TT€iv] ovvaXXaTT€Lv Capps. 

13 d)s] omitted in L. 

a A favourite proverb : cf. Mor. 61 a, 123 e, 143 f, 919 d, 
594 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE, 610 

and fought off the assaults of the women who came 
from the world outside with wailing and screaming, 
as if they were in very truth adding " fire to fire." a 
For when people see the houses of their friends in 
flames, they put the fire out with all the speed or 
power at their command ; but when those friends 
are themselves ablaze with fire in their hearts, they 
bring more fuel. And whereas men refuse to permit 
anyone who so desires to lay his hands on a sufferer 
from ophthalmia, and do not touch the inflamma- 
tion, the person who mourns sits patiently and allows 
anyone who happens to pass by to meddle with his 
suffering as with a rheumatic sore b and to envenom 
it, a little tickling and scratching making it break 
out into a far-reaching and troublesome affliction. 
This thing, then, I know you will guard against. 

8. Do, however, try to carry yourself back in your 
thoughts and return again and again to the time 
when this little child was not yet born and we had as 
yet no complaint against Fortune ; next try to link 
this present time with that as though our circum- 
stances had again become the same. For, my dear 
wife, we shall appear to be sorry that our child was 
ever born d if our conduct leads us to regard the state 

Life of Artaxerxes, chap, xxviii. 1 (1025 e) ; cf. also Plato, 
Laws, 666 a. 

b Cf Mor. 102 a, where a delay in consoling a bereaved 
person is justified by a comparison with the treatment of a 
rheumatic sore or " fluxion." Cf. also Chrysippus, quoted 
by Cicero, Tusc. Disput. iv. 29 (63), with Pohlenz's remarks 
in Hermes, vol. xli (1906), p. 336 ; Letter of Theano, v. 7 
(Epist. Gr. p. 605 Hercher) ; Seneca, Ad Helv. 1. 2 f. 
Plutarch has modified the topic. 

c Cf Teles, p. 61. 2-4 (ed. Hense 2 ). 

d Cf Seneca, Ad Helv. 19. 7 : ". . . id agas ne quis te 
putet partus tui paenitere." 

595 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(610) repa iroiovvres avrols ra Trplv iKeivrjv yeveodaL 
E TTpdyjJbara. rrjv Se iv pieotp hieriav i^aipelv puev 
ov Set rfjs p,vr)iJLr)s, cos: Se yapiv koX aTroXavoiv 
napaoypvoav iv rjSovfj riOeoOai, koll pbrj to puKpov 
dyadov /xeya vop,L%eLV kclkov, pbrjSe otl to eArn^d- 
pcevov ov 7Tpooe9rjKev rj Tvy?) Ka * L 7T€ P l T °v hodevTos 
dyapLOTelv \ del piev yap rj rrepl to deiov ev^rjfjita 
koll to irpos ttjv Tvyr\v IXeojv koI dpiepL<f)es koXov 
Kal rjSvv aVoSt'Stocrt Kaprrov, iv he rots' tolovtols 
6 pid\ioTa ttjs pLvrjpLrjs tcov dyadcov drrapvTopLevos 

KCLL TOV filOV TTpOS T(X <f)CDTeLvd KOLL XapLTTpd jU,€T(X- 

OTpefioov koll pLeTacfyepajv e/c tojv oKOTeLvcov koX 
F TapaKTLKcov TTjv StdVoiav ?} TravTairaoLV eofieae to 

XviTOVV Tj TTJ TTpOS TOVVaVTLOV fJLL^eL fJLLKpOV KOLL 

dfiavpov i7TOL7]crev. tboirep yap to pjvpov del [xev 
et)(f>paLveL ttjv oo^prjOLV , irpos 8e tol SvoojSrj 1 (j)dp- 
fiaKov ioTLV, ovtojs 2 rj iirivoLa tojv dyaOtov iv toZs 
kokoIs Kal ^oridiqpLaTos dvayKaiov TrapeyeTOL 
Xpelav toIs pur] (f>evyovoL to puepLvrjodaL tojv ^prjOTibv 
pbrjSe irdvTa Kal TrdvTOJS p,epL(f)opLevoLS ttjv TV^qv. 
oirep rjpLLV TraOelv ov TrpoorjKeL, avKO(f>avTovoL tov 
611 eavTcov ftiov el pbiav eax r ] Kev > &crnep /3t/3Atov, 
dXoLcfrrjv iv ttolgl Kadapols Kal aKepaioLS tols dX- 
Xol$. z (9-) otl puev yap i£ 6p9cov eVtAoytcr/zdw eh 
evoTa8rj hLadeoLV TeXevTOJVTWV rjpTrjTaL to pLaKa- 
pLOVy at he dno ttjs tv)(7)s TpoTral pieydXas ov 

1 SvccoSt]] XvcracoBr] L. 
2 ovrcos] os (d>s nos) L. 
596 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE, 610-611 

of things before her birth as preferable to the present. 
Yet we must not obliterate the intervening two years 
from our memory ; rather, since they afforded us de- 
light and enjoyment of her, we should credit them to 
the account of pleasure ; and we should not consider 
the small good a great evil, nor, because Fortune did 
not add what we hoped for, be ungrateful for what was 
given. a For reverent language toward the Deity and 
a serene and uncomplaining attitude toward Fortune 
never fail to yield an excellent and pleasant return ; 
while in circumstances like these he who in greatest 
measure draws upon his memory of past blessings and 
turns his thought toward the bright and radiant part 
of his life, averting it from the dark and disturbing 
part, either extinguishes his pain entirely, or by thus 
combining it with its opposite, renders it slight and 
faint. b For just as perfume, while always a delight 
to the smell, serves on occasion to counteract foul 
odours, so the thought of our blessings has in time 
of trouble a further, necessary, use : it is an antidote 
in the hands of those who do not shun the remem- 
brance of happiness and do not insist on reproaching 
Fortune in everything. It ill becomes us to fall into 
this state by cavilling at our own life for receiving, 
like a book, a single stain, while all the rest is clean 
and unspoiled. (9.) For you have often heard that 
felicity depends on correct reasoning resulting in a 
stable habit, and that the changes due to fortune 

a Cf. Seneca, Ad Marc. 12. 1 : ". . . oportet te non de eo 
quod detractum est queri, sed de eo gratias agere quod con- 
tigit " ; Ad Polyb. 10. 2 : "... avidus, qui non lucri loco 
habet quod accepit, sed damni quod reddidit." 

b Cf. Mor. 469 a, 600 d. 

3 Capps reads os after jSi'ov and fiepeat tols aXXoLS /LucuVerai 
for tols aAAots". 

597 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(611) 7TOLOVGLV aTTO/cAtCrCtS' 1 Ov8e €7ri(/)€pOVGL 2 GVyXVTLKOLS* 

oXioOrjaeis rod* ficov, ttoXXolkl? aKrjKoas. 

Et Se Set 5 /cat rjjjL&s, Kaddnep oi ttoXXoi, toZs 
€^a>6ev KvfiepvaaOai TrpdypLaai /cat tol irapa 6 rrjs 
tvx^S aTrapidpLelv /cat Kpirals xPV a ^ aL ^p^S 7 ev8ai- 
jjiovlav tols zniTvypvaiv* avOpajirois, (jlyj ok6tt€l ra 
B vvv 8aKpva /cat to.? €7TL9prjvrjG€L9 rcov elaiovrcov, 
eOti tlvI cf)avXcp TrepaivopLevas 9 npos eKaarov, aAA' iv- 
vo€t pL&XXov d)S ^rjXo'vfJLevr) StareAet? vtto tovtow iirl 
re/cvot? /cat olkco /cat jStco. /cat 8eivov eoriv irepovs 
jjl€v rj8ea>s av iXeodou rrjv arjv rvx^]v, /cat tovtov 
irpocjovTOS €</>' to vvv dvicofjueOa, ere 8e iyKaXeZv /cat 
8vacf)opeZv 7rapovar]s , 10 /cat /x^Se a7r' avrov rod 
haKvovros aloddveodai rrrjXiKa? e^€t ra, acp^ofieva 
xdpiras rjfiZv, dAA', ojcrnep ol rovs aKec/xiXovs /cat 
(jLeiovpovs 'OfJLrjpov gtlxovs €t<XeyovT€s, tcl 8e 
TToXXa /cat fjieydXa rcov TreTToirjjjLevajv virepev irap- 

OpCx)VT€S, OVTCOS i^OLKpLpOVV /Cat GVKO(f>aVT€Zv TOV 

fSLov ra (jxivXa, rots' 8e ^p^a-rot? dvdpOptos /cat 
C avyKexvpLevco? eirifidXXovoav , X1 opuoiov tl toZs dve- 
XevOepois /cat (f)iXapyvpois 7Taax €LV > °^ iroXXd avv- 
dyovres ov ^paJvrat irapovuiv y dAAd dprjvovai /cat 
8vo(f>opovaiv aTToXojJLevcov. el 8e it<€ivr]s ex €t s 

1 OV TTOIOVOIV a7rOt<\lo€LS L : OL7TOk\lG€LS OV TTOIOVOIV, 

2 €TTl<f)4pOV0l] CLTTofyipOVGl L. 

3 ovyxvTiKCLs L (as Reiske had conjectured) : gvvtvxlkcls. 

4 rov] tolovtov tov Capps. 

5 Set] iJLr] Set Capps. 6 irapa L v : 7rept. 

7 Kpirals XPV G ^ ai irpos] XPV (J Q 0iL Kpurals TTpos rrjv L. 

8 imTvxovoLv] iraparvxovoiv L. 

9 Folio 124 v of L ends after TrepacvopLevas. The next two 
folios are lost. 10 7rapovor]s] napovGrj Schwartz. 

11 €7nfidXAovoav] ZTTifiaXkovoav tiv Capps. 

8 Cf. Mor. 499 a-d ; Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, i. 10 
598 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE, 611 

occasion no serious departure from it and do not 
bring with them a falling away that destroys the 
character of our lives. 

But if, like the multitude, we too are to be guided 
by external circumstances, to reckon up the dis- 
pensations of fortune, and to take any chance persons 
as our judges of felicity, you must not dwell upon 
the present tears and lamentations of your visitors, 
a performance dictated by a pernicious custom and 
rehearsed to every sufferer ; you must rather bear 
in mind how enviable you still appear in their eyes 
for your children, home, and way of life. And it is 
unreasonable, when others would gladly choose your 
lot, & even with our present grief thrown in, for you, 
whose lot it actually is, to complain and be discon- 
solate ; nor yet to be taught by the very bitterness 
of your grief how great is the delight for us in what 
is still left, but instead, like the critics who pick out 
the " headless " and " docked " lines of Homer, 
overlooking the many splendid passages of flawless 
execution, to keep a strict account of the short- 
comings of your life and cavil at them, and by noting 
its advantages without particularity or discrimination, 
to resemble in your attitude the illiberal and miserly, 
who make no use of the great wealth they accumu- 
late when it is in their possession, but lament and 
are disconsolate when it is lost. If you pity her for 

(11.01 a 6-8); Seneca, Ad Helv. 5. 1 : ". . . unusquisque 
facere se beatum potest. Leve momentum in adventiciis 
rebus est et quod in neutram partem magnas vires habeat ; ..." 

b Cf. Mor. 600 a and Boethius, Philos. Cons. ii. 4. 17. 

c Cf, Athenaeus, 632 d if. ; Pseudo-Plutarch, De Metris, 
chap, ii (vol. vii, p. 468 Bern.) ; K. Meister, Die homerische 
Kunstsprache, p. 43 ; W. Schulze, Quaestiones Epicae, pp. 
374 ff. 

599 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(611) olktov dydfjiov /cat drraioos olxopLevrjs, avOis e^t? 
eV d'AAot? rjSlco ueavrrjv rroteXv, firj&evds tovtojv 
dreXr] pirjSe dpioipov yevojJLevrjv ov yap eoTi ravra 
p.eydXa puev rots' OTepopievois d.ya0d, pucKpa Se rots* 
eypvoiv. €K€Lvr) S' els to aXvTrov TjKovaa XvTreiv 

7)pLd.S OV $€LTCLl' TL ydp TJfMV aiT* €K€LV7]S KdKOV , €L 

jjLrjSev eKeivr\ vvv eon XvTrrjpov; /cat yap at rcov 
D pueydXaJV OTeprjoeis arro^aXXovoi to Xvttovv els to 
fjLrj SeloOat tt apayev 6 [levai} Tc/xo^eva Se rj orj 
piiKpcov fiev eoTepi]Taiy puKpd yap eyvoj /cat jxiKpots 
eyaipev cLv 8e ovre alodrjaiv eoyev ovWe els evvoiav 2 
rjXOev ovt eXafiev enivoiav^ ttoos dv OTepeadau Xe- 
yoLTo; 

10. Kat fjLrjv a Tcbv dXXwv aKoveis ot ireiOovoi 
ttoXXovs XeyovTes d>s ovhev ovSafifj to) SiaXvOevTt 
KaKov ovSe Xvrrrjpov eoTiv, otSa otl KOjXvei oe 
-niOTeveiv 6 Tfd.Tpios Xoyos /cat Ta /xuart/cd ovfi- 
j8oAa Tcbv rrepl tov Alovvoov dpyiaopLcov, a ovviG\xev 
dAA^Aot9 ot KoivojvovvTes * ojs ovv d(f)9apTov ovoav 
E ttjv iftv)(r]v Suavoov TavTO Tats dXioKopievais opvioi 
Trdoyeiv dv puev yap rroXvv evTpacjyfj tw ooj\xaTi 

1 Trapayevofievai] TrepiyevofJLevai Reiske. 

2 evvoiav nos (cf. Mor. 763 b 6oa /at) St' aloOrjoecos 7)[jlZv els 
evvoiav 7jK€i) : eVtVotav. 

3 Reiske would either delete ovt !Aaj3ev i-nivoiav or read 
eTTidvfjLiav for inivoiav. 

a This remark usually introduces the consideration that 
the dead person has escaped all the miseries connected with 
marriage and children : cf. Mor. 115 e-f. 

b Cf. Mor. 469 f. 

c Cf. Pseudo-Plato, Axiochus, 327 a : faxy diraoa ddd- 
varos, rj Se €K rouSe rod ^coptou fxeTaoTadelaa koll dXviros. 

d The Epicureans. The first set were the " pernicious 
women " who added " fire to fire " : cf. chap. 7, supra. 

600 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE, 611 

departing unmarried and childless/ 1 you can find com- 
fort for yourself in another consideration, that you 
have lacked fulfilment of and participation in neither 
of these satisfactions ; for these are not great bles- 
sings for those deprived of them, but small for their 
possessors. h That she has passed to a state where 
there is no pain c need not be painful to us ; for what 
sorrow can come to us through her, if nothing now 
can make her grieve ? For even great deprivations 
lose their power to cause pain when they reach the 
point where the want is no longer felt ; and your 
Timoxena has been deprived of little, for what she 
knew was little, and her pleasure was in little things ; 
and as for those things of which she had acquired no 
perception, which she had never conceived, and to 
which she had never given thought, how could she be 
said to be deprived of them ? 

10. Furthermore, I know that you are kept from 
believing the statements of that other set, d who win 
many to their way of thinking when they say that 
nothing is in any way evil or painful to " what has 
undergone dissolution," e by the teaching of our 
fathers f and by the mystic formulas of the Dionysiac 
rites, 9 ' the knowledge of which we who are participants 
share with each other. Consider then that the soul, 
which is imperishable, is affected like a captive bird : 
if it has long been reared in the body and has become 

e Cf. Epicurus, Ad Menoeceum, 124, and Kvpiai Sd£ai, ii 
(quoted in Mor. 1103 d and 1105 a) : f O Odvaros ovoev npos 
r)jjL&s' to ydp oiaXvOtv dvaLadr]T€L- to 8' dvaicrdrjrovv ovoev TTpos 
rifids. " Death is nothing to us ; for what has suffered dis- 
solution has no perception, and what has no perception has 
nothing to do with us." / Cf. Mor. 756 b. 

9 Cf. Cicero, Tusc. Disput. i. 13 (29) : " reminiscere, quo- 
niam es initiatus, quae tradantur mysteriis : . . ." 

601 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(611) XP° V0V KCLl yevrjrai rw filco rovrco riOaoos vtto 
77 pay [Mar <jl)v ttoXXwv /cat puaKpas ovvrjOelas, avQis 
Karaipovaa ttoXiv evhverai /cat ovk avurjcriv ovoe 
Xrjyec rots ivravOa avfJUTrXeKOfievrj TraOeai /cat tv- 
^at? Std tcjv yeveaecov. fir) yap o'lov AotSop€tcr#at 
/cat KaKcJos aKoveiv to yrjpas Std rrjv pvaorrjra 
/cat rrjv ttoXlolv Kal ttjv dad eveiav tov owpLaros' 
dXXd tovto avrov f to x a ^ €7TC *> Tar ° v ecrrw, otl 
F ttjv ifjvxrjv eojXov re ttol€l rat? pivr) peats rtov e/C€t 
/cat Xtiraprj Trep* ravra /cat KapLTrrei /cat 7rte£et, 
tov ax^f^arLOjjiov ov €ox ev vtto rod adjpLaTOS iv rep 
7T poG7T€7Tovd evat 1 8ia(j>vXdTTovaav . 2 r) 8e Xrjcfrdeicra 

jLteV . . . 3 VTTO Kp€LTTOVO>V €p^€Tat, 4 Ka9(XTT€p €K 

KapLTTrjs 5 vypas /cat piaXdaKrjs 6 ava^atrtaaaa 7 Trpos 
o TT€(f)VK€V. cooTtep yap to Trvp, dv tis aTToopeaas 
€v6vs e^aTTTT], ttolXlv dvappLTTL^eraL /cat dvaAa^Lt- 
fidvei rax^cos . . . 8 

1 7TpOG7T€7TOV0€Vai Rdske : 7T€TT0vd£vai. 

2 8ia(f)vXdrTovaav Reiske : Sia^vXarrovaa. 

3 There is a lacuna here in a of 86 letters. In v the lacuna 
includes rj 8c Xrf(f>da.oa fiev and is of 79 letters. Wyttenbach 
supplies jjLevovcra be fipaxvv €P tco oayfxari XP^ V0V iXevOepajQeioa. 

4 epxerai Wyttenbach : ex^rat. 

5 KaiA7rfjs] Kafirs Pearson. 

6 vypds Kal fjiaXdaKrjs] vypa>s Kal puaXOaKcos ? 

7 avaxairioaoa Wyttenbach (dya/caiVtcr/xa ? Post) : avaxal- 
Ttcr/xa. 

8 There is a lacuna here in a of 162 letters ; in v of 129. 
Sieveking, combining supplements proposed by Wyttenbach 
and Bernardakis, suggests the following reading : dv he 
TrXelova XP 0V0V aTroopeadev jj,elvr}, x a ^ €7TO) Tepav c^ci rr\v dva^co- 
TTvptooiv, ovto) Kal ra>v j/ru^cov apiora irpaTTOvaiv, als avfjLfiefi'qKe 
Kara, tov Ttonyr-qv. 

° The supplement and translation of this passage are 
uncertain. 

602 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE, 611 

tamed to this life by many activities and long famili- 
arity, it alights again and re-enters the body, and does 
not leave off or cease from becoming entangled in 
the passions and fortunes of this world through 
repeated births. For do not fancy that old age is 
vilified and ill spoken of because of the wrinkles, the 
grey hairs, and the debility of the body ; no, its most 
grievous fault is to render the soul stale in its 
memories of the other world and make it cling tena- 
ciously to this one, and to warp and cramp it, since it 
retains in this strong attachment the shape imposed 
upon it by the body. Whereas the soul that tarries 
after its capture but a brief space in the body before 
it is set free by higher powers a proceeds to its natural 
state as though released from a bent position with 
flexibility and resilience unimpaired. 5 For just as 
a fire flares up again and quickly recovers, if a person 
who has extinguished it immediately lights it again, 
but is harder to rekindle if it remains extinguished 
for some time, so too those souls fare best whose lot 
it is, according to the poet, c 

b Cf. Mor. 591 b and Be Anima, Frag. 6 (vol. vii, p. 22. 5 
Bern.) : Xoyov l^et Kaddirep eV KdfjLTrrjs (Diibner : el Kdp.Tn)s) twos 
dveicrqs olov i£qTT€Lv (Koenius : i£a7TT€iv) Kal dvadelv (Gesner : 
dvaOtlvai) ttjv *pvxr)v aTroirviovros rod aa>fj,aTOS dvairvdovaav 
avrrjv Kal dvaipvxovoav. For the general idea cf. Seneca, Ad 
Marc. 23. 1 : ". . . facillimum ad superos iter est animis cito 
ab humana conversatione dimissis ; minimum enim faecis, 
ponderis traxerunt. Ante quam obdurescerent et altius 
terrena conciperent liberati leviores ad originem suam re- 
volant et facilius quicquid est illud obsoleti inlitique eluunt " ; 
cf. Menander, irepl cmSctKri/cojv (vol. iii, p. 414. 21-23 Spengel ; 
p. 122 Bursian) : Kal ra^a ttov koX ix€fx<f>€Tai rots dpr^vovoiv 
avyyevfjs yap ovaa rod deiov rj i/jvx^} KaKcWev KaTiovaa oTTtvoti 
ndXiv avco irpos to avyycvis' . . . 

c There is a long lacuna in the mss. here, but the general 
sense is clear. 

603 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(611) OTTtos coKiara irvXas 'AtSao Treprjoat 

irplv 1 epcora ttoXvv eyyeveodai rtbv clvt66l Trpa- 
yfjudrajv koI ixa\a)(drjvai irpos to acofia Kal avv- 
raKrjvat KaQamep vtto <j)app,aKa)v . 
612 11. Tots* Se Trarpiois Kal iraXaiois edeoc kclI 
vopLois €fjL</)aiv€Tai pL&AXov rj Trepl tovtojv aXrjOeta. 
tols yap avTtov vrpriois anoOavovow ovre ^oas- 

€7TL(f)€pOVGLV OVT a'AAa SpCOGL TTepl aVTCL 2 OL(X €LKOS 

VTrep davovrojv Troielv tovs aXXovs 3 ' ov yap fiereari 
yrjs ovSev ouSe 4 tcjv Trepl yrjv avTols' ovS* avrov 5 
Trepl rasas' Kal fjLvrjfiara Kal Trpodeoeis veKpcov 
(piXox^povai Kal TrapaKadrjVTai tols oa)fiaoLV 
ov yap etboiv ol vofioi 6 tovs ttjXlkovtovs , ws ovx 
oolov els fieXTiova Kal deiOTepav pbolpav a/xa Kal 
Xa>pav 7 pLedeoTrjKOTas . . . 8 eTrel Se to 9 aTTioTeiv 
XaXeTTWTepov eoTiv avTols rj to TTiOTeveiv, tol pbev 

B eKTOS OVTOJS (OS OL . VOfJLOL TTpOGTCLOOOVOlV €^0)/X6V, 

tcl 8e evTos eTL fiaXXov d/uWra Kal KaOapa Kal 
od)(f>pova. 10 

1 nplv Reiske : 7tAt)v. 

2 aura] avrovs V n. 

3 Wilamowitz would omit tovs aWovs. 

4 ouSe Stegmann : ovt€. 

5 avrov] av Wilamowitz. 

6 vo/xot] vofjioi 7T€pl Wilamowitz. 

7 Folio 39 r of L begins with x<*>pav. Hardly a word is 
distinctly legible. 

8 There is here a lacuna of 40 letters in a, 16 in v (in v the 
lacuna includes the e of inel). In L we can make out x«>P av 
and after an interval of some 85 letters ol vo/xoi. The lacuna 
would thus correspond to some 6 letters in L. Tentative 



604 



CONSOLATION TO HIS WIFE, 611-612 

Soon as they may to pass through Hades' gates ° 

before much love of the business of our life here has 
been engendered in them, and before they have been 
adapted to the body by becoming softened and fused 
with it as by reagents. 

11. It is rather in our ancestral and ancient usages 
and laws that the truth of these matters is to be 
seen ; for our people do not bring libations to those 
of their children who die in infancy, nor do they 
observe in their case any of the other rites that the 
living are expected to perform for the dead, as such 
children have no part in earth or earthly things ; nor 
yet do they tarry where the burial is celebrated, at 
the graves, or at the laying out of the dead, and sit 
by the bodies. For the laws forbid us to mourn for 
infants, holding it impiety to mourn for those who 
have departed to a dispensation and a region too b 
that is better and more divine. And since this is 
harder to disbelieve than to believe, let us keep our 
outward conduct as the laws command, and keep 
ourselves within yet freer from pollution and purer 
and more temperate. d 

a Theognis, 427. 

b Cf. Plato, Laws, 904 c-d, where the region tenanted by 
a soul is associated with the lot it obtains. 

c The text in one ms. is illegible here ; in the rest there is a 
lacuna. The supplement and translation are uncertain. 

d Cf. Cicero, Tusc. Disput, i. 45 (108 f.). 

supplements are : Trevdtiv nos ; /ecu ovk ayvocj /xeV, on ravra 
7To\\as e'xet a-nopias Wyttenbach. 9 to] omitted in v. 

10 ouxfypova] aaxfrpovovvTOL <f>vAaTT(x)pL€v + L (?) ; aaxfrpova Sta- 
<j>v\dTTcofM€v Wyttenbach. 



605 



INDEX 



Academy, the, 27, 191, 543, 545, 

555 : the school of philosophy 

founded by Plato at Athens 
Accidents, goddess of, 137 
Acheloiis, 539 : a river in Aetolia 
Achilles, 101, 129, 137 : one of the 

Greek commanders at Troy 
Adonis, gardens of, 253 
Adrasteia, 279, 311, 323, 351 : 

supervisor of punishments after 

death 
Aenos, 137 : a town in Thrace 
Aeolus, 545 : ruler of the winds 
Aeschylus, 553, 569 ; quoted, 

543 : Athenian tragic poet ; 

525-456 B.C. 
Aesop, 231, 233, 591 : a writer of 

fables of the 6th century B.C. 
Agamemnon, 133 : commander- 
in-chief of the Greeks in the 

Trojan War 
Agathocles, 145, 235 : ruler of 

Syracuse 318-289 B.C. 
Agathon, 31 : an Athenian tragic 

poet ; a speaker in Plato's 

Symposium 
Agesilaiis, 73, 79, 151, 389, 391, 

395 : king of Sparta 398- 

360 B.C. 
Agetoridas, 395 : a Spartan 
Agoraeus, 459 : an epithet of 

Zeus 
Agrigentines, 209 
Ajax, 237 : son of Oileus ; one of 

the Greeks at Troy. 
Ajax, 545 : son of Telamon ; one 

of the Greeks at Troy 
Alcaeus, 17 : lyric poet ; 7th to 

6th cent. B.C. 
Alcibiades, 205, 411 : Athenian 

general and statesman, circa 

451-404 B.C. 



Alcinolis, 545 : king of